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A SYNONYM it on* ol icvtrol wordt shot hovo tost one or moro o2 ortrly tbo tost 
■n««nin(t bat thtt diSrr oilbtr >• tktir other neoaiaft or so tht 

, . raoi* oi (htir tiiptKolwa oppoted to ANTONYM 

Ah ANTONYM It m word diroetly ppptted lo oootlier jp aitootal, o counter ItrSi 
Abandon, \ deserl. fortgo, re- He is an abaniionfd character. 
pudiYte.abdtcate, forsake, vraiae. He is utterly defiwed 
relinquish, discard, renounce, abandonment, n surrender, te- 
abjure, surrender, vacate, evac- jection, relinquishment, deser- 
uate Y r- T « j * lion, evacuation, dereliction, ab* 

The helpless passengers otiati* dication 
ddiird the ship ' A«t continuance, maintenance. 

He has dfserted his family retention, pertistence 

He was compelled Iq forego the abase, v humiliate, degrade, de< 
pleasure base, disgrace, discredit, di* 

She refudiatei my authority honor *1 loweA 

The king has ohdiralf'l the throne As^ocmin \Vo»s bring tow. 

He will not (ortake his (rtends ' ‘ *' " ' 

She has uvned her rights in the 

Do not reluiqifiWi lour claims 
I have diicordrd my (otmer be- 

He has renounced his claim to the 

They abjured their allepance to 
the cause. 

They iurrendcred the \-esset 
They txtcaled the farmhouse 
They ezaeiialed the city 
Ant rcfim nniittain, continue, 
thetish, ndjpt mhocnle, assert, 
cluiu, court, defend, favor 
hiunt, hold, keep 

■bandon, n ease, unrestraint, 

Noie /ilose refers only to out- 
ward conditions "Dtah him 
Uiat IS low, and o^ore him that 
IS high." . . . Df 

base applies to quality or char- 
•Ycter The coinage in debased 
by excess of alloy, the man by 
vice JiumbU in present use te- 
fers chiefly to feeling of hcTri, 
humiliate, to outwird condi- 
tions When a person is s.iid 
to Amnhie hunsclt. he either has 
or affects to have humility of 
Iresrt To disgrace may be to 
bring or inflict odium upon olh- 

.vHonness T o {i; but ihe uord is chiefly and 

abandoned a forsaken, deserted, 
derelict, castaway 
The abandoned ship slowly sank 
The forsaken villige charmed us 
The deserted house was burned 
A derthet character is a menace 
to society. 

That easla’cay maternl may be 

kbandoned, a.: depraved, repio* 
bate. iTrefornvsble, dissolute, 
profligate, corrupt vicious, 
shameless unprmciple'* bad 

di'fiui, A»— yi'- N-.yomij, 

not an osaijsis, aortrjff, «i* 

increasingly applied ti>_ such 
morvl oduiiiias one b> one’s own 
acts f rings upon oneself, the 
noun disgraee retains more of 
the psssiie 'ense thin the verb, 
he disgrared himseU bv his con- 
duct. he brought disgrace upon 
his family To dislioiirr a per 
son IS to deprive him of bonot 
that should or might m'ltn 
To discredit one is to injure 
his reputation, as for veracity 

or^soKerev ^ 


insult huimhates imprisonnient 
for crime disi,r^tcs Degrade 
may refer to eillicr station or 
character An officer ss de- 
graded by being reduced to the 
ranks, disgraced by cowardKC. 
vile practises degrade, drunk* 
enness is a degrading vice 
Misfortune or injustice may 
abase the good , nothing but 
their own ill-domg can debase 
or disgrace them 

Ant dignify, eleiate. honor, pro- 
mote, raise, exalt, advance, ag- 
grandize, uplift 

abasement, n humiliation, degra- 
dation, dishonor, ignominy 

Ant applause, distinction, fame, 

abash, v. disconcert chagrin, 
confuse, embarrass, discompose, 
humble, humiliate, mortify, 
shame, overawe 

He was abashed before such 

AssoaATED Words bewilder, 
confound, daunt, dishearten 

Hote Any sense of inferiority 
abashes, with or nithoul the 
sense of wrong The poor are 
abashed at the splendor of 
wealth; the ignorant, at the 
learning of the wise “I might 
have been abashed by their au- 
thority,” GLAt>STO^E Homene 
S^nchron, p 72 (h 1876) 
To confuse is to bring into a 
state of mental bewilderment; 
to confound is to overwhelm the 
mental faculties; to daunt is to 
subject to a certain degree of 
fear. Embarrass is a strong 
word, signifying primarily ham- 
per, hinder, impede A solitary 
thinker may be confused 
some difaculty in a subject, or 
some mental defect; one is tm- 
_ barrassed in the presence of 
' • r tv-s- 

presence Confusion is of the 
intellect, embarrassment of the 
feelings A witness may be 
embarrassed by annoying per- 
sonalities, so as to become eo»- 
fused in statements To morfi- 
fy a person is to bring upon 
him a painful sense of humilia- 
tion, whether because of his 
own or another s fault or failure 
A pupil IS confused by a per- 
plexing Question , a general, con- 
founded b> oierivhelming de- 
feat \ hostess IS discomposed 
by the tardiness of guests; a 
speaker, disconcerted by a fail- 
ure of memory The criminal 
who IS not abashed at detec- 
tion may be daunted by the 
oflicer’s weapon Sudden joy 
may bcttnlder, but will not 
abash. The true worshipper is 
humbled rather than abashed 
before God The parent is 
mortified by the child’s rude* 
ness; the child, abashed at the 
parent's reproof The embar- 
rassed speaker finds it difficult 
to proceed The mob is over- 
aufd by the military; the hypo- 
crite, sluimed by exposure. 

Ant : animate, cheer, embolden 
encourage, uphold, buoy, in 
spirit, rally 

abashment, n : confusion, morti 
fication, emlnrrassment, cha 

fits abashment was not easilj 

hbate, v.; diminish, subside, mot 
eratc, assuage, reduce, lowe 

Itis ardor did not abate in th 

Nothing seemed to diminish hi 

Her anger soon subsided. 

He was petitioned to moderati 
the ordinance 

H-' I’llil not attuitae h-r ^ 

Noit The storm, the fever, the 
am obafri interest drcftnrr 
lisfortunes may be mUtgaled, 
desires iiiodrnirrd, intense angtr 
obAird, population decreoitd, 
taxes reduced VVe abate a nui- 
sance, t<rrmina/f a controversy, 
suppress a rebellion 

Ant amplif), continue, develop, 
enhance, aggravate, enlarge, ex- 
tend, foment, increase, migmfy, 
raise, revive 

abatement, n moderation, de- 
crease, diminution, reduction 

There has been no abatement of 
the evil 

Ant enhancement, enlargement, 
extension development 
abbreviate, v abridge, condense, 
contract, curtail, shorten 

The word miy be abbrettated 

Ant nmplifv, dilate enlarge, ex- 
pand. lengthen, prolong 
abbreviation, n abridgement con- 

Associated Wosns abstract, 
analysis, compend. compendium, 
digest, epitome, outline, sum- 
mary, synopsis 

Note An abndef'nerti gives the 
most important portions of a 
work substantially as they stand 
An outline or synotisis is a bind 
of sketch closely following the 
plan An abstract or digest is 
an independent statement of 
what the book contains An 
anaflsiT draws out the chief 
thoughts or arguments, whether 
expressed or implied A sum- 
tnary is the most condensed 
statement of results or conclu- 
sions An epitome, compend. 
or compendium is a condensed 
view of a subject, whether de- 
rived from a previous publica- 
tion or not We may have an 
abndsement of a dictionary, but 
not an UNafyjif, abstract, di- 

gest. or summary. Wc may have 
an epitome of religion a com- 
fendmm of Cnglisli literature, 
but not an abridgement. 

Amt expansion, enlargement, 
extension, amplification, expa- 
tialion, exposition, paraphrase. 

abdicate, v renounce, surrender, 
relinquish, give up 
lie abdualcd Ins p<isition 
Ant occupy, u urp take, grasp, 

abdication, ii relinquishment, sur- 

His abdication wn demanded. 

abduct, I kidnap 
They made several attempts to 
obduft tlie diild 

abduction, n kidnapping, delilia* 

He was arrested for the abd»t’ 

aberrant, a abnormal wandering) 
deviating maniacal 
His was an aberrant mind 

aberration, n aberrance- wander* 
ing. deviation, mania, madness 
Sudden shock caused the aberra- 

We listened to the tales of his 

They objcctetl to this devuslion 
from established customs 
He had a monio for collecting 
rare volumes 

fits madness was the result of 

Amt clearness, continuity, san- 
tty. common «ense, order, 
soundness, naturrtu ss normal* 
<l!j' , 

abet, V encourage, i o^e, uphold, 
assist, aid 

His associates were accused of 
abetting him us eneouroge him in his ef- 

This will incite him to further ac- 

We do not ufihold him in such a 

He is assisting us with our work. 

He wishes you to atd him m 
planning the parly. 

Note: Abet is now used gener- 
ally in a bad sense. A clergy- 
man will advocate the claims 
of justice, Old the poor, enrour- 
ogf the despondent, support the 
weak, uphold the constituted 
authorities, but he will not tn- 
eite to a quarrel, instigate a 
riot, or abet a crime The orig- 
inator of a crime often i«sri- 
gates or iiicitrs others to abet 
him in it, or one may uistigate 
or incite others to a crime in 
the commission of which he 
himself takes no active part 

Awt • ba/Se, confound, denounce, 
deter, disapprove, discourage, 
obstruct, impede 

abetment, n.. instigation, counte- 

Akt.: obstruction, frustration, 

abettor, abetter, n.* accomplice, 
confederate, instigator, princi- 

The abettor can be convicted as a 
abeyance, n.: suspension, inde- 

Their decision was held in obey- 
anee until further investigation 
could be made 

The trial resulted in his suspen- 

His indelerminalion of purpose 
made hirp unreliable 

Akt.:,Tnination. starting, 
abhor, v.:^espise. loathe, dislike, 
hale, detest scorn 

One abhors a traitor. 

Note* Abhor is stronger than 
despise, implyinar a shuddering 
moral recoil “How many shun 
evil as inconvenient who do not 

abhor it as hateful” Taivcn 
Serm in iVestm Abbey xx%*i, 
2^ (M) Detest expres'es 

indignation, with something ef 
contempt Loathe implies dis- 
gust, j^ysical or moral We 
abhor a traitor, despise a cow- 
ard, detest a liar We dislike 
an uncivil person. We abhor 
cruelty, hate tyranny We loathe 
a reptile or a flatterer We 
abhor Milton's heroic Satan, 
but we can not despise him 

Akt admire, approve, desire, 
enjoy, lAe, relish 

abhorrence, n aversion, con- 
tempt, disgust, revulsion. 

He had an abhorrence for servil- 

He has an aversion for society. 

He has a profound contempt for 

Her dugurt was apparent. 

She expeneneed a retvlsion of 

Ant admiration, appreciation, 
approtal, pleasure 
abhorrent, a repugnant, hateful. 

That IS abhorrent to me. 
abide, v. reside, dwell, slay, con- 
tinue, sojourn, tarry, stay, re- 
main. conform to, tolerate, en- 
dure, bide. 

They will abide here 

We shall abide by your decision. 

Note* To abide is to remain 
continuously without lim't of 
time unless so expressed; as, 
""Abide with me; fast falls the 
esenlide,” Lyte Hyntn Lodge, 
sojourn, stay, tarry, and «cil 
alwa}S imply a limited time; 
lodge, to pass the night; sa- 
joum, to remain temporarily; 
live, dwell, reside, to have a 
permanent home 

Akt abindon. reject, forfeit, 
avoid, depart, migrate. Journey, 

abiding, a : continuing. lasting, 

Here is ahdins peace 
ability, n power, efficiency, apti- 
tude, skill, capacity, proficiency 

He demonstrated his ability to 
handle the proposition 

Ant inability, incapability, in- 
efficiency, inaptitude, weakness 
abiogenesis, n generation (spon- 

It seems incredible that only filty 
years ago, scientists still held to 
the doctrine of abiogetiesis 

Ant oogenesis, spermatogene- 
sis, ontogenesis, osmesis, ool- 
ogy, ontogeny, embryology 
abject, a servile, ignoble, con- 
temptible, base 

The ab}eet poverty of the place 
was apparent 

His position was a servile one 

His manner was eoniempttbte 

His motives were base and ig- 

Ant noble dignified, exalted 
abjuration, n repudiation aban- 
donment, surrender, relinquish- 

The ahjuraUon was demanded 
abjure, v forswear, recant re- 
pudiite, deny, disavow, disown, 
See deny. 

able, a cornpetent quaUfied, tal- 
ented clever, gifted, efficient, 
effective, potent 

He is not able to assist us at this 

Ant unable, incapable, ineffi- 
cient. ineffective 

able-bodied, a stalwart, robust. 

b'awny, muscular, sturdy 
abnegate, v. disown, deny, re- 
nounce, gainsay 

Ambition had forced him to abne- 
gate the idea of pleasure 
abnegation, n rejection dis- 
avowal. refusal, renunciation, 

The abnegation of his rights 
seemed but a small sacrifice 

He was offended at the rejection 


of his plan 

He made a public disavowal 
of the statement 

His refusal to accept the po- 
sition was a surprise 

His renunciation of all claim was 

He made a formal denial of the 

Ant acceptance, avowal, con- 

abnormal, a irregular, erratic, 
unusual, exceptional, aberrant 

He possessed an abnormal appe- 

He was irregular in his attend- 

His actions were erratic. 

It was an unusual thing to do 

She was an ereeptienal child in 
that respect 

He pursued an aberrant course. 

Ant normal, natural, regular 

abnormality, n sanation, iTitgu- 

Such abuorma/thes need not de- 

abnormity, n deformity, mon- 

The abnormality of ht$ mind was 

abode n residence, dwelling, 

Ho one nas admitted to his soli- 
tary abode 

abolish. I annul, repeal, revoke, 
rescind, nullify, set aside, de- 
stroy, abrogate, abate, stamp 
out, end, suppress, supplant, re- 
move eradicate, exterminate, 
overthrow annihilate, set 
aside obliterate reverse, ter- 

They have abohsbed liquor 

Note elbo/isb, to do away with, 
bring absolutel) to an end, es- 
pecially as something hostile, 
hindering, or harmful, was for- 
merly used of persons and ma- 
trial objects, a usage now obso- 
lete except in poetry or highly 

figurative speech Abolish is 
now used of institutions, cus- 
toms, and conditions, cs[tecia]ly 
those wide-spread and long ex- 
isting, as, to abolish slavery, ig 
norance, intemperance, povert* 
A building that is burned to the 
ground is said to be dfsiroy, I 
by fire Aniiihi/a/e, as a filnlo- 
sopliical term, signifies to pot 
absolutely out of existence \s 
far as our knowledge goes, 
mat’er is never aiinthi/aleJ but 
onl^ changes its form Some 
believe that llie wicbed will be 
onnihi/ated Abolish is not said 
of hws There we M«e ref-ral 
abroxale, i etc rffiuMiy 
the enacting bod'. by 

rcvoluii(iJi.irj provit lings a 
later statute a'fflj.aicj without 
formally re/’ra/ms, any earlier 
law with which itconihcts An 
appellite court may wcrji* or 
sol iisufo the decision of an in- 
ferior court Oterthrou’ may 
Ire used m cither a good or a 
bad sense, suf^r^ss is common- 
ly in a good, sub'.cri atna>$ in 
3 hid sense, as, to subt'ert otir 
liberties, to suffress s rcl*cl- 
lion The law' f’fohibifs what 
may never have existed, it 
obolislifj an existing evil We 
abate a nuisance, terminate a 

Ast : confirm, establish. legalize, 
support, sustain, autborire, in- 
troduce, institute, restore, rein- 
state, cherish, continue, enact, 
introduce, promote, renew, re- 
pair, revive, set up 

abolition, n.- annulling, destruc- 
tion, abolishment, cancelhtion, 
extinction, nullificition, revoca- 

The ahoUtion of slavery was a re- 
sult of the war_ 

abominable, a * odious, detestable, 
ioithscroc, ofTtnsivc. 

It was an abominoVie ^it iciA 


could net be excused 
The remembrance was odious to 

It was 1 detestable scheme 
The disease is halhsonie 
His nijiinir was offensiie 
\^T idmirable, beautiful, de- 

lightful. excellent, worthy 
abominate, v loath despise ab- 
hor, rale execrate 
abomination, n drie-tabic prac- 
tice ditcsiatinn disgust, ha- 
tred, ho'ror abhorrence, hor- 
r<ir, iversion, crime, evil, 
ini<|iiit>, V llainy, wickedness; 
abuse nuisince. curse, cxecra- 
ti< M <.ifen*c. plague, shame 
Iteb 1 1 ihv DhoiiunoJioni of the 


\<ri* f'oiiiuiafioii (from the 
1 a! < 11(11, 1 thing of ill omen) 
wjs ongmilly ap.ilied to any- 
thing held in religious or cere- 
monial atersion or ebltgrrenee, 
as. 'The things which are high- 
ly esteemed among men are 
ahommatton in the sight of 
Cod” ... , The word 

IS oftener applied to the object 
of such atrr.'ion or abhorrence 
than to the state of mind that 
<0 regards it, in com.Tion use 
obominolion sigmfes snncihing 
very much disliked or loit'ied, 
or that deserves to be (Thoice 
foosl may be an object of aier- 
sion and discust to a sick per- 
«ot; vile food would be an 
obomiiidtioii, A ioid IS to many 
an object of disgust, a foul 
sewer is an ohoiiiinarion As 
applied to crimes, abomination 
is used of such as are espechlly 
brutal, shameful, or revolting; 
theft IS an offense; infanticide 
IS an abomination 
Ant.: esteem, appreciition, ap- 
proval, affection, delight, bene- 
fit, blessing, enjoyment, gratifi- 
tstitm, joy. 

abort, \ niscirr), frustralo, fail, 


I ortuiutcl). the fever was 

abortLon, a anscirnage, failure, 

The abortion uf his plans was Uuc 
to mism iiuRcmcnt 

lie IS rcsj’oiisible for the miAor- 
niRr of oar plans 

The laiture of the bmk was tnaile 
public tiiilay 

He w IS .ingrv at the frusirolion 
of his phns 

Ant ichicvenient. cmnplrtion, 
licv elopnieiil. success, |h« fec- 

abortive, a uiistteccssfiil im* 
availinw lucflcctual , imJcvel* 

All Ins plots apaiint us proved 


Ant complete, developed, per* 

abound, V I e plentiful teem. 

Lir^u i. iiu. ii/cJi<ii(fT til ihesnoim* 

Truit IS t'lenlifiil this season 

Tlie ehss hirlj t«mfd with en- 

Immense crouds st^armed the en- 
trance to the tent 

Ant 1>c dcruicm hek, want 
abounding, a plentiful, aliuiid'int. 

The season produced an alound- 
iiij crop 

abridge, v contract curtail, 
shorten, allrei'iate, condense. 

The article Ins been abrtjgtd 
abridgment, n abbreviation, con- 
traction, curtailment 

Associated W’orps abstract, an- 
alysis, conipend, compendmni, 
digest, 'epitome, oullmr, sum- 
mary, sjnopsis 

Notf An abndgmtnl gives the 
most important mrtions of a 
work substantially as they 

stand 'Vn nuthne or jyiiopiu 
IS a kiiul of sketch closely fol- 
lowing the pint An abtsoret 
or di^ist IS an uidcpcndcnt 
statiniciit of wint the Iiook con- 
Uiii» kii analysis draws out 
the cliiif themghts ur argu- 
ment'. whether expressed or 
impticil \ juiumary i» the most 
condensed slitcment of results 
or conchisioiis An cf'itoine, 
(omftnd or comfiinliuin is a 
Londensed view of a subject, 
nlutlicr derived from .1 prtvi- 
ons public ition or not U i iiny 
hive in ‘ibrhiginnil of 1 dic- 
\vwwwy '.WiV iwA Tiv. ab 

strut! tlt),esl or jiijomijrv \\c 
mil hive an epitomi of reli- 

f :ii»i a ipmpfndinm of Luglish 
ileralure. but not an ubndg 

\NT sinphne itioit, extension, 
cxpitiatuni expinsive, pira 

abrogate \ annul repeal, revoke 
ris mil Ml aside 
rbv Hw w IS nlrogiih 1/ 

Ant instiinti matnt im, iipliold, 
C't illllsll 

abrofation, n -inuulmciit aboli- 
tion rcvocaiioti ntilhrie ition 
1 Iiit IS an >ibr(i(,uricm of liis au- 

abrupt a stiep riiRged 
The ii'C III the hnd vns n^riipt 
The as cut to the cistlc w is slecf 

^^T siiiocilb, level 
abrupt, a hast), brusque, rough, 
rude, discourteous 
The lecture came to an obrufl 

Your ileeision was too hasty 
Ills manner is briiT7iif. 

This pi/ier is rough 
The eliildrcn were veiy riule 
Do not be diseourterus to her 
\\T gracious, iirl me, deferen- 

abscond, v flee retire in haste. 


He absconded with the ca$h. 

absence, n . non-attendance: 
htedltssness, absent-mindedness, 

His absenet was accounted for 

absence, n. lack, pmation. want, 
destitution, non-existence 

There ssas an absence of creature 

absent, v retire, refrain from at- 

He absented himself from his 

absent-minded, a.* preoccupied, 
inattentive, unmindful, abstract- 

He was absent-minded outside the 

His mind was preoccupied when 1 
•poke to him 

You are tnatlentite to my re- 

I am not unmtndfu! of the privi- 

He nas abstracted, as if m a 

Akt : unable, incapable, inefB- 
dent, ineffective 

absent-mindedness, n.. preoccupa- 
tion, abstraction, inattention. 

He was noted for his absent- 

Akt. : alertness, attentiveness, 

absolute, a ■ independent, free, un- 
limited, unrestrained, des^ic. 
supreme, infallible. 

He considers himself the absolute 
lord of al] he possesses 

Note: Absolute, in the strict 
sense, free from all limitation 
or control, and supreme, su- 
perior to all, can not properly 
be said of any beinff except the 
divine Goth words are used, 
holder, in a modified sense, 
of human authorities; as, an 
absolute monarch, the supreme 
court ilocratic power knows 
no hm. ' outside of the ruler’s 

self; arbitrary power, none out- 
side the ruler'^s will or judg- 
ment Despotic IS commonly 
applied to a masterful or severe 
use of power, which is expressed 
more decidedly by tyrannical 
Arbitrary may be used in a 
good sense, as, the pronuncia- 
tion of proper names is arbi- 
trary, but the bad sense is the 
prevailing one, as. an arbitrary 
proceeding Irresponsible power 
IS not necessarily bad. but emi- 
nently dangerous, an executor 
or trustee should not be irre- 
sponsible, an irr/j/awfifc/e ruler 
ts likely to be (yrannicaf Au- 
thorttatiie is used always in a 
good «enrc, implying the right 
to claim authority, as, an 
authontatne definition or de- 
cision A perfect ruler might 
be irresponsible and not tyran- 

Akt contingent, dubious, con- 
ditional. limited, relative, ac- 

absolute, a.: fixed, irrevocable; 
unqualified, irrelative, uncondi- 
lionaJ, unreserved; perfect, Com- 
plete. finished, entire, total 

Is that an absolute decree? 

She needs absolute relaxation 
absolution, n : discharge, pardon, 

He granted her absolulion. 

He was giien an honorable dir- 

The prisoner has applied for a 

The employees were gisen an 
hour’s rrmirncM 

Act.: retribution, retaliation, im- 
placability, penalty, 
absolutism, n . autocracy, despot- 

Absolutism had gained a strong 

He discussed the subject of Euro- 
pean autocracy. 


The desf'olisin of the kind re- 
sulted in insurrection 
absolve, free, liberate, clear, 
acquit, exempt, release, pardon 
He was absolved from his prom- 

N’ote One may be absohed 
from a promise by breach of 
faith on the part of one to 
whom the proraistf was made 
To absoke from sins is formal- 
ly to remit their condemnation 
and penalty, regarded as a bond 
upon the sou! 

Ant accuse, compel condemn, 
obligate, charge -tpnd convict, 
impeach, inculpate, oblige 
absorb, v drink in, drink up. suck 
up, imbibe, take in, take npi as- 
similate. swallow- up, engulf, 
overwhelm monopaue, en- 
gross, oceuply 

The soil ai>Jorl»r moisture 

Note A fluid that absorbed is 
taken up into the mass of the 
absorbing body -with which it 
may or maj not permanently 
combine wood expands when 
it absorb* moisture, iron when 
It obsorbi heat, -but remains 
otherwise substantially un- 
changed, quicklime, when it 
absorbs water, becomes a new 
substance with different quali- 
ties hydrated or slaked lime 
Fuel IS consumed in the fire, 
food in the body, eonsume is 
also applied to whatever is re- 
moved from the market for 
individual use ; as, silk and 
woolen goods are conriimed A 
great talker engrosses the con- 
versation A credulous person 
mvllozis the most preposterous 
statement A busy student sm- 
btbes or drinks in knowledge, 
he IS absorbed in a subiect that 
takes his whole attention *'1 

postponed it only because I hap- 
pened to get absorbed in a 
book ” 

Akt cast out, disgorge, eject, 
give up, send out, vomit, emit, 
exude, disperse, dissipate, send 

absorbing, a engaging, fascinat- 
ing, engrossing 
He had an absorbing interest 
absorption, n imbibition, assim- 
ilation, engulfment, monopoh- 
ration, engrossment, occupation 
The absorption of nouri^ment 

Her absorption in her work was 

abstain. \ forbear refrain, with- 
hold, deny one’s self 
He promised to abstain from the 
use of Imoor 

Ant indulge, humor, give rein 
to. gntify, luxuriate 
absteimous, a semperate, seif- 
denying frugal 

He was forced to live an a6steuii‘ 
ons life 

He IS temperate in his demands 
One should be self-denying at 

The meal w as a frugal one 
Ant intemperate, self-indulgent, 

abstention, n. abstinence, mod- 
eration, temperance, frugality, 
self-restraint, abstemiousness 
//bsteiilion from food was the 

Ant excess, greed, intemperance, 

abstinence, n self-denial, self- 
restramt, fasting, abstemious- 
ness, continence, moderation, 
self-control, sobriety, temper- 

Note Abstinence from food com- 
monly signifies going without 
abs/emiousness, partiong mod 
eratcly: abstinence may be for 


i single occasion, ab^temtoiu- 
ness IS habitual modcroUDn 
Sclf-detxxai IS giving up what 
one wishes, chitinfiice may be 
refraining from uhat one does 
not desire, fasting is abstin 
fnff from food for a limited 
time, and generally for religious 
purposes Sobriftji and ttmpet- 
ancc signify maintaining a quiet, 
even temper by moderate in- 
dulgence m some things, com- 
plete abstiBftirc from others 
We spealv of iffuferanct in eat- 
ing, but of abstiiienre from \ice 
Total obsliRrnre has come to 
signify the entire abstaining 
from intoxicating liquors 

Akt greed, intemperance, intox- 
ication, drunkenness, excess, 
gluttony, setf-mdulgenee. sen- 
suality, wantoness 

Abstract, n summary, brief, syn- 
tiraci of the deed 

The lawjer is preparing the ob- 
rtrarl of the deed 

abstract, v separate, withdraw, 
take away, detach, appropriate, 
steal, purloin, remove, divert, 
distract, wichdraK the mind; 
abridge, epitomize, eliminate 

She was noticeaWy obrfrorfrd 

Nort: The central idea of uiih- 
dfatiing makes abstract in com- 
mon speech a cupbemi*ro for 
appropruite (unlawful!)), pvr- 
foin, steal. In mental processes 
•we dumintRofr between objects 
by dijfingwirhing their differ- 
ences; we separate some one 
element from all that does not 
necessarily belong to it, absfrorl 
it, and view it alone. We may 
separate two ideas, and hold 
both in mind in comparison ot 
contrast; but when we abstraet 
one of them, we drop the other 
out of thought The mind is 
obstraeted when it is titthdmn 

from all other subjects and con 
certrajed upon ore, dn-ertea 
when It IS efruan omoy from 
what It would or should attend 
to by some other interest, dis- 
tracted when the attention is 
disided among different sub- 
jects, so that it can not be given 
properly to any The trouble 
with the rfufroctrd person is 
that he is not ebslraeted 

Ant add. conjoin, comtxne, 
unite, restoTt, increase strength- 

abstruse, a obscure, incompre- 
hensible, profound, mysterious 

That IS an ebjfruif dogma. 

Ant olrt’ious, clear, compre- 

absurd, a ridiculous, preposter- 
ous. senseless, foolish, irration- 
al. monstrous, wild, unreavjn- 
able. chimerical, mistaken, lu- 
dicrous, iH-adiised, ill-consid- 
ered, incenert. 

Nor* That is ubfwrd which is 
eontrar) to the first principles 
of reasoning, as, that a part 
should be greater than the 
whole IS objiird. A paradoxical 
statement appears at first 
thought contradictory or ab- 
surd, while It may be really 
true Anything is irrational 
when dearly contrarj* to sound 
reason, foolish when contrary 
to practical good sense, silly 
w-ben petty and contemptible in 
Us folly, errofieoMT when con- 
taining error that vitiates the 
result, vnreasonablf when there 
seems a penerse bias or an in- 
tent to go wrong .5/onjrroin 
jmd />re/orier£?«i refer to what 
is oserwhelmingly absurd, as, 
"O monstrous’ eleven buckram 
tnen grown out of two,” 
act ii, so. 4 The ridiculous or 


the noiisenjical is worthy only 
to be 1 ivighed at The lunatic’s 
claim to be a king is ridteuloiis, 
file Mother Goose rhymes are 

A^T certain, consistent, estab- 
Ushed. indisputable, logical, tta- 
sonable, sensible, rational, sound, 
substantial, undeniable, unques- 
tionable, wise, true, mdu^table, 
incontestable, demonstrable, de- 
monstrated, incontrovertible 
Ibsurdity, n inconsistency, fal- 
lacy. irrationality, foolishness 

He saw the absurdity of the situa- 

Ani certainty, sensibleness, nis- 

abundance, n profusion, ovef- 
flou, plenty, exuberance 

We hate had an abundante of 

Ant delieitney, scarcity, poverty 
abtindant, a plentiful, copious, 
exuberant, galore, lavish, teem- 
ing, bountiful 

They carried an abundani supply 
of food 

Truit IS flentiful this season 

A coftous supply of literature was 
sent us 

She had an exuberant imagina- 

The couple received presents go- 

A kunsh expenditure of money 
'uas made 

'The fields were leemins with 

There was a bountiful supply of 

Ahr deficient, inadequate, insuf- 

abuse, n misuse, perversion, des- 
ecration, injury, mistreatment, 
offense, reproach, violation 

Such eb ur was hard to bear 

Akt applause, protection, rc- 

abuse, v damage, injure, wrong, 

harm, ill-treat, mistreat, mal- 
treat, molest, malign, slander, 
vilify, reproach, revile, defame, 
vituperate, rail at, oppress, per- 
secute, pervert, prostitute, rav- 
ish, rum 

Note Abuse covers all unrea- 
sonable or improper use or 
treatment by word or act A 
tenant does not abuse tented 
property by “reasonable wear,” 
though that may damage the 
property and injure its sale, he 
may abuse it by needless de- 
facement or neglect It is pos 
sible to abuse a man without 
harming him, as when the crim- 
inal vituperates the judge , or to 
harm a man without abusing 
him, as when the witness tells 
the truth about the criminal 
Defame, mofijn, roil at, rtvile, 
slander. tiSify, and Vituperate 
are used always in a bad sense 
One may be justly reproached 
To impose on or to ineUmise 
one is to vifure him by abusing 
his confidence To persecute 
one IS to ill-treat him for opin- 
ions sake, eotnmoniy for re- 
ligious belief, (0 oppress is gen- 
erally for political or pecuniary 
motives ‘Thou shall not op- 
press an hired servant that is 

poor ard needy 

Misemphi, misuse, and pervert 
are commonly applied to objects 
rather than to persons A dis- 
solute youth misemploys his 
time, misuses Ins money and op- 
portunities, harms his associates, 
Perxerls his talents, urongs his 
parents, riiinj himself, abuses 
every good gift of God 

Am protect sustain, shield, re- 
spect, cherish, care for, con- 
sider, conserve, regard, vindi- 
cate, uphold, applaud, extol, 
laud, favor, praise '•* 

abusive a.* reproachful, insottiog, 
ofTen^ivc, outrageous 
She IS abusit e to her subordinates 
AhT atlentisc. kind, respectful 
abut, V approach, approximate, 
extend, reach, touch 
Ills building abiitj on our prop- 

abysmal, a deep, profound 
His Ignorance is ah^tma! 
accede, s agree, concur accede, 
yield, acqu esce, comph, permit 
I will acted e to \our wishes m the 

Ant disagree, refuse 
accelerate, \ hasten, expedite, 
quicken, urge, hurrj 
Fresh soil was used to acrelerate 
its growth 

Akt • check, debs, inder, drag, 
impede, retard 

acceleration, n increase of mo* 

The selection called for an aeetU 
traUon of time. 

accent, n stress, modulation 
]!e spoke with a French aeeent. 
accentuate, v stress, accent, gne 
emphasis to 

The «j liable must be accentuated 
acceptance, n * approval, (avora* 
Lie reception; acceptableness 
His acceptance of the invitation 
was delayed. 

His approtvl of the plan was es- 

They met with a faioralte rttep- 

The ttcceptableness of the propo- 
sition was to be considered 
Ant.: rejection, refusal 
access, n.* entrance; admission, 
approach, course, reception. 

They had access to the building 
Ant,: departure, exclusion, exit, 
accessible, a.: approachable. aSa- 
ble; obtainable, attainable 
He is always aecesstblt to his 

• proofs are accessible. 

Ob* It: abettor, ally, ae- 


complice, assistant, asvjciaic, 
coadjutor, confederate, attend- 
ant. colleague, companion, part- 

He was held as an accessory to 
the crime 

Note Collcaeue is used always 
in a good sense, associate and 
coadjutor generally so, ally, as- 
stslant, associate, attendant, 
companion Itdrer. cillier in a 
good or a bad sense, abettor, 
accessory, accomplish, confeder- 
ate. almost always m a bad 
scn«c cllly is oftenest used of 
national and military ma'iers, 
or of some other connection re- 
garded as great and important ; 
as. allies of despotism CToJ- 
Uegiie is applied to civil and es- 
clcsiastieal connections; mem- 
bers of Congress from the same 
State are eolleoeues, even 
though they may Iw bitter op- 
ponents politically and person- 
ally An Assoctale ^u«tice of 
the Supreme Court is near in 
rank to the Chief Justice .A 
surgeon’s assistant is a phy‘ieian 
or medical student who shares 
in the treatment and care of 
patients; a surgeon’s attendant 
IS ore who rolls bandages and 
the like rolhtcer, henchman. 
retJiner arc persons espeaally 
devoted to a chief, and gener- 
ally bound to him by necessity, 
fee, or reward Partner has 
come to denote almost exclus- 
ively a business connection. In 
law, an abettor (the general 
legal spelling) is always pres- 
ent, either actively or construc- 
tively, at the commission of the 
crime; an accessory never ^ An 
aceompliee is usually a rn"0- 
pal; an accessory, never. H 
pre«cnt, though only to stand 
outside and keep watch against 
surprise, one is an abettor, and 
not an occessoey. At common 

law, an accessory implies a prin- 
cipal, and can not be convicted 
until after the conviction of the 
principal, the aceoiitpltce or 
a&eltor can be convicted as a 
principal Accomplice and abet- 
tor have nearly the same mean- 
ing, but the former is the popu- 
lar, the latter more distinctively 
the legal terra 

Ant antagonist, adversary, be- 
trayer, foe, enemy, opposer, op- 
ponent, rival, principal, leader, 

accident, n casualty, chance, ad* 
venture, possibility 

The breaking ol the glass xas an 

Ant certainty, intention, neces- 
sity, plan, purpose 
accidental, a casual, incidental, 

Our meeting was acetdenlai 

He made casual visits to his pa- 

His going was purely t'ictJenlal 

This fact is tton»essenlial 
Acclaim, V applaud, cheer, ap- 

He was acclaimed victor by the 

Akt abuse, censure, insult 
acclamation, n. applause, ap- 
proval, commendation, shouting 

Their voices were raised m or- 

Ant.' abuse, cursing, insult, out- 

acclimate, v.* acclimatize, habit- 
uate, adopt (to foreign cli- 

They soon became acclimated 
acclivity, n ascent, «lope, 4alus 

They worked their way over the 

Ant declivity, descent, down 
grade, hollow, lowland, level, 

accommodate, v. adapa, conform, 
adjust, oblige, favor 

He accommodated us with the 


Wc could not adapt ourselves to 
the change 

Your sentence does not conform 
to the rule 

He ad/usted the matter satisfac- 

He obliged us by taking part in 
the play 

He did not fazor the repeal of 
the act 

Akt aggravate, deprive, disturb, 
refuse repel 

accommodating, a attentive, 
obliging, considerate, kind 
He IS nut at all occoinmodating 
Ant exacting, inconsiderate, 
mconsidente, selfish, unaccom- 

accommodation, n adjustment, 

Suitable aecommodatfons could 
noi»be found 

accompaniment, n circumstance, 
Ord age with its occoinpanment 
of infirmity was now his lot 
accompany, v escort, attend, fol- 
loiv join 

I will accompany you 
\NT See abandon, 
accomplice, n accessory, assist- 
ant, associate, partner, com- 

His accomplice escaped 
accomplish, v achieve, bring 
about, complete, consummate, 
effect perform, execute 
ffe soon accomplished the task 
Ant baffle, defeat, destroy, frus- 
trate. -ipoil 

accomplishment, n attainment, 
acquirement, execution 
The uccoinJi/irhiucRt of his task 
was difficult. 

He faded in the of/aiKHicnt of 
his ambition 

The acquirement of a thorough 
knowledge of the language was 

He hastened the execution of his 

A'.T • denraction, failure, 
accord, n • agreement, sympathy, 
harmony, accordance 
They were all of one accord in 
the matter 

A\T lanance, disagreement 
accord, v. agree, be in harmony, 
conform, unite 

Your views do not accord with 

Ant • antagonize, differ, disagree, 

accordant, a conformable, con- 
sonant, harmonious, correspond- 

That was accordant with his prin- 

Avt discordant. ineonformaWc, 
accost, s. greet, address 
They were occoited by the angry 

lie cretUd each one as they came 

He edirtsltd a large audience 
last esemng 

Avt avoid, Ignore, piss by, 

accoBrt, n record, report, esti- 
mat" lalue 

lie pa, an interesting account of 
fill t*a\eli 

accountabUity, n liability, re- 

He realized his accojnlshtltty 
Ant umccountabilit}, irrespon- 
•iLil t> 

aceourtable, a answerable, 
arenable, responsible. 

He was accountable to his supe- 
rior ofTcer while on duly 
Ast : unaccountable, irresponsi- 
ble, ex*npt 

accouter, I • dress, equip, array. 
They were accoutered for the 

accouterment, n.; dress, equip- 
mert. attire, trappings, 
accredit, i.*_give credit or author- 
ity, furnish credentials: believe. 

credit, receive as eredlble. 

They accredited the ambassador, 
accretion, n growth, accumula- 
tion, addition 

Crystals grow by occretton 
accrue, s accumulate, arise, hap- 
pen (as natural result) 

One years interest had accrued 
accumulate, v amass, collect, 
heap, pile up, bring together 
They accumulated great wealth 
Ant disperse, waste, scatter, 

accuracy, n correctness, pre- 

The accuracy of his statement was 

Ant inaccuracy, error 
accurate, a correct, exact, liberal, 
lie ^se an acnirale account of 
the transaction. 

You were Correct in your esti- 

You should be exact in your state- 

A literal translation of the poem 
was pvem 

Ant maenirate, incorrect 
accuution. n charge, indictment 
The aceutaitoii ogainst him is un- 

lle^was arrested on a thargt of 

An indictment was secured, 
accuse, v arraign, blame. 

These men wero aeeuted of the 

accustom, v.: habituate, familiar- 

He aeeuslomed himself to his sur- 

He is habituated to that manner 
of In ing 

We_ must familhrize ourselves 
with the subject. 

accustomed, a customary, habit- 
ual. usual 

He was in hiv accustomed place 
Ant • unaccustomed, unusual 
acerbate, v.. embitter, exasperate 
maire bitter, sour. 


acerbic, a • harsh, severe, austere acquaintance, n. association, fcl- 
Thc acerbic treatment was too lowsinp fimiharity, intimacy, 

sex ere companionship, experience, 

acerbity, n sourness, sharpness^ know1ecl£e, friendship 

biiterness, astringency, harsh- VVe have a slight acqiiamlanct 
lu^s, seventy, exasperation with them 

1 he acerbity of the fruit >a un- 

The acerbity of his criticism was 
iinealled for 

ache, 11 pain pang, throe, suf- 
fering, distress, aching 
The iiche continued 
achieve, v accompinh, perform, 
gam, win, acquire 
Tlir\ achieted a victory 
achievement, n accomplishment 
performance, action, feat 
The ackuvement was a noiahte 

acid, n.. sharp, sour, biting 
acidulous, a acidulent. tart, 

slightly sour, peevuli 
eUidahut fruits are healthful 
acluiewledge, v admit, concede, 
own, confess 

tie Ins oc*fiw/r</gr<i' his mistake 
She has uifnii'ttrd that she was 
i\ rong 

lie finally conceded that he was 

They ovmed uf to the crime at 

lie lias confessed Ins guilt 
Ant repudiate, deny, disavow 
ackncwledgment, n admittance, 
recognition apologv, confession 
It nas an aei/iouleagment o! bis 

A* 1 denial, disavowal, repudia- 
acme, ti • culmination, zenith, eJi- 

Tlii' was the eiilinination of Iiis 

Ifis powers were not at Ihcir 

lie had reached the aeme of lit- 
erary renown 

We must acquaint ourselves with 
the facts in the case 

Note Acquaintance between per- 
sons supposes that each knows 
the other , we may know a pub- 
lic man by his writings or 
specciies, and by sight, but can 
not claim ar^uaiHtancr unless 
he personally knows us There 
mav be pleasant acquaintance 
With little conibanioiishiji , and 
conversely, muen roiii/'jiimnsAi^ 
With little acquaintance, as be- 
tween busy clerks at adjoining 
de-ks So there may he asso- 
ttalton m business without inh- 
iHjfv or fnendshtt’ Acquaint- 
once admits of many degrees, 
from a slight or passing to a 
funiliar or intimate ocijiiaiiif- 
atifc but ocquaintanee unmodi- 
fied commonly signifies less 
Him fomiUo'ity or iniimacy, 
As regards persons, famihonty 
IS lieiommg restricted to the 
unde irahle sense, as in the 
proverb 'T amdianty breeds 
contempt ’ , hence, m personal 
relations, the word in/imocy, 
winch refers to mutual know! 
edge of thought and feeling, is 
now uniformly preferred 
rriendshiy includes ocpiiamf- 
ance with some degree of iitfi- 
mocy, and ordinarily rom^an- 
lORskip. though 111 a wider 
sense fnrnJsJn/< may exist be- 
tween those who have never 
met. but know each other only 
by word and deed Acquaint- 
aitce does not involve friend- 
shif. for one may be well ac- 
quainted with an enemy Fel- 
lottship involves not merely af- 
quaintaiue .met coinfanionshtp, 
but 'ympaihy as well. There 


fray ruch frifr-Jihip with- fheref ^^on, the scmcp 
ot!t much fcIlonsht<. as bt- Ant arrai^rnment. conviction 
tween those whose homes or acrid, a pungent, stinging, caus- 
pursuits ere far apart There tic, sarcastic, severe, acrimoni- 
nay he pleasant feltoushtp ous 

which (Joes not reach the ful- The drug had an aend taste 
ress of friendslut- As regards Vnt sweet, lu'cious 
studies pjrsmt', etc. aequatnt- acridity, n acrimony, bitterness, 
once IS fess than /omi/wrify, pcngency, causticity, baf'hncsi, 

which suppo'es mmuie Anoaf- severity 

edge of particulars, arising acrmoniou*. a caustic, sarcastic, 
often from Ijng experience or tnsoriom virulent, rancorous 
flj/ofialion He siiffercd from the acrimonious 

A.vt fsnorance, inevpericrce. criticism 

unfamilnrity acrurtny, n bitterness, harsh- 

acquiesce, v agree, comply pas- 
sively, assent, submit, accept 

He arquificed in the matter 
acquiescent, a compliant, yield- 
irg. submitting 

He was acquiescent to her de- 

acquire, v master, learn, obtain, 
attain, purchase 

She acquired this knowledge only 

Avr See abandon, 
aequi'ement, n. attainment, ac- 

He was a man of unusual at- 

}hi intelJectual alloinmenis were 
the result of hard study 

.\vT Sec abandonment, 
acquisition, n.i attainment, ac- 
qj rement, person or thing ac* 

The or^iitntion of the property 
pave them no pleasure. 

He was a great acquisuhit to the 

acquit, v.‘ absolve, justify, par- 
don, di'charge, release, excul- 
pate, exonerate 

He was aequilled of the crime: 

Ant.: arraign, convKt 
acquittal, n.: release, discharge. 

The lawyer asked for an aequil- 

His releare was expected 

Hi IS if grsen an ftortora’/fe dtr- 


lev «everity. 3‘perily. viru- 
bnee, causticity, rancor, sharp- 

Mijfh acrimony was i.iduJgcd m 
■'urine the debate. 

*.oit /treriify is a tfiarp teij, 
with a touch of bilterness, 
which may ari‘c from mone'try 
annoyance or habitual impa- 
tience, cj;'eritv IS stronpef, de- 
noting disttnee trriution or 
vexation /fcrimenyi in speech 
Of temper is like a corrosive 
acid. It springs from settled 
character or deeply rooted feel- 
ing of aversion or unkindoc's 
One might speck with momen- 
tary asperity to his child, but 
not with ocriiioiiy, unless es- 
trangement had begun i/a/ig. 
nity^ IS the extreme of settleo 
•11 intent; Timfence is an en- 
Tenorred hostility Virulence of 
•pcecli is a qualify in languirc 
that makes the language teem 
as if exuding poison ririi- 
tenre is outspo’i<en; tno/icnifv 
may be covered with «mooth 
and courteous phra«e. We s'y 
inten«e isrulence, deep waJigm- 
ly S’ftenfy is alway painful, 
and may be terrible, but carries 
alwavs the claim, true or fa]‘e, 
of justice 

Art : courtesy, kindness, mifd- 

d’Jfffcnr, enferprising 

He took an cdtie part in all the 

Ant macti\c. passive, latent, 
quiescent, sedentary 
active, a operative, cfTicacjous, 
drastic, eilcctnc, transitive. 

The drug is arlitr. 
active, a. agile, sprightly, spry, 
lively, nimble brisk, bustling, 
elert, ^sy, quick, readj, 
prompt, diligent, energetic, xig- 
orous expeditious, ofTcious 

Note /icUze refers to both 
quickness and constancy of ac- 
tion, in the former »ensc it is 
allred with ogife, ale't, brift, 
etc , in the latter, with bujj 
di/igenf, industrious The Of- 
tii't Io%c emploiment, the busy 
are actuall) emp'ojed the 

and the industrious are 
habitually biiij The rtslUss 
are orfite from inability to keep 
quiet, their activity may be 
without purpose or out of all 
proportion to the purpose con- 
templated The oftricrui arc un- 

desirably aelne in the aflairs of 

Ant dull, inert, quiet, quiescent, 
sluggish, slow, stupid, indolent 

activity, n • operation, action; 

liveliress. briskness, agility, 

spnghtlmess, strenuousness 
His afUitly was remarkable 
Avt • inactixity, passiveness, 

actor, n." doer, participant, per* 
former; comedian, tragedian; 
thespian ; impersonator, per* 

senator, mime, mimic, panto* 
mimi't, barnstormer, hamfat* 
ter; supernumerary 
actress, n.* tragedienne, comedl* 
enne; ingenue, soubrette, un- 
derstudy; star. 

actual, a. real, veritable. 

The flftufli value of the jewels is 
not known 

They have shown a reof inlere't 
m the affair. 

A srnloble expression of surprise 
came over her face 

Ant potential, nominal, hj^po- 

actuality, n reality, verilaSle- 

What she had dreaded now be- 
came an actuality. 

Ant unrcaliti. visiorarinc's 
actuate, v impel, incite instigate 

This (eeiinf; of responsibility 'vas 
actuated by his fatfrer s deith 
actuation, n instigation, incite- 
ment. animation 

acumen, n astuteness, shrev.d* 
ness, discernment, aetite’'e‘«, 
cleverness, perspicuity penetra- 
tion. keenness, insight, sagacity 

He possessed great business aru- 

Note Shortness, acuteness, ard 
in#ig/it, however keen, and tere- 
irouon however deep, fall short 
of the meaning of orumrit, 
which itnplres also ability to me 
these qualities to advantage 
There are persons of keen in- 
aig/it and great fenetration to 
nhom these powers are practi- 
cally usflc's Acumen is short- 
ness to some purpose, and be- 
longs to a mind that is compre- 
hensive as well as keen C/ct cr- 
nfxr IS a practical aptitude for 
study or learning Jnsichl and 
dtjccninienl arc applied often- 
esl to the judgment of charac- 
ter; tcneiration^znd persticocu 
ty to other subjects of limowl- 
cdgc._ Sagacity is an uncultured 
skill in uiing quick perceptions 
for a de'ired end, generally in 
practical affairs; orumm may 
increase with study, and applies 
to the most erudite matters 

Skrexvdness is keenntss or io- 
gflcifv, often Avith a somewhat 
evil bias, as ready to take ad- 
vantage of duller intellects 
Perspicacity is the power to see 
clearly through that whidi is 
difficult or involved We speak 
of the acuteness of an observer 
or a reasoner, the tnstght and 
discernment of a student, a 
clergyman, or a merchant, the 
sagacity of a hound, the keen- 
ness of a debater, the skrend- 
ness of a usurer, the penetra- 
tion, perspicacity, and ortiinrK 
of a philosopher 

Ant dullness, bluntness stupid- 
ity, short-sightedness blindness, 
obtuseness, imbecility, igno- 

acute, a sharp, keen, penetrat- 
ing, piercing, pointed, sagacions, 
subtle, subtile, astute, discern- 
ing, cunning 

Ills senses are oeiife 

Ant dull, heavy obtuse Wunt, 
stupid, undiscernicig, stolid 
adage, n proverb, saying pithy 

That IS a well-known adage 
adamantine, a hard, impenetra- 
ble, stony 

Her heart is adamantine 
adapt, V adjust, conform 

He quickly adapted himself to the 

They will adjust all claims short- 

He conformed to the require- 

Note We adapt means to ends, 
conform to social usages, adjust 
the regulator of a watch, fit a 
carpet to the floor, arrange the 
furniture of the room, fashion 
a garment, harmonise divergent 
views, proportion expenses to 

Ant confuse, displace, disar- 
range, misapply, misfit, dispro- 

adaptable, a conformable, ad- 

He can make himself adaptable 
to any conditions 
adaptation, n adjustwent, can- 

The adaptation of the words to 
music IS perfect 

add, V sum up, foot up, append, 
supplement subjoin, affix, ad- 
join, superadd, annex 

Note lo add is to increase by 
adjoining or HKiling in distinc- 
tion from multiply, which is to 
increase by repeating To aug- 
ment a thing IS to increase it 
by any means whatever We 
may enlarge a house a farm, or 
an empire, extend influence or 
dominion, augment riches, at- 
tack or annex a building to one 
that It adjoins or papers to the 
document they refer to annex 
a clause or a codicil affix a seal 
or a signature, annex a terri- 
tory, attach a condition to a 
promise A speaker may am- 
plify a discourse by a fuller 
treatment throughout than was 
originally planned, or he may 
append or subjoin certain re- 
marks without chann of what 
has gone before Vve cast up 
or rum up an account, though 
add up and make out are now 
more usual expressions 
Ant subtract, lessen, diimmsfi 
dissever, deduct, detract, re- 
move, withdraw 

addicted, a accustomed, prone, 
devoted, given, given over, giv- 
en up, abandoned, disposed, in- 
clined, habituated, wedded 
He IS addicted to golf 
Note One is addicted to that 
which he has allowed to gam 
a strong, habitual, and endur- 
ing hold upon action, mchna- 
tion, or involuntary tendency, 
as to a habit or indulgence A 
man may be accustorrcd to la- 


bor. attached to hi« profession, 
devoted to his religion, fipen 
to study or to gluttony (in the 
bad ^ense, guru oter, or gtren 
up. IS a stronger and more 
hopeless expression, as is a&<in» 
doued) One incltned to lux- 
ury may become habituated to 
posertj One is v.edded to that 
which has become a second na- 
ture, as, one is uedded to sa- 
ence or to art Prone is used 
onii in a bad sense, and gener- 
all> of natural tendencies, as, 
our hearts are prone to evil 
Atrndoned tells of the actjuiffd 
MciQusness of one who has giv- 
en hirr«elf up to wicVedness 
Addicted may be used in a 
pood, but more frequently a bad 
sense, as, addicted to study, 
flrfrfiftrd to drink Delated is 
used rhiefiy m the good sense, 
as, a mother’s devoted afTection 

addition n annexation, annex, 
supplement, appendix, post- 
script, wing, augmentation, ad- 
junct, rider 

The new addition to the town ts 
becoming thickly settled 
Akt subtraction, deduction, de- 

additional, a. supplemental, ad- 
sci'titious, supplementarj 
Additional evidence must be se- 
cured before the pn«oner can 
be condemned 

addle, v.: muddle, confuse; spoil. 

So many difTerem suggestions 
addled his brain. 

address, n * discourse, speech, lec- 
ture, oration, allocution; dircc- 
Jioi, svperscTiption, dehiery 
We listened to an interesting od- 

The addrest has been mislaid 

address n : discretion, adroitness, 
ingenuity, readiness, tact, «)ur- 

His ease and addrejs won the 

Associated Words dexterity, 
manners, politeness 

Note Address is that indefinable 
something which enables a man 
to gain his object without seem- 
ing exertion or contest, and 
generally with the favor and 
approval of those with whom 
he deals It is a general power 
to direct to the matter in hand 
whatever qualities are most 
needed for it at the moment. 
It includes adroitness and dis- 
cretion to know what to do or 
say and what lo avoid, msenui- 
ty to devise . readiness to speak 
or act , the dexterity that comes 
of practice, and tact, which is 
the power of fine touch as ap- 
plied to human character and 
letlirg Courtesy and PoUle- 
ness are indispensable elements 
of good address 

Akt awkwardness, Iioorishness, 
clumsiness, clownishness, ill- 
breeding. ill manners, rudeness, 
unmannerlinets, stupidity, un- 

address, v * accost, speak to, 
greet, hail, salute; appeal to. 
apostrophize; approach, apply 
to, court, woo 

Note To aeeost is to speak first, 
to friend or stranger, generally 
with a view to opening conver- 
sation; greef is not so distinct- 
ly limited, since one may return 
another’s gretttne, greet and 
Aoif may imply but a passing 
word; greehns may be alto- 
gether silent; to /mil is to greet 
in a loud-votceil and commonly 
hearty and jovous waj, as ap- 
pears in the expression "had 
fellow, well met” To salute 
is to greet with special token of 


respect, as a soldier his com- 
mander To apostrophise is to 
solemnly address some person 
or personified attribute apart 
from the audience to whom one 
js speaking, as, a preacher may 
apostrophize virtue, the saints 
of old, or even the Deity To 
appeal or apply to in this 
sense is to address fonnaljy for 
some special purpose, appeal be- 
ing the more urgent word Ad- 
dress IS slightly more formal 
than aecost or greet, though it 
may often be interchanged with 
them One may address anoth- 
er at considerable length or tn 
writing, he accosts ora% and 

Akt avoid, shun, cut, «Iude. ig- 
nore, pass, overlook, pass by 
address, v direct, superscribe. 

Did you address it correctly’ 
adduce, V cite, bring forward, al- 

He adduced that as a reason 
adept, n expert, artist, genius, 
master, veteran 

He IS an adept at the trade 

Attt beginner, neophyte, novice, 

adept, a skilful, skilled, pro- 
ficient, dextrous, able, clever 

You may become an adept magi- 
cian in time 

adequacy, n sufficiency, compe- 
tence, competency 

Adequacy of means enabled him 
to travel 

Ant inadequacy insufficiency 
adequate, a sufficient, commen- 
surate, equal, proportionate, 
able, capable, competent, fitted, 
qualifed, satisfactory, fitting, 
adapt^, suitable 

Adequate accommodations will be 

Note Adequate, commensurate, 
and suffiaeni signify equal to 
some given occasion or work, 
as a sum aiifficicnf to meet ex- 

penses, an adequate remedy for 
the disease Commensurate is 
the more precise and learned 
word, signifying that which ex- 
actly measures the matter in 
question Adapted, ift, suitable, 
and quahded refer to the quali- 
ties which match or suit the 
occasion A clergyman may 
have strength adequate to the 
work of a porter, but that 
would not be a fit or suitable 
occupation for him Work i» 
satisfactory if it satisfies those 
for whom it is done, though it 
may be very poor work judged 
by some higher standard Qual- 
thed refers to acquired abili- 
ties. competent to both natural 
and acquired, a qualified teach- 
er may be no longer competent, 
b} reason of ill health Able 
and capable suggest general 
ability and reserved power, able 
being the higher word of the 
two ^n able man will do some- 
thing \vell in any position A 
capable man will come up to 
any ordinary demand We say 
an able orator, a capable ac- 

Ant inadequate, incompetent, 
insufficient, poor, unfit unquali- 
fied, unsuitable, worthless, dis- 
qualified inferior, unequal un- 
satisfactory, useless 
adherence, n attachment, adhe- 

Let us show our adherence to the 

adherent, a adhering, sticking, 

He remained adherent to the 

adherent, n disciple, supporter, 
ally aid, aider, backer, follow- 
er. partisan 

He IS one of our staunchest ad- 

Norz- An adherent is one who 
u devoted or attached to a per- 

5on, party, principle, cause, 
^reed, or the like One may be 
an atdfr and sj/<porter of a 
party or church, v-hile not aa 
i-dhtrent to all its doctrines or 
claims An ally is more inde- 
pendent still, as he may differ 
on ever} point except the spe- 
cific ground of union The 
Allies v-ho overthrew Napoleon 
r.ere united only against him 
Allies are regarded as e<|uals, 
cdherenls and disciples are fol- 
io vers The adherent denends 
more on his individual judg- 
ment, the disciple is more sub- 
ject to command and instruc- 
tion, thus we 53) the disciples 
rather than the adnerenis of 
Christ Partisan has the nar- 
row and odious sense of adhe- 
sion to a part), right or wrong 
One may be an adherent or 
jupporler of a party and not 
a partisan Backer is a sport- 
ing and theatrical word, per- 
sonal tn Its application, and not 
in the best usage. 

A>.t e-emy, opponent, adver- 
sary, antagonist; betra}er. de- 
serter, traitor. 

adhesion, n consent, concur- 
rence, assent, agreement ^to 
adhere) ; close connection, in- 
voluntary identification (Psy- 
chol ) : adhering 

His adhesion to the party re- 
mained steadfast. 

Ant : dissent, disagreement, sep- 

adhesive, a.: sticky, sticking, gum- 
tsy, glutinom, visc/d, cohesire. 

Note’ Adheshe is the scientific, 
sticking or sticky, the popular 
word That which is adhesive 
tends to jorn itself to the sur- 
face of any other ^body with 
which It IS placed in contact: 
cohesive expresses the tendency 
or particles of the same soIh 


stance to hold together. Pol- 
ished p'atc glass IS not adhe- 
site, but such plates packed to- 
gether are intensely eohesiie 
An adhesne plaster is m popu- 
lar language a iticitiRg-plaster 
sticky expresses a more limited, 
and generally annoying, degree 
of the same riualuj Olultnous, 
gummy, issctd, and ^^scous arc 
applied to scmi-iluid substances, 
as pitch or tar 

A.vr inadhesive, separable, 
loose, free 

adieu, n farewell, good wishes, 
' lo God '■ 

He made his fo'mal adieus 
adieu, inter; farewell, good by. 

Adieu, my friend 
adipose, a iatt>, corpulent 

Her steady gam in adipose tissue 
worried her 

adiposity, n corpulency, adipose- 

Her adiposity seemed to fill the 

adjacency, n contiguity, close- 
ness, nearness 

The adjacency of the park adds 
to the value of the property, 
adjacent, a., close, near, nigh, ad- 
joining, contiguous, liOTiieTWg, 
abutting, beside, next, conter- 
minous, coterminous 

Note. Adjacent farms may not 
he connected; if adjoining, they 
meet at the boundary-line. 
Conterminous would imply that 
their dimensions were exactly 
equal on the side where they 
adjom ContigtroH/ maybe used 
for cither adjacent or adjoin- 
ing. Abutting refers rather to 
hte end of one building or es- 
tate than to the neighborhood 
of another. CuiWings may be 
adjacent or adjoining that arc 
not attached Near is a relative 
word, places being called near 
upon the railroad w-tiich would 

tlsewhere be deemed remote 
J^eighbortng always implies 
such proximity that the inhabi- 
tants may be neighbors Next 
views some object as the near- 
est or several or many, next 
neighbor implies a neighbor- 

Ant detached, distant, remote, 

adjoining, a contiguous, adja- 
cent, neighboring 

The adjoining property is valua- 

adjouiTunent, n postponement, 

An adjournment was ordered 
adjudge, v, judge, determine, de- 

He was adjudged a bankrupt 
adjudicate, v.* adjudge, determine 
(judicially), decide 

He was forced to odjudieole upon 
conilictmg claims 

adjudication, n judgment, judi- 
cial decision 

He gained an adjudicaUon in his 

adjunct, a joined (subordinate- 
ly)i appended, auxiliary, conse- 

The adjunet clause modified the 

Ant disjoined, disjuneture. sep- 

adjunct, n addition, addendum, 
auxiliary, assistant, help quali- 
fier, modifier, non essential 

Ant. essence, drawback, detri- 
ment, hindrance, impediment 
adjuration, n pledge, vehement, 
appeal, oath 

He uttered a solemn odjuroMn 
adjust, V fit, make exact, bar- 
monite, settle, make correspon- 

You can adjust the matter quick- 

adjustable, a adaptable, con- 

It IS easily adjustable 
adjustment, n adaptation, regu- 
lation. settlement. 

They effected an amicable adjust- 

adjutant, n assistant, auxiliary. 

He IS an adjutant 
adjuvant, n, helper, auxiliary 

There are other adjuvants of the 

administer, v supply, furnish, 
provide, apply, mete out, meas- 
ure out minister, contribute, 
tend toward 

He administered the medicine 

Health administers to peace of 

administer, v manage, regulate, 
perform (officially), settle, take 
charge of, exact Irom 

They administered the affairs of 
the bank 

He administered the oath 
administration, n. ministration, 
management, direction, over- 
sight, execution, official tenure 

The administration has decided 
upon Its course 

admirable, a excellent, estima- 
ble, fine, good 

That IS an admirable selection 
admiration, n appreciation, ap- 
proval, approbation, wonder, 
gratified observation, contem- 

He had a secret admiration for 

He expresyed his appreciation of 
our efforts 

My approval of the plan was nec- 

They won hts approbation. 

Their tioiwfer increased hourly 

They approved the plan, after 
careful obsertation. 

The eonlemploUon of its b-auty 
increased their desire for its 

admire, v approve, enjoy, extol, 
applaud, love, respert, revere, 


\Vc admire her taste admonish, v. repro\c. >varn, cao- 

NoTE In the old sense of won* tion, apprise, exhort, forewarn, 
der, admire is practicaliy ohso- adsist, counsel 

lete, the word now expresses a 
delight and approval, in which 
the element of wonder uncon- 
saously mingles admire 

beauty in nature and art, de- 
light in the innocent happiness 
of children. fii;oi books or so- 
ciety, a walk or a dinner We 
approie what is excellent, ap- 
plaud heroic deeds, esteem the 
good, lo\e our frends We 
honor and respect nc^i’e charac- 
ter whereier found, we mere 
and tenerafe it in the aged 
We extol the goodness and 
adore the majesty and power of 

Ant contemn, despise, detest, 
dislike, abhor, abominate, exe- 
erare, hate, scorn, ridicule 
admissible, a . allowable, permis- 
sible, fair, just, proper, tight, 

Your theory is odmitrib/e, and 
may be worked out success- 

Ant . inadmissib’e, impermissible, 
unreasonable, improper, wrong, 
unfair, absurd, preposterous 
admission, n admittance, en- 
trance, access; concession, ac- 
knowledgment, confession 

He gained admission to the fra- 

This admission lost the ca«e for 

admit, V.: acknowrledge. confess, 
concede, grant (to be lawful) ; 
allow, permit, grant, afford en- 

He admitted his error 

This passage admits two abreast 

Ant.' repul'c, reject, refu'c, 
admittance, n.* admission, access; 
introduction, initiation, wel- 
come, reception. 

They gamed admittance to the 

Note Admomsh is the miJJest 
of reproviiig words, and may 
c\en be used of caKtioning and 
warning where no wrong is im- 
plied, or of simply reminding 
of duty which might be forgot- 
ten Censure, rebuLe, and re- 
proie app1> to wrong that has 
been done , caution counsel, dis- 
suade, rturti and jdiroiitj/i re- 
fer to anticipated error or fault 
When one is admonish, d be- 
cause of wrong already done, 
the 'lew IS still future fh^t he 
may not repeat or contime m 
the wrong -Id.i/c is neutral, 
having no reference to the 
moral quality of actions The 
wicked will ad,nse to evil, the 
good will adtise to right and 
against wrong a merchant may 
aditse to or against a proposed 

Ast encourage, incite, mstigale, 
abet, approve;, urge on, counte- 

admonition, n.: reproof, warning, 
caution, exhortation, forewarn- 
ing. advice, coiin'cl. caution 
Admonitions are not alwajs 

ado, n fu's excitement, bustle. 
He made much ado o\er nothing. 
A great deal of fuss was made 
over the new arrivals 
The excitement of the moment 
was irten'c 
The bustle increased 

adolescence, n.; nonage, juniority, 
miroTitv, jouth, jouthfulness 
The period of adolescence is 

adolescent, a youthful, imma- 
ture, ju%enile, puerile, joung, 


adopt. V enpouic. lap" 

port, maintain 

lie hai adopted tlic cuitom* of 
the tntlve* 

He will not affiliate with any 

She Ii 1} espoused the cause of 

He will suppart the policy of hii 

He maintained tiie lame attitude 

adoption, n alTiliation, etpouial. 
acceptance, admiiilon, mainte- 

The adoption of the meaiurc wa* 

adorahle, a tovahle, admirable, 
worthy (of adoration) 

She !• an adorable elrl 
adoration, n ■ homiiite, worahip, 
reverence, deference 

The adaraiioH of hi* people wa* 
the re*utt of tin* *tep 
adore, v • wonhip, reverence, pay 

adorn, v, decorate heauiify, em* 
belhth, decW, ornament, irild, 
frrace, (rarnUn, l>e<llr«n, beoeeV. 
beMiid, be«et, emhlaron. iHu*- 

Rare pifntlny* adorned ific waffi 

Nf/rt" To enthelUsh i* lo briahten 
and enliven by addiny aoine- 
thlnij tbit 11 tint iieec**ar»Jy or 
very closely connected with 
lint to which It i> aided, to 
illusirale is to ad 1 somelliing ao 
far tkr In bind at (o < irf a 
nlde-liplit upon the pnn mil 
mitter An author emMliibes 
hi* nirriiivc v/iili fine de*cni»- 
tions. ilir -iftiit iUuitrates it 
with bcaiiiiful ent'ravlnps, the 
binder ti/ft and decaratei the 
vflumi (larniiU i? cn a lower 
jiane, ,!? the leatt was Lese- 
nlihed wnh l)ov/cr» Ueele and 
Vedeek arc commonly said of 
apparel; at, a inoihcr ledetks 

her diusbtcr w[ih idle and Jew. 
el* To adorn and to nrHamenl 
alike iijrnify to add that whien 
malce* anything beautiful and 
attractive, but ertianient It 
more c*c[u*ively on the mile- 
rial plane ai, the gateway wa* 
ornamented with delicate carv- 
ing Adorn 1* more lofty and 
apiritual, referring to a beauty 
which 1* not material, and can 
not be put on l.y ornaments or 
decoration*, !/ut iccm* m per- 
fect harmony and unity with 
that to which it adds a grace, 
if we say, the gateway was 
adorned with beautiful carving, 
we imply a unity and lofimcs* 
of design fuch as ornamented 
can not expre** We ny of 
tome admirable »chohr or 
Malesman "he touched nothing 
that he did not adorn" 

Awt disfigure, mar, deform, de- 
face, epoil 

adornment, n . ernamenlatlon, 

Rich tapestflei were the chief 

Ant disfimremenf, defacement, 
adrift, a and adv. drifting, dere- 
lict fo«c 

TJity were adri/t tor leveral 

They were ca*t adrift 
adroit, a akilllul, rlexiroua, ex- 
pert. ready 

III* e«i«ivocation was adroit. 
adulation, n praise, flattery, ac- 
chim, Uudition, phudit, eervil- 

Too much adulation ha* unfitted 
her for her work 

Ant rontempl, scorn, animidver- 
Sion <oiidemiiaticn, disparage- 
mer t dupprnval 

adulatory, a natlerin-, obse'gul- 
OHS /awning, er-rvilr 

Hi* adn/atory rennrPs di-pleased 

adult, a . grown, full-grown, ma- 


The adult mind can pro\c the pre- 

adult, n : man, woman, mature 

An adult ts respons.bJe lor his 

adulterate, v corrupt, maVe im- 
pure, render counterleit, so- 

He <id«hfraJfd tU« coffee 
His sp*cch s\as adu/teroJcd with 

adulterated, a adulterate, impure, 

Many adulterated products are 

adulteration, n corruption, de- 
basement, sophistication 
There is too much cdwherafion 
allowed by the law 
adultery, n inf delity. 
advance, n adiancement, prog- 
ress, progression, march, pro- 
motion, preferment, elevation, 
appreciation, enhancement, 
oserture, tender, proposal, 
proffer, offer 

The gosernment is nsettigatmg 
the cdtance in prices 
Ant.- decline, retreat, retrogres- 
sion, retrogradation, deteriora- 
tion. * 

advance. \ • progress, increase; 
promote, eleiatf, enhance, aug- 

The cost of manufacturing has 

Ant.: retreat, retrograde, decline, 
deteriorate, impair, weaken, 
advance guard: sanguard, van, 
advancement, n • progress, pro- 
gression; promotion, prefer- 
nrent, exaltation, aggrandue- 
ment, furtherance. 

His adivneernent was now as- 

advantage, n : superiority, mas- 
tery; benefit, a' all, profit 
There is no advantage w jour 

doirg this. 

The juferianly of his mind made 
him a natural leader. 

He has gamed compfete mastery 
o{ the subject 

The benefit derised from voar 
coming cannot be estimated 
Your argument was of no jvail 
There is no profit in such nitih 

Ant disadvantage, loss, injury 
advent, n arrival 
Their adtent was hourly expect- 

adventition, n appearance, ar 
rival <by accident! 

These plant forms arc the result 
of adteuliiion 

advenutious. adj casual, acc 
dental, fortuitous, advenuve. 
foreign, extrinsic , irregular 
These are only odtenUhfus aid« 
It only a easjal acijuainunee 
The meeting was aectdenfal 
Growth IS not forlutlout. 

This groivih ts of an adtenliie 

That IS an exfrnmc;— a foreign 

This growth is irrerufor. 
adventure, v* dare, hazard, ven- 
ture. chance, happen, hap 
To adzenture sudi an undertak- 
ing would be hazardous 
adventure, n.- hazard, accident, 
fortuity, experience, occurrence, 
incident, happening, feat (unex- 
pected, hazardous) 

The odtenture was a hazardous 

advcBturous, a : adventuresome, 
venturesome, enterprising, 
brave, daring, bold, fearless, in- 
trepid, undaunted. 

His IS an adivnlurous spirit, 
adversary n.: opponent, antagon- 
ist, enemy, foe. 

He proved a doughty otfierwry 
Akt • abettor, acces'ory, accom- 
plice, supporter, helper, friend. 


■dvcrsc, n contr.irj rj^posinp, 
opposed IP, atUisomst'c, wum- 
loal, hurlful, cal.iiiiitpu<, aniicl* 
i\e. Inrnifiil 

Id.ersf cornlilipiis brought about 
Ii:9 failure* 

nbftting .•ifif''orj sup- 

[ ‘orting, helping, helpful, frtend- 
y, allied, lnriiilce» 
adversity, n niisforltine, disaster, 
reverse', trouble, aftlietion 
lie nas not discottriged b> atf* 

Hufortinie only 'irengtbened his 
resolution to succeed 
Great ditattfr followtd the storm 
Business rrt tries ln\e iipsei his 

No further lr«>nfc/e i\as espen 

Ills nflhflioii taught him great pa- 

Ant fortune, blessing liappi- 
ness, pleasure, prosperity, itte- 

advert, v,. allude, refer to (inci- 

lie hid adirritd to the statement 
advertence, advertency, n atten- 
tiveness, heed heeJfiilness ob- 
servation, notice, ntlennon con- 

Careful adverlenef would reduce 
the amount of risk 
advertise, v announce, declsre. 
give out, publish, proclaim, bla- 
zon, spread abroad 
We shill adiertise the business 
through the newspapers 
advertisement, n announrement, 
stitement, public notice 
He inserted an adzerluemml in 
the duly pipers 

advice, n ‘ counsel, admonition, 
recommendation ; information, 

He sought our ndidet before clos- 
ing the deal 

An attorney’s {ouncil should be 


He ins disregirJcil Muir ii.finoni'- 
fi >n 

He was admitted up. it their rre- 
omm< Hdiilii n 

No afii.i as to Ins whereabouts 
h IS been received 

Complete n /iirmii/iuii was with- 
held fioiii the pnbti. 

A deliilrd re/-orl will be pub- 
iishel liter 

advisable, a expedient, desirable, 

This lotifse seemed adiisable 

Ant inadvisable tnesprdieni 
advise. \ counsel admonish, 
warti, inform, aitiinmt. con- 
sult confer 

He adtfsed us to iviilidraw our 

He lOHitiled with ilicm concern- 
ing Ihcir future pints 

They were admcnulnd In spend 
money Ir'S freeh 

He was niiriird of Hie poinblr 

He was thoroughly iH/pimrd on 
the subject 

He wis not m^tiiiiu/.'d with oiir 

We will rpnsull him before tak- 
ing fuiiher steps 

I sbould like to tPiiftr with you 
on tins matter 

advisedly adv purpn-ily inten- 
tionillj delibenlely knowmg- 

He spt'ke adxisedi) on tlie sub- 
let t 

He was not turtostly slighted 

The question wis asked (nien- 

He deMeralely refused to answer 

Did >011 inotiingfy accept the 

advisement, n consliler.stlon ile- 
liberation, consultation 
adviser, n counselor, member (of 
council), informer, mentor, 


She has chosen him as Jegal arf- 

advocacy, n* adtocatine, pJead- 
inff, espousal, sindication, de- 

I shall look for >ouf adzoeaty of 
the cause 

advocate, n. defender, promoter, 
supporter, spoloRisl, s indicator, 
propagandist, upholder. 

She was an edtocale of Woman 

adynamia, n. debility, weaVness 

adytum, n shrine, sanctuary, se- 
cret place, thing hidden, 
depths, mysteries, things pro- 
found, occult 'cnse 

The adila of Greece tvere fa- 

agis, ti egis, influence, power; 

Her manner was affable and 

Akt inaffable, diKourteous, in- 

t^air, n business, concern, oc- 

He considered it to be liis affatr 
He made it his business to be on 
hand promptly 
That is my eoneerw 
The occvrrtntt was unfortunate 
affect, V act upon, touch, melt, 
concern, bear upon, interest; 
dispose, turn, mcline, inhabit 
He was not affected by her de- 

affectation, n mannerism, pre- 
tension, puppetiy, simulation 
An offeelation o{ manner made 
us doubt his sincerity 

Noit pretense (i. Prtrtende) 

teen, n con, era. 
aeonian, a eonian, eternal 
serial, a . aeriform, atmospheric; 
>aporous, ethereal, airy, empy- 
real, empyrean 

He soon became accustomed to 
these aertal flights. 
aSrie, n.. nest, 
aeronaut, n. aviator. 

The aerpnaul descended safely, 
aeronautic, a. flying, 
aesthetic, a. esthetic, 
affability, n. courtcousness, wU- 
ity, graciousness, complaisance. 

She was admired for her affa^ 

She treated them all with oioal 

His cn-ihly was in great contrast 
to his opponent's rudeness. 

Her manner lacked its usual 

She answered his questions with 

A^■T : discourteous, indiilitj. 
affable, a • courteous, sociable, 
gracious, cordial, benign, cotn- 
^^laiiant, accessible 

primarily signifies the holding 
something forward as having 
certain Tighti or claims, wheth- 
er truly Of falsely . in the good 
sense, it ts now rarely used ex- 
cept with a negatiie, as, there 
can be no treiente that this is 
due, a false /Termie implies 
the possibility of a true fee- 
tense, but, alone and unlimited, 
frelriise commonly signifies the 
offering of something for what 
it IS not Il^focnsy is the pre- 
tense of moral excellence, cither 
as a cottr for actual -wrong, or 
for the sake of the credit and 
advantage attaching to virtue. 
Cawf. primmly the singsong it- 
eration of the language of any 
parly, school, or sect, denotes 
the mechanical and pretentious 
use of religious phraseology, 
without corresponding feeling 
or character; saneumomousness 
I* the as'iimption of a saintly 
manner without a saintly char- 
acter Coiif IS hypocrisy in ut- 
terance; fanctiinoKioMsufij is 
fcipofrisv an appearance, as in 


looks, tones, etc. Ptelum, or»g-, frigid, indifferent, passionless, 
ina/ly a word of good import, repeliant 
IS now chiefly used for an un- affiance, n. trust, marriage con- 
regulated emotionalism in re- tract 

ligion, forinalum is an exag- The cffiamre created great inter- 
gerated devotion to forms, rites, est 

and ceremonies, without cor- affianced, a . betrothed, pledged, 
respondmgearnestness of heart. The a^anetd couple received the 
sham (identical in origin with congratulations of their friends. 
aAame) IS a trick or device that affidavit, n decfaration, sworn 
puts one to shame, or that statement, deposition 
shamefully disappoints expecta- He gave an a^dai’xt to that effect, 
tion or falsifies appearance Af- Associatlq Words affiant, de* 
(ectation is in matters of inicl- ponent, jurant, depose 
lect, taste, etc., much what Ayr- afBliation, n association, adop- 
pocTisy IS m morals and reli- non, connection 
gion, afttelatton might be There was no aiHhatton between 
termed petty Ay^ormy the two factions 

Ant Candor, frankness, gen- afErm, v. assert (positively), aver, 
uineness, sincerity, truth, tngen- asseverate, state 
uousness, openness, tranipar- affirmation, n assertion, aver- 
cncy mem. asreverstion 

affected, a assumed, feigned, «n- l!a would make no afRrmaUon of 
natural, influenced, reired the report 

Her manner was affected when in affirmative, a confirmative, rati- 
company fymg, approving 

She maintained an assfinted air of His reply was oMrmatite 
indifference. affix, v annex, append, nx, at- 

Her interest was merely feigned tach. $ub;om 

She showed an unnatural dis- He affixed his signature to the 
interest in her family document 

She was influenced by a spirit of afflatus, n breath, blast (of 
envy wind) . inspiration, exaltation. 

Ant unaffected, Sincere, natural, elevating influence 

unfeigned “Ovct Ius church the afHatus 

affecting, a touching, pathetic, passed ' 

piteous, moving Poetic afflatus inspired him 

An affecting scene was enacted afflict, v persecute distress, 
at their parting scourge, trouble, harass 

affectionate, a devoted, fond, He was grievously afflicted 

loving, ardent, amorous Ant alleviate, assuage, comfort. 

She is an affectionate child console, relieve 

He IS dezoled to his mother affliction, n adversity, tribula- 
She gave him a fond look as he tion trouble, buffeting, be- 

approached her rcavemcnl, hardship, visita- 

A loiing disposition made her a tion, scourge, distress, mis- 

favonte child fortune 

He was an ardent admirer of had softened hi» austere 

the Fine Arts nature 

He had an amorous nature afflictive, a troublesome, gnev- 
Ant distant, forbidding, cold, ous, afflicting, disastrous, ca- 


lamitous, severe, trjmg. pamfal. 

aSluence, n abundance, plenty, 
opulence, riches, wealth. 

They lived in affluence 

Note \Vc maj spciik of afluente 
of thought or language, bat the 
word in common use signifies 
ahundjnre of material goods, 
accompanied with generous cx- 
r«mditure We could not speak 
of a miser as living in afiucnct, 
though we might «pcik of his 
hoarded Health or bis u^elc's 

A^T indigence, povertj, scarci- 
tj, want, penurv 

affluent, a abundant, plenteous, 
abounding, wealthy neb ffow 
tng readih flui,nt 
He V's living in afHue>>l cucun* 

afford, \ '•usiain, hear meet (ex- 
pense of), stand endure, pro- 
di ce, yield, furnish 
He can afford th-t expense 
The earth affords «< sustenance 

affray, n brawl, d «*nrl ancc. fray, 

Tiie affray terrified them 

affright, V frighten, terrify, 
alarm, confu«e, startle 
They were greatly affrrzhXri 

affront, v. confront, insuJt openly. 
offend, aggravate, exasperate 
He affronted ceriancd members 
of his club 

Note. One may be annoyed by 
the well-meaning awkwardness 
of a servant, imfatrd byr a tight 
shoe eir a thoughtJesi remark, 
tcjTfd at some careless neglect 
or needless misfortune, uouni~ 
td by the ingratitude of child 
or friend To tease is to give 
some slight and perhaps play- 
ful annoyance ARgrax'ate in 
the <en‘e of offend is colfouma) 
To froiote, Iiterallv to call out 

or challenge, is to begin a con- 
tesr, one another to 
violence To adronl is to offer 
some defiant offense or indig- 
nity, as It were to one’s face, 
It IS somewli- less than to m- 

Asr plc-ise, conciliate, content, 
gratify, honor 

affront, n mdigriiy insull, out- 
rage offense 

Your reply was a.i affront to his 

The inififiiii/v oi hiv remark sur- 
prise 1 us 

It W4S 111 intuit t I Ills intelli- 
p: cc 

The wh lie affair w s a.n outraze 

\/i iffensr VI i« II art bj his 

aflutter, v igiai 1 excited 

lluy V tre J1 cluthr w ih ex- 

\sT calm cemposed, riuie^ed, 

aforethought, a des>gned, pre- 
meditated demised, contrived, 
deliberate, intentional, intended, 

That was done wuh malice oforr- 

afraid, a alarmed, timid, apnre- 

lie IS not ofroid of your political 

Note Afraid is a r-ord of wide 
range of tneaning, from the slight 
degree of fear that simply makes 
one offrehenttze and raufiouf 
to that in which he becomes 
friehlened or terrified. The 
schoolboy may say, I am afraid 
nc shall be late, the soldier 
may say, I am not afraid to die 

Axt : fearless, unafraid, un- 

after, a next, subsequent, fol- 
lowing, later 

An after decision may change the 
entire plan, 

aftermath, n.t result, penalty, re- 


wiiiili ‘(■((iiul i(pw|ii{f, siiknii, 
ItltVf 1 

e/tefwi»fc}, ttltcfmtiU, <*({».} «({(>• 
‘rilUftilly, Ultr, 

figflln, Ailv, Biirw, flfrfult, Huep 
iiKiiY. fiiice ictieBltil, liml } r^- 

Bge, II iMBdiilfy. ►rnlniJly, 
flKutl, JTI |i|ll , Briilllly 

Itc li>i« nrrlvrij At n Ip o^f 

1| WAX nil uko itt tiivrulli »» 

figtlicy, II lllBlMliiirllMlily, HllllHI. 

Hrvcinl wpip HI w«ik id 

(Miiilnl dill lull iniip 

'Dip iitlliiii Ilf llir III iifi} will lip 
(pPIlllliC dill ttlPlltd-ie 

No dllicr I'li lllf Wftp pltllito»Pll 

sgtill. II rrtupat-tiihilvp «iil.el| 
lulp liolfluitrlll di-ptuldf |.ri 
/lirlllPPi fml'f, t< iniicUaldMPH 
ili’cr, iluiiid(cr 

Nirtli III >lil'l i>tilldtdt> 
li» tap, llip t rime wi't fr or 
of nil lilt la llie iia^iif lliiii wp 
■ LiCiiU of Itinil H> n Vdlitiiiary 
Ukfiit, li fPfP t'kfxl I'"l I'l 
roitiitii’ii ii'iiaf. ftprelally lii 
liiitliirkB, nil iiiieui I* not ilie 
jiiltiip iidiif, l-iu only nn 
fit'll of /(Iff 'r, fleilna iifitlpr or» 
ders or lii;lfiiPlfoii« 

Afif. flilr/, (n)alfiiilor, jiflnflj>ftl, 

^ IllVflllOf. 

eagfandtf«< v. rxaltt litrrf<<ap> 
aui'ii’ciili mlvAitct. tiislip errHi> 
nr, alvp {ffnii'lciir tOp wldrn 
UPl'jiP of 

‘"I lie f)f«t flct of Uefd'l, BftfP 

Anaii^liu liAil a^iiriiiullffil IHmi 
so afesily, wfl« In I- 11 III s Irin* 
t>1e of wIpIip tiiafMn to Iris t'*' 
jfi'ii a! I'tinla*'' 

Aiif.' at-ue, (leera'K dr* 

(lUl'fflCPp lUalllrfldft 
slmiriFj li(iiiin<’, liiiiiilllatp, low- 
er, rcmicc, eiifcclle, linpovcrisli. 

SggtPlolh'lMP'l I. rnnliflltoii, 
HUaMo-iilAlldd nivnii '-iiiriH, jii* 

IIp siiielii i.«-i«iiiiil K/.fcfioo/i##* 


6Egmv«l« V Idlri, Ifv )irliilil«l|, 
|pia(.pilty, IliKP-isf iMiMIr Jirn. 
V‘ tp 

I l|p IpppPpI Ip 1. tb»i/i p(/rr/ liy ( P||. 
kIpOiI pIIqp pp I II 

It.h Ptl .ll^ii.ilr, llir trrDl.a 
nu 0 -P 1 Ippp 

I lllfpllrpa-'ltp Wao lii,i.l,lrnril liV lil> 


Up >p III p«( t Ini 'rule llm riii. 
(Idvr<« artU/pa 

Up wm» InilHeil nvpf iIip irtiiln 
' lip waa /( iii'keil iivrr Hip nisi 

Aof alt'-vltflp, aeannyp, hII''IIII 
ale, Ir-appi, illiiiiiil>||, ■iplirii, 
[..III. IP 

AltElovalliie, s liilpilalfyliia, 
Iipiuliippiipur ltd rrSBlni/, lirilsi- 
ipiir )>idviiu)t)a 

'llial la ail fiMtof 

MgEravatliPii, i> liria>i>piiliii/, In 

irraaliit'. Oii pra»p, flilijiiisiil 

lldip, liilppiairyiiia 
flip rillOrUl laiiai-il si» nafcfi'’ 
ilnu III ilip aMrvsmr 
aeef^valloii, IP Unlloij)' rsna 
jirraildip, t'ldvotnllopi, aiiio't 

Ageffgata, V Idlsl. 

I llP <lll|i> ilkVeulleil ?'<(*>(> Otldl, 
AgeragAlP. 0 msaa, wlidlr, tills) 

A IPrttldlt la lilll llir I'ljurpuiilt of 

'flip PlllltP PPOIfl of I'SlirrS WS8 


'I IiP fa* la WPfP laliFn as a k h ilt 
A Inhil of frsiilis will )<p ifivrti 
om Isipr 

Ageraeatirpii, n nipllprifoii, as> 


'flip triKfriiiv tdwsril a^ertsalinn 
h an iinfofliiiislpi (piin 


YOU Hinat fonslijrr |li« ni'fr'r^a* 
Hvi force 

aggression, n.* assault, attack, en- 
croachment, inroad (unwar- 
ranted), trespass onslaught, in- 
trusion, incursion 
The agsression was totally un- 
called for 

aggressive, a intrusne. attack- 
ing, ofTensne (non-defensne) , 

1 igorous actii e 
His attitude was oggresfirr 
His appearance at that hour 
was iii/rwrite 

The attacking force advanced 
He pursued an effcnsi r pol»c\ 
The vigoTout action of the gov- 
ernment in taking orttie meas- 
ures alerted the calamitj 
aghast, a astounded, tcrriGed, 

He stood ffghart at the sight be- 
fore him 

agile, a nimble, acme. Inely. 
alert, brisk, bustling, sprightly, 

She IS quite agile in spite of her 

Ant clutnsj, heav), mactiTe, 

agitate, % disturb, unsettle, ex- 
cite, disconcert, discuss, con- 

He was greatly agitated by her 

Ant calm, compose, soothe, still, 

agitation, n • commotion disturb- 
.tree excitement, unren; dis- 
cussion, scntilation 
Tliere was much agitation over 
the matter. 

agony, n • anguish, paroxysm, tor- 
ture, intcn«e pain. «afTrring; 
acute emotion: earnest striving 
He was in an agony of doubt 

agony, n (Colloq): fad, fashion, 
trivial custom. 

agree, n.- accord, acquiesce, har- 
mori7C, concur, con'cnt; accept, 
accede, comph, a«sent, grant; 
promise, ^compromise; corre- 
spond, coincide, conform. 

AssoaATin WOEDS: admit, ap- 
prove, combine, join, unite. 

Note Agree is the most gen- 
eral term of this group, signify- 
ing to have like qualities, pro- 
portions, Mews, or inclinations, 
so as to be free from jar, con- 
flict. or contradiction in a given 
relation To concur is to agree 
in general, to coincide is to 
agree in every particular. 
Whether tn application to per- 
sons or things concur tends to 
expression m action more than 
eotnetde, vve may either counir 
or coincide m an opinion, but 
concur in a decision, views co- 
tnndf. cau'cs concur One of- 
cent another s tenns, compUet 
with his wishes, admitt his 
statement, appro-, es his plan. 
conform: to his views of doc- 
trine or duty, acerdrt or mb- 
sent: to his proposal Aeeede 
expresses the more formal 
agreement, coment the more 

AbT disagree, differ, contend, 
demur, dispute, dissent, refuse, 
protest, opfiO'e. 

agreeable, a.: pleasant, grateful, 
gratifying, pleasurable, enjoy- 
able, congenial, suitable, con- 
fonnaWe to, befitting 

The arrangement is agreeable to 

Akt : disagreeable, hateful, dis- 
pleasing, unpleasant, repugnant 
to taste or sentiment, unsuit- 
able, incongruous. 

agreement, n.. acquiescence, con- 
sensus, concord, conform!^, 
unison, contract. 

The controversy ended in an 

agriculture, n.* farming, hus- 
bandry, tillage, cultivation, gar- 
dening. culture, horticulture, 


NOTE ^lEnculture is Uie 
term, including at once the sa- 
ence, the art, and the process 
of supplying human wants bj 
raising tfie products of the S014 
and by the associated indus- 
tries, /or»iwg IS the practice 
of agriculture as a business, 
there may be -theoretical ogn- 
but not theoretical 
/arming, we speak of the sci- 
ence of agriculture, the business 
of (ornuHg, scientifit agneut- 
tuft ma> be wholly tn books, 
scientific /arming is praiticcd 
upon the land, we 'ay an a-,ri- 
cuUural college rather than a 
college of farming f ariniHi. re- 
fers to the niftiiation of con- 
siderable portions of land, and 
the raising of the coarser 
crops, gorocRing is (be close 
(tiffitiitian of a small area for 
small fruits, llowers, vegetables, 
etc , and while it may be done 
upon n farm is >et a distinct 
industry Cardrinng m general. 
kitehcii-gordening (the ru/Mu- 
lien of vegetables etc, for the 
household ) , iiiari {l-gardeiiing 
(the raising of the same (or 
sale), danculiure (the culture 
of lloi'crs), and horlitiillurc 
(the culture at fruits, /lowers, 
or aegetables), are all depart- 
ments of agriculture, but not 
strictly nor ordinarily of farm- 
•ng/' farming is itself one de- 
partment of ogrirw/Ziirr Hus- 
bondry is a general word for 
any form of practical agricul- 
ture, but IS now chiefly poeti- 
cal Tillage refers directly to 
the work bestowed upon the 
land, as plowing, manuring, 
etc.; fM/iito/ioii refers especial- 
ly to the processes that bring 
forward the crop, we speak of 
the /dfflge of the soil, the cuHi- 
i-d/ioit of corn; we also speak 
of land as in a state of culli- 

tatioH under cultnahon, etc. 
Culture IS now applied to the 
careful dexelopment of any 
product to a state of perfec- 
tion, cbpecially by care through 
successive generations , the 
choice virieties of the straw- 
berry have been produced by 
wise and patient culture, a 
goo<l crop m any year is the 
result of good cu/tit'j/ioii 
agriculturist, n farmer, husband* 
ni in, gardener 

He IS a well known irgriciW/uriat 
aground, adv stranded grounded 

Ihc ship ran agrouml before 

They were stranded on a distant 

They were grcuimferf for hours 
ague, n plasmodiasis, infection. 

Ptotoroii. infection causes the 
(.lull of ague 

aid, V help, assist, encourage, 
foster support, sustain 

They will om us in every wav 

Ant oppose, thwart, resist, dis- 
courage counteract 
aid. n cooperation, succor, as* 
sistance. relief furtherance, 
help, subsidy, subvention, pat* 
ron-ige. assistant, helper, aid* 

They furnished aid to the suffer- 

ailment, n malady, disorder, 
complaint, illness 
BUD, n object, purpose, end, 
goal, design, aspiration 

His Him was to assist us 

We could not understand his ob- 
leet III refusing 

His furfose was to effect a 

The end of his efforts was ap- 

The goaf of his ambition has been 

His aspirations are noble 
Note. The aim is the direction 

in wliidi tnc s'loots, or sotic» 
times ihat »mch is aimed at 
I he wjr/ IS that at vshKh on< 
shDots the Koal, that toward 
\ hich one runs All alike indi> 
caie the direction of cndeaior 
I he cud IS the jiQinl at which 
one expects or hopes to close 
his labors, the object, that 
which he would grasp as the 
reward of his labors Aspira- 
lion, desig", endeaior. furfose, 
refernng to the mental arts by 
winch the etui is attained, are 
often used as interchanRcable 
with eim Aspiration applies to 
what are viewed as noble aims, 
endeai or, dfsrs” intentton. pur- 
pose, mdifTerentlj to the best or 
worst. /4i;>iration has less of 
decision than the other terms, 
one may aspire to an object. 
and }et lack the fixedness of 
purpose hy which aJore it can 
le aita ted Purpose is strong- 
er than inleniion DerSf espe* 
cially denotes the adaptation of 
means to an end, endeavor re* 
fers to the exertions by which 
It IS to be attained One whose 
aims are worthy, whose aipira- 
iions are high, whose designs 
arc wise, and whose purposes 
are steadfast, may hope to 
reach the goal of hts ambition, 
and will surely wm some ob- 
ject worthy of a life’s endeavor. 

Ant. aimlessness, carelessness, 
neglect negligence, ovcrsi^t 
, thoughtlessness, avoidance, pnr- 

aimless, a. purposeless, desul- 
tory, drifting, random, object- 

He IS leading an aimless life 

air, ni gas, atmosphere, melody, 
tune, descant, ana, song, pub- 
licity. sent 

•Associstib Words* OTsgeu, ni- 
trogen, carbon d oxide, ether, 


aerology, aerologist, acrometri, 
acroscopj, aerometer, aerogra- 
phy, acriferous, aerodynamics, 
acral, aerophobia, azote, baro- 
graph, barometer, cyanometrj, 
hermetic, bcrnieticallj. meteor- 
ology, ozone, neon, pneumatic, 
aerator, pneumatics, pneumo* 
therapy hjgromciry, pncumai- 
ology. xenon, ictntilator, aero- 
stat. and. aeronautics, aeronau- 

air, n appearance, look, bearing, 
demeanor, mien, manner, be- 
havior, aspect, expression, de- 
portment carnage, port, stjlei 
fashion, way 

KoTt Ait is that combmation of 
guahties which makes the en- 
tire impression w*e receive in a 
cfson’s presence, as, we say 
e has the o\r of 3 scholar, or 
the oir of 3 tillam Appearance 
refers more to the dress and 
other externals. We might say 
of a travel'^oiled pedestrian, he 
has the appearance of a tramp, 
but the oir of a gentleman Ex- 
pression and look espeaally re- 
fer to the face Expression is 
ofttnest applied to that which 
ts habitual, as, he has a pleas- 
ant expression of countenance; 
look may be momentary; as. a 
look of dismay passed oier his 
face. We may, howeier, speak 
of the look or looks as indicat- 
ing all that we look at; as, he 
had the look of an adventurer; 
I did not like his looks. Hear- 
ing is rather a lofty word, as 
he has 3 noble beanng; port is 
practically identical in meaning 
with beanng, but is more ex- 
clusively a literary word. Car- 
nage. too, is generally used m 
a good sense, as. that lady has 
a good carriage Mien is closely 
synonymous with cir, but less 
often used m a bad lease. We 

Sly a rakish oir rather than a 
raki«h vnen Aftcn may be used 
to express some prevailing led- 
ing, as, "an indignant mieH" 
Dmiranor goes beyond apfear- 
fiire, including conduct, bc- 
h'lvior, as a modest efrmeanor 
j'/o)iiier and style are, m large 
(art at least acquired 
air, V ventilate, aerate, aenty, 
display, expose, flaunt 

They aired the apartment 

Their troubles were thoroughly 

airhole, n bung, vent vent hole, 
spile hole, spiracle 
airiness, n unsubstaniiality gay- 
ety, vivacity, buoyancy, spnght* 

Her airiiiejf surprised us 
ainng, n. aeration aerification 
ventilation, display, flaunting, 
exposure, walk, rule, drive 
air plant: aerophyte, epiphyte 
airy, a aerial, aeriform, ethereal 
atmospheric, pneumatic, unsub- 
stantial, visionary, unreal, 
breezy, windy, ventilated 

Note Aerial and airy both signi- 
fy of or belonging to the air. 
but airy also describes that 
which seems as if made of air, 
we speak of oiry shapes, oiry 
nothings, where vie could not 
well say ueriirf, ethereal de- 
scribe Its object as belonging 
to the upper air, the pure ether, 
and so, often, heavenly 
airy, a sprightly, frolicsome, joy- 
ous, lively, animated, iairylike, 
gay, light, garish, jaunty, flaunt- 

Note Sprightly, spiniJike, refers 
to light free cheerful activity 
of m nd and body That which 
IS liiely or ontwalrd may be 
agreeable or the reverse, as an 
aifii'ioled discussion, a Itt/ely 

Ant clumsi, dull he ivy slow, 
sluggish, inert, ponderous, 
story, wooderi 

akin, a consanguineous, kindred, 
cognate agnate, related, con 
griM >1 

She felt ijfiii to these creatures 
of the woods 

alarm, v terrify frighten, scare 
appitl, daunt, unnerve, intirai- 

He wis ahrmeJ over ihe report 
alarm, n warning, signal appre- 
hension cnnsternaiioii, trepida- 
tion fright terror, pinic dis- 
may affright, (Inquietude, 
ditad fnr misgiving, solici- 
tude timidity 

Nots Alarm, according to its 
deriviiion allaniie, 'to arms," 
IS an rousing to meet and repel 
danger and may he quite con- 
sistent with true courage Af- 
fright and fngbt express sud- 
den fear which, for the time 
at least overwhelms courage 
The sentinel discovers with 
alarm (he sudden appro ich of 
the enemy, the imarmcd vil- 
lagers viev It with affright 
Apprehension, iisqnte t ud t , 
dread, wwgitmg, and sohciiude 
arc in anticipation of danger, 
conslernatwii, dismay, and ter- 
ror are overwhelming fear, 
generally in the actual presence 
of that which is terrible, though 
these words also rniy have an 
anticipative force Timidity is 
a runlity, habit, or condition, a 
readiness to be affected with 
fear A person of great timid- 
ity IS constantly liable to need- 
less alarm and even terror 

Ant calmness, assurance, con 
fidence, security, repose 
larm-bell, n alarm, tocsin 
[arming, a.t startling, ominous 
frightful, terrifying 


The sudden noise was alarmxng. 
Akt.‘ rea'sunnfi', a'sunnsr, quiet* 
inR. calming, reposeful 
albinoism, n. albinism, leucopa* 


alcohol, n ethyl alcohol, methyl 
alcohol, wood alcohol, spirit of 
wine, rectified spirit 
Methyl alcohol is a deadly poison 
Associated Words alcoholism, 
alcoholic, spirituous, vinifica- 
tion, vinificator, methilcpsia, 
dipsomania, dipsomaniac, fusel, 
methyl, methylate, methylated 
alcoholic, a strong 
alert, a active, quick, lively, 
watchful, vigilant, wary, atten- 
tive, brisk, bustling, lively, iiiir 
ble, prompt, ready, wide-awake 
Non; Alert, ready, and t,ide. 
caahe refer to a watchful 
promptness for action Ready 
suggests throughtful prepara- 
tion, the wandering Indian is 
alert, the trained soldier is 
ready Ready expresses more 
life and vigor than frefared 
The gun is frefared, the man 
is ready Prompt expresses 
readiness for appointment or 
demand at the required mo- 
ment The good general is 
ready for emeSrgcncies. alert to 
perceiv e opportunity or peril. 
prompt to seize occasion Rntk 
in the sense of mulle is the 
secondary and now less com- 
mon signification of alert 
Akt • drowsv, dull, inactive, stu- 
pid, heavy, sluggish 
alias, a • another, second 
Thev were forced to issue an 
ahas writ. 

alias, n : name (assumed) nom 
de plume, penname 
That IS only an aliaj 
all*!, adv.: otherwise. 

The entry read, “John Doe, eJtos 
Henry Smith" 

alien, a.* foreign, hostile, strange. 

contrary, conflicting, contradic- 
tory, opposed, contrasted, dis- 
tant, remote, unlike; uncon- 
nected, inappropriate, irrelevant. 

Note Foreign refers to differ- 
ence of birth, alien to difference 
of allegiance In their figura- 
tive use, that is foreign which 
IS remote, unUke or uneon- 
netted, that is ahen which is 
tonRicting, hostile, or opposed. 
Impertinent and irrelezant mat- 
ters can not claim consideration 
m a certain connection, map- 
prepnate matters could not 
properly be considered 
\n’- akin appropriate, relevant, 
pertinent, apropos 
al.en, n foreigner, stranger 
I e was held as an alien 
He IS a foreigner by birth 
He will not long remain a strong- 
er here 

Note A naturalized citizen is 
not an ohen, though a foreigner 
by birth, and perhaps a sirengtr 
in the place where he Resides. 
A person of foreign birth not 
naturalized is an alien, though 
he may have been resident m 
the country a large part of a 
lifetime, and ceased to be a 
jtrongfr to its people or insti- 
tutions He is an alien in one 
counUy if his allegiance is to 
anotfrer. The people of any 
country still residing in their 
own land arc, strictly speaking, 
foreigners to the people of all 
other countries, rather than 
aliens: but alien and foreigner 
are often u»ed synonymously. 
Avt citizen, countryman, native, 
fellow -countrvman. native-born 
inhabitant, naturalized per«on 
aUenate, v • transfer, estrange, 
wear, s^arate 

Ills affection could not be alien- 


Ant . blend, combine, amalga> 
mate, commix, join mingle 
alienation, n transfer, estrai^e- 

We regretted the alienaUon of his 

alight, V dismount, descend get 
down, come to rest, settle, fall 

He quickly alii/hted and ran to 

alike, a : align, analogous, similar, 
gencous, rcsemblant, resembling, 
equivalent, like, kindred, hom- 

AssocrATED Words akm equal, 
identical same, uniform 

Note Ahke is a comprehensive 
word, signifying as applied to 
two or more olsjects that some 
or all qualities of one are the 
same as those of the other or 
others, by modifiers alike may 
be made to express more or less 
resemblance , as these houses 
are somewhat (< e, partially) 
altke, or, these houses are ex- 
actly (t e in all respects) alike 
Cotton and wool arc altke in 
this, that they can both be wov- 
en into cloth Substances are 
homogeneous which are made 
up of elements of the same 
kind, or which are the same m 
structure Two pieces of iron 
may be homogeneous in mate- 
rial, while not ahke in size or 
shape In geometry, two trian- 
gles are ri7ujf when they can 
be laid over one another, and 
fit, line for line and angle for 
angle, they are equnalent when 
they simply contain the same 
amount of space An lienttcal 
proposition is one that says the 
same thing precisely in subject 
and predicate Similar refers 
to close resemblance, which yet 
leaves room for question or de- 
nial of complete likeness or 

identity To say ‘this is the 
tdentual man,” is to say not 
merely that he is similar to the 
one I have in mind but that he 
IS the very same person Things 
are analogous when they are 
stmilar m idea, plan, use, or 
character though perhaps "uite 
unlike in appearance, as, the 
gills of fishes are said to be 
analogous to the lungs in ter- 
restrial animals 

Ant different, dissimilar hetero- 
geneous unlike distinct 
aliment, n food, nourishment, 
sustenance, support, nutrition, 
necessaries, provisions 
That IS the best ahmenl for cases 
of malnutrition 

alimentary, a alimental, nourish- 
ing, nutritious, sustaining life 
Legumes have great almenlary 

alimentary canal, n enteron 
alive, a live, lively, brisk, alert, 
active, vivacious, quick, ani- 
mate, animated, breathing, ex- 
istent, existing, living, subsist- 

Note Alwe applies to all degrees 
of life, from that which shows 
one to be barely existing or 
existent as a living thing, as 
when we say he is just olive, 
to that which implies the very 
utmost of vitality and power, as 
m the words "He is all alive" 
“llioroughly alive," so the word 
qmck, which began by signify- 
11^ IS now mostly applied to 
energy of life as shown m 
swiftness of action Breathing 
IS capable of like contrast We 
speak of a dying man he is still 
brealhiug, or we speak of a 
breathing statue, or "breathing 
and sounding beauteous battle," 
Tennyson Princess can v, I. 
15S where it means having, or 
seeming to have, full and vig* 


orotis l:cath, altindant life 
Ant dead, deceased, defunct 
lifeless, inanimate, di'piritcd, 
«piri[le«s, dull 

all, a both, each, c\cry, anj, en- 
tire (quantitj, 'ubstance, rum- 
l-cr) . much, most of. Aery 
many of (hjpcrbolc), an> 
whatever, utmost 

all, n the whole, apgregate, 
total, cntirclv 

This IS all I shall give jou 
The n/io/e of his fortune vaas 

The ojgrc^afe of his monc> was 

The iolal was much less than we 

His wealth in its cniirtty was 

allay, v appease pacify, moder- 
ate alleviate assuage, soothe, 
temper abate le»s<.n reduce, 
case cilm conposc, mollify, 
quit* ‘tiff tranquifize 
Ills ii.«picion was easily <i//ayc<f 
.VoTT Allsj .nnd allcti'le arc 
closelj kindred in signification, 
and have been often nter- 
changed in usage Eoi, in strict- 
ness to fl/flv i» to 1 j> to rest. 
gutet <f jn, !/ie that which is ex- 
cited, 10 a '(■ 117' f oi the other 
hand is to lichten a burd-m \Vc 
*ufTc' ng I j using means to 
soall c and Ira tginhze the snf- 
fe-cr, V c a’ln-jtc suflerirg by 
doirg sc-nctliing tovard re- 
moval of the cause, so that 
there is Jess to suffer, where 
the trouble is whollj or chief!) 
in the c'cc"‘cment, to al’ay the 
excitement is virtually to re- 
mo. e th'’ t'caMe, as. to offay 
rage or panic , we a'lrt tale ro\- 
ert , but do not allay it Per- 
»/j. directly from the Latin, and 
apfeate, from the Latin through 
the French, signify to bring to 
peace, to mollify is la soften; 


to fflhri, C'fl, or frorT-zihre is 
to mke still, compose, to place 
to'-ttlier unite adjust to a calm 
and ‘titled condtion, to soothe 
(tngmal'y to ass nt to. humor) 
is 1 1 bring to I'tas d quietude 
We al'ay excitement, appease a 
Inmuit calm a.-uiicn, compose 
cur fciltiigs or eountcnance. 
pactf\ lilt ouarn’some, gmot 
tht lois*irtt,5 ( clamorous, 
soothe grief or di'trcss 
NT inicnsifv i-'-ravale height- 
en reus- a-oi je excite, fan, 
kindh priMlc rouse, stir, stir 


allegat on. n tr on declira- 
ticr ,>hj ta hm ju'tification. 
S13 cinenl 

Tint a 'eiaiich will not he proved 
allece. v < s‘nt< 1 luce in- 
trcK'iet o”cr ie pleid 
\s.<,(ivn I. W . ,tt'« aTirm. assert, 
diclirt claim, aver, maintain, 
pltal sav ^ ‘crv-ti. 

.VoTT To e!' It IS formally to 
s’jtt -s tri;,. or cvpvble cf 
rr< f. Ui \ ithout proving Tc 
er'fi.e litcea’lv to lead to, is 
to hrtip the evidence up to 
what h s li' n alleged Adduce 
IS a «“eo"Jary wo'd, nothing 
cat be eldnced in evidence till 
somclhir" has leen slated or 
a’leoed vlich the evidence is 
to sj'tait .\n a'leged fact 
s-and t pen to question or 
druU To ‘•peaV of an alleged 
do-uriert, an cUeaed will, an 
el'eged cr me, is iilhcr to ques- 
tion o* .nt least very carefully 
to rtfran from admitting, tl it 
tl«- t'o~r”ert exist':, that the 
v.ill 15 pfi-uine, or tint the 
crine has leen committed ^Jl- 
/eoed IS. 1 n,vcvcr. reapecl/uf to 
»pcaf of the "so-ca’Vd” wi'l or 
deed, etc, would Ic to cast dis- 
credit upon the document, and 

imply that the speaker was somewhat rare, except in ele- 

ready to brand it as unques- vated or poetic style We pre- 

tionably spurious , alleged sim- fer to speak of the fatthfu’ness 

ply concedes nothing and leaves rather than the fealty of citizen, 

the question open To produce wife, or friend 

IS to bring forward, as, for in- Ant disaffection, disloyalty, 
stance, papers or persons Ad- treason, rebellion, sedition 

duce IS not used of persons, allegiant, a loyal 
of them we say tnlroduee or Be alUgtanI to your country 
Produce When an alleged emn- allegoric, allegorical, a figura- 
inal IS brought to trial, the live 

counsel on either side are ac- That is an allegoric poem 
customed to advance a theory, allegory, n simile, metaphor, fic- 
and adduce the strongest possi- tion, parable, fable, illustration 
hie evidence in its support, they 

Will produce documents and 
witnesses, cite precedents, as- 
sign reasons introduce sugges- 
tion offer pleas The accused 
v,ull usually assert his innocence 
allegiance, n loyalty, devotion, 
fidelity, fealty homage faith- 
fulness obedience, subjection 

They have sivorn aUegtonee to the 

Note Allegiance is the obliga- 
tion of fidelity and obedience 
that an individual owes to his 
government or sovereign in re- 
turn for the protection he re- 
ceives The feudal uses of these 
words have mostly passed away 
With the state of soaety that 
gave them birth, but their ori- 
gin still colors their present 
meaning A patriotic American 
feels an enthusiastic loyalty to 
the republic, he takes, on oc- 
casion, an oath of allegtance to 
the government, but his loyalty 
Will lead him to do more than 
mere allegiance could demand, 
he pays homage to God alone, 
as the only king and lord or 
to those principles of right that 
are spiritually supreme, he ac- 
knowledges the duty of obe- 
dience to all rightful author- 
ity, he resents the idea of sub- 
lectioH Fealty is becoming 

Note In modem usage we may 
say that an allegory is an ex- 
tended stmile, while a metaphor 
IS an abbreviated simile con- 
tained otten in a phrase, per- 
haps in a word An illustration 
carries us comparison on the 
surface in the words os like or 
similar expressions , the meta- 
phor IS given directly without 
an, note of comparison The 
a'legfiy, parable, or fable tells 
Its story as if true leaving the 
reader or hearer to discover its 
fictitious character and learn its 
lesson All these are in strict 
definition, ifefions but the word 
Action IS now applied almost 
exclusively to novels or ro- 
mances All allegory is a moral 
or religious tale, of which the 
moral lesson is the substance, 
and all descriptions and inci- 
dents but accessories, as in The 
Pilgrim's Progress A fable is 
generally briefer, representing 
animals as the speakers and ac- 
tors and commonly conveying 
some lesson of practical wis- 
dom or shrewdness, as The Fa- 
bles of ^sop Any comparison 
analogy, instance, example tale 
anecdote, or the like which 
serves to let in light upon a 
subject may be called an illus- 
Iratton, this word in its widest 

use including all llic rest- A 
parable is cxclusi%ely moral or 
religious, briefer than an alle- 
tjori, with Its lesson more tm- 
mcdiatoly discernible, gi\en, as 
It were at a stroke 
alleviate, \ . rclic\e. lighten, as- 
suage. reduce, mitigate, moder- 
ate, abate, soften, lessen 

Kote Etjnologicall>, to cl/rtt- 
atc IS to lift a burden toward 
one's self, arid so hf/kten it for 
the bearer, to reheif is to lift 
It back from the bearer, nearly 
or quite awaj , to rtmm e is to 
take it away altogether 
ale IS thus less than relietc, 
relieve, ordirunly, less lhai re- 
mote We o/fciiale rehne or 
revtoie the trouble, we reltne 
riot allettale, the sufferer As- 
suage IS, by deniation, to 
sweeten, imtiijale. to make 
mild, moderate, to bring with- 
in metsure, abate, to beat down, 
and so make less W’e abate 
fever, lessen anxiety, moderate 
passions or desires, lighten bur- 
dens, fiiiligale or allr.iate pam. 
reduce inflammation, soften or* 
juage, or moderate grief, we 
lighten or punish- 

ments; we reltete an) suffer- 
ing of body or mind that ad- 
mits of help, comfort, or rem- 
edy Alleztate has been often 
confused with olloy 
Akt : aggravate, inicn«tfj, en- 
hance, increase, magnif), aug- 
ment, make worse, embitter, 

alleviation, n.: mitgation, as- 
saugement, alolement, rcduc- 
tirm. relief, moderation 
Work was the only alletiatton for 
his grief 

A^T : aegravaticn. augmentation, 
magnification, increase, discom- 

isUlance. n : union, federation. 

I'micderaiion, confcdcrac), 
league, afiiliaiion, relationship, 
connection, compact, partner- 
ship, coalition, fusion, un-on. 

An alliance is sought between the 
two countries 

Note Alliance is in its most 
common use a connection 
formed by treaty between sov- 
ereign states as for mutual aid 
in war /’jrJjicrsfif/i is a mer- 
cantile word, aUiance chiefly 
political or matrimonial Coali- 
turn is oftenest used of politi- 
cal parlies, fusion is now the 
more common word in this 
sense In an alliance between 
nations there is no surrender of 
sovereign:), and no union, ex- 
cept for 3 specified time and 
purpose League and alliance 
are used with scarce!) percepti- 
ble difference of meaning In 
a eonfedcrac) or eonfederalion 
there is an attempt to unite sep- 
arate states in a general gov- 
ernment without surrender of 
sovereignty Vtnon implies so 
much concession as to make the 
separate states substantially 
one rederoiion is mainly a 
poetic and rhetorical word ex- 
pressing something of the same 
thoutd't. as in Tcnn) son's "fed- 
rratum of the world " Locksley 
Hall I 128. nie United States 
IS not a confederacy nor an of- 
lioncr. but prefers to be styled 
a federal UHton 

Avt antagonism, enmity, hos- 
tilitjr, war. divorce, disunion, 
discord, schism, secession, sep- 
_ aration 

allied, a : confederated, leagued, 
bound, associated, morphologi- 
cally related (Biol ) 

The allied provinces forged ahead. 
Thev are allied forms 

alliteration, n ■ recurrence (of in- 
itul letters). 

yf/fifrnjtien was much used In 

Anglo-Saxon verse 
allocation, n allotment, appor- 

An allocation of stock was neces- 

allocution, n 
The Pope delivered an allocution 
allonym, n pseudonym 
He used an allonym 
allot, V apportion, mete out as- 
sign, distribute, divide, portion 
out, give, grant, award 
A sum of money was alloud for 
the purpose 

Note A portion or extent of 
time IS allolted, a», I expect to 
live out my alhtled time A 
definite period js op^otuttd, as, 
the audience assembled at the 
apfiointed hour Allot may also 
refer to space as, to allot a 
Jot of ground for a cemetery , 
ut we now oftener use select 
set apart, or orsigx Allot is 
not now used of persons Ap- 
potnt may be used of time, 
space, or person, as, the ap- 
pointed day, the appointed 
place, an officer was appointed 
to this station Destine may also 
refer to tune, place, or person, 
but It always has reference to 
what IS considerably m the fu- 
ture, a man appoints to meet 
his friend in five minutes, he 
destines his son to follow bis 
own profession is rarely 

used of time, but rather of 
places, persons, or things We 
assign a work to be done and 
aifign a man to do it, who, if 
he fails, must assign a reason 
for not doing it That which is 
allotted, appointed, or assigned 
is more or less arbitrary, that 
which IS awarded is the due 
requital of something the re- 
ceiver has done, and he has 
right and claim to it, as, the 
medal was auarded lot valor 

Each speaker was allotted five 

Awt retain, seize, confiscate, re- 
fuse, deny, withhold, appropn- 

The correct apportionment could 
not be found 

An assignment of duties was 

There was an allocation of the 

allow, \ permit, consent to, tol- 
erate suffer, endure, admit, 
concede, grant, let, sanction, 

They were allowed few' privileges 

Note We allow that which we 
do not attempt to hinder, we 
permit that to which we give 
some express authorization 
When this is given verbally it is 
called permission , when m 
writing It IS commonly called a 
permit There are establishments 
that any ore will be allowed 
to visit without challenge or 
hindrance , there are others 
that no one is allowed to visit 
without a permit from the man- 
ager, there are others to which 
visitors are admitted at speci- 
fied times without a formal 
permit We allow a child’s in- 
nocent intrusion, we concede a 
right, grant a request, consent 
to a sale of property, permit 
an inspection of accounts, sojjr- 
lion a marriage, tolerate the 
rudeness of a well-meaning- 
servant, submit to a surgical 
operation, yield to a demand or 
necessity against our wish or 
will, or yield something under 
compulsion , as, the sheriff 
yielded the keys at the muzzle 
of a revolver, and allowed the 
mob to enter. Suffer, in the 

forma] address, ex- allotment, n apportionment, as- 
signment, allocation 
The allotment of the property has 
been made 

sense of mild concession, is now 
becoming rare, its place bems 
taken bj atliiic, /'ermit, or tol- 

AsT den>. dts3ppro\e, refuse, 
resi't, ftiilihold, reject 
allowable, a permissible, admis- 

Socli conduct is not allenvable. 

It IS not pcrtntssible to do that 

The supposition is admisnbU 
allowance, n permission conces- 
'lon •■uthortratiun, leave, ad- 
mittance, sanction, tolerance, 
assent, sufferance, connivance, 

He made no ti/ioa-jnce for failure. 

Ant disallowance, prohibition, 
refusal, injunction, embargo 
allowance, n rebate, deduction, 
discount, annuity, tontine, sti- 
pend, alimony 

Alloy, V mix (with alloy), mod- 
ify, temper, debase, impnir 
alloy, n compound, mixture, ad- 
mixture. deterioration, debise- 
nretit , baser metal , adultera- 
tion, debasement, deterioration 

The allay hardened the metal 

Note AduUtraUon, dehatememt, 
and detenorahon are alnajs 
used in the bad sense, odmtr- 
lure IS neutral, and may be 
good or bad , allay is commonly 
good in the literal sense An 
excess of allay virtually 
amounts to aditlleroltofi. but 
adulieralian is mostly restricted 
to articles u»ed for food. drmk. 
medicine, and kindrrd uses In 
the figurative sense, as applied 
to character, etc , alloy is un- 
favorable, because there the 
only standard is perfection 

allude, V. hint, hint at, intimate, 
imply, insinuate, mention, refer, 
advert, suggest 

He alluded briefly to a similar 

Associated Worts : indicate, 
name, point, signify, suggest 

Note Adiert, mention, and re- 
fer arc used of language that 
distinctly and expressly points 
to a certain person or thing; 
the other words of language 
from which it may be inferred. 
We allude to a matter slightly, 
perhaps by a word or phrase, 
as It were in byTi'ayi we adterl 
to It when we turn from our 
path to treat it, we refer to it 
b> any clear utterance that dis- 
linclly turns the mind or atten- 
tion to It, as, marginal figures 
refer to a parallel passage; we 
menUon a thing by explicit 
viord, as by naming it. One 
may allude to a person or thing 
that he does not mention or 
name, the «peaVef adierled to 
the recent disturbances and the 
Tcmissness of certain public of* 
fleers, though he menlioned no 
name, it was eas) to see to 
whom he alluded Cowper al- 
luded to Dunjan as the “m* 
genious dreamer,” but added: 

I name thee not. lest so despised 
a name 

Should move a smile at thy de- 
served fame. 

One may fttnf at a thing in a 
friendly way, but what is in- 
tmvoled is always unfavorable, 
generally l>otli hostile and cow- 
ardly One may vidtcale his 
wishes, initiiiafc his plans, im- 
ffy his opinion, his will, 

tvssest a course of action 
allure, v attract, captivate, draw, 
win, wax, cajole, entice, tempt, 
decoy, lure, weigh, reduce 

She was allured by the promise 
of wealth 

Note To allure is to drazv as 
with a lure by some charm or 
some prospect of pleasure or 


advantage We may attract oth- 
ers to a certain thing without 
intent , as, the good uncon- 
sciously attract others to virtue 
We may allure either to that 
which IS evil or to that which 
IS good and noble, by purpose 
and endeavor, as in tbe lamiliar 
line, "Allured to brighter 
worlds, and led the vtay, 
GotDSJtiTH Dficrted Village 1 
170 Lure is rather more akm 
to the physical nature It is the 
word we would use of drawing 
on an animal Coai expresses 
the attraction of the person, not 
of the thing A man may be 
coaxed to that which is by no 
means oUtinng Cajole and de- 
coy carry the idea of deceiving 
and ensnaring To tmeigle is 
to lead one blindly in To 
tempt is to endeavor to lead 
om wrong, to seduce is to suc- 
ceed in ae«»»wg one from good 
to ill IVtn may be used m eith- 
er a bad or a good sense, in 
which latter it surpasses the 
highest sense of allure because 
It succeeds in that which oHure 


Ant deter repel, chill, damp, 
dissuade, drive away, warn 
allurement, n lure, temptation, 
seduction, decoy, inducement 
The alluremefil of city life influ- 
enced him 

alluring, a charming, attractive, 
fascinating, tempting, seductive 
An allurtng proposition was laid 
before them 

Ant repellent, repugnant, un- 

allusion, n reference (incidental), 
hint, intimation, suggestion, 

Tbe allusion mtimated as mudi 
allusive, a suggestive, metaphor- 
ical, figurative 
The poem is highly allusive 

ally, n auxiliary, confederate, co- 
worker abettor, assistant 
His aily abetted him 
aUy. V join, associate, conieder- 

He allied himself to the cause 
almanac, n year book, calendar, 

alimghtiness, n omnipotence, 
boundless power, infinite force, 
almighty, a omnipotent, all pow- 

almost, adv nearly, very nearly, 
Weil rtigfi, all imt 
alms, n chanty dole 
Associated Words eleemosy- 
nary atmoner, almonry, corban 
alone, a single, solitary, isolated, 
unaccompanied, compamonless , 
unique, unmatched, mcompar-^ 

Ant accompanied, in company, 
attended, escorted 

aloof, a apart, away, somewhat 
distant, reserved, cold, formal, 
She held herself quite aloof 
aloud, adv audibly 
He read aloud 

alphabet, n letters, symbols, 
crossrow , rudiments, elements, 
a b c 

Assohated Words abecedary, 
alphabetic, alphabetism, alpha- 
betize, primer abecedarian 
Alps, n pt mountains, peaks 
Tbe Alps are majestic 
Associated Words Alpine, cisal- 
pine, transalpine, alpenstock, al- 
pes trine 

also, adi as well, as well as, be- 
sides, too, further, in addition, 
furthermore moreover, like- 
wise, withal similarly 

Note While some distinctions 
between these words and 
phrases will appear to the care- 
ful student, yet in practice the 
choice between them is largely 
to secure euphony and avoid 


refCtil!on The words fall into 
two proups, as ’^ell as, besides, 
ifj addition, too, \-thal, simply 
add a fact or thought , also (all 
5o). VI hke mailt cr, Ukeutse, 
sill I'arh if^rm lint vihai is 
added is lil^c that to which it 
IS added /U ?«.«/( follows the 
word or phrase to which it »s 
joio'' i \\c cao tay the sing- 
ers as i^ell as the phsers, or 
the p’tiers, and the singers as 

Akt lift neaenhe’e s notwith- 
standing, on the contrary, ort 
the other hand, in spite of, >cl 
altar, n slruclurc, elevation, 
raised place (for sacrifice), 

AssoaATo Woaos teredos, al- 
tarage, mensa, retable, chancel, 
cdiorium, pyx, dorsal, dossal, 
piscina, antepsf'dium, baldachin, 
hagioscope, predeUa, (roatal 
alter, s. (Collo^ ) geld, castrate 
alter, \ sary, change (in some 
degree), transform, change 
(entirely) , exchange, rear- 

Our plans were altered to suit 

alteration, n • mutation, variation, 
transposition, conversion, snno- 
vation, transfiguration, permu- 
tation, transference, reversion, 

The aUerathn was noticeable 
altercate, v.- wrangle, dispute 
(angrily), contend (zealously). 
altercaUon, n : b-awl, broil, fracas, 
scrap, rjuarrel, wrangling, wran- 
gle, strife, row, disturbance, dis- 
pute. disputation, argument, 
contention, controversy, dis- 
cord. discussion, debate 

The oilrrcatton disturbed him. 

J>ott: Debate, discussion, and 
dispute have all an honorable 
use, and are at times necessary 


Dispute is preferably used o! 
rights and claims, as, the title 
or the will is m dispute, delate 
and diSttission refer rather to 
ab«tra'-t matter*, a^d may be 
entirclj amicable DisputJtion 
has a touch of bitterress Alters 
eclion, c< mention, controversy, 
and h-rangle are all words sig- 
nifimg more or Ic s of ill feel- 
ing so IS dispute in common 
speech , 3«, a sharp dispute. 

Contcntiaii and (oBtroterry are 
capaVe of a good sense m the 
learned or cleva'ed style De- 
li te should never degenerate 
into altercation iVran-le de- 
notes rather a fcrcer and coars- 
er dispute than altercation. 
When the altercation or uran- 
ple passes from words to blows, 
It becomes an affray or braul. 
alter ego, n double, second self, 

aUemate, a. following, occurring 
(hi turns) , reciprocal 
Read only the ollernale lines 
alternate, v occur (alternately)! 
pass back and forth 
Day alternoits with darkness _ 
alternative, n choice, option, 
pick, prfifcrence, preferment, 
election, resource 

Noif A choice may be among 
many things; an u/remoritr is 
in the stnctcsl sense a choice 
between two things; oftencr it 
is one of two things between 
which a choice is to be nude, 
and either of which is the oU 
temath'e of the other; as, the 
alternatiie of surrender is 
death; or the two things be- 
tween which there is a choice 
may be called the allernoitvesp 
both Mill and Gladstone are 
quoted as extending the mean- 
ing of alternative to include 
several particulars. Gladstone 
even spewing of "the fourth 

and last of these allernalives” 
Option IS the right or privilege 
of choosing, choice may be 
either the right to choose, the 
act of choosing, or the thing 
chosen A person of ability 
and readiness will commonly 
have many reiourees Pick, 
from tlie haxon, and election, 
from the Latin, picture the ob 
jects before one witn freedom 
and power to choose which he 
will, as, there were twelve 
horses, among which I could 
take my pick A choice, pick, 
election, or preference is that 
which suits one best, an alter- 
natne is that to which one » 
restricted, a retource, that to 
which one IS glad to betake 
one's self 

Ant compulsion, coercion, ne- 

altisonant, a high sounding, 

Such alltsonanl phrases are m 
poor taste 

altitude, n elevation, height, 

Whit IS the at' tude here’ 
altogether, adv. wholly, uncondi- 
tionally, thoroughly, utterly, 
completely, entirely, totally, i» 
toto, in the aggregate, en 
masse, ensemble 

altruism, n * humanitanamsm, 
philanthropy, unselfishness, be- 
nevolence, beneficence, liberal- 
ity, magnanimity, interestedness 
(in others) 

Altruism should rule your ac- 

Opposed Words . egoism, individ- 

Ant selfishness, self-interest, 
self-seeking, egotism 
altruistic, a interested (m 
others), unselfish, beneficent, 
benevolent, philanthropic, hu- 
manitarian, liberal, magnani- 

That IS an altriitstic movement 
alveolatcd, a honeycombed, iiol- 

The receptacle is alveolateO 
alveoli, n pi sockets, pits, hol- 
lows, cavities (like honeycomb- 

The alteoli are lined by a deli- 
cate membrane 

always, adv continually, perpet- 
uallv forever everlastingly, 
evermore unccasinglj for aye, 
invanabl) constautiv, uniform- 

He has altiays spoken kindly to 

Ant intermittently, occasionally, 

amalgamate, v unite blend com- 
bine, coalesce 

Many nationalities amalgamate 

amalgamation, n union, blend, 
combination coalition coales- 
cence consolidation, interfusion 

The ainolsainotwn was compleM 
amanuensis, n secretary 

The services of an amanuensis 
were needed 

amass, v accumulate, collect, 
gather, heap up, hoard, pile up. 

Note With some occasional ex- 
ceptions. accumulate is applied 
to the more gradual, amass to 
the more rapid gathering of 
money or materials, amass re- 
ferring to the general result or 
bulk, accumulate to the particu- 
lar process or rate of gam We 
say interest is accumulated (or 
accumulates) rather than is 
amassed, he accumulated a for- 
tune in the course of years; 
he rapidly amassed a fortune by 
shrewd speculations Goods or 
money for immediate distribu- 
tion are said to be collected 
raAer than amassed They may 


be slored up for a longer or amatory, a amorous, amative, 
shorter time, but a hoard is al- ardent, passionate, fond, loving. 
wa>s with a view of permanent Ilts amatory effusions annoyed 
retention, generally selfish Ag~ her 

eresale is now most commonly amaze, v astonish, surprise, dum< 
used of numbers and amounts, found, astound 
as. the expenses will agsrcgaie We were amazed at his boldness, 
a round million The audience was aslontshed at 

his remark 

Akt disperse, duide, scatter. We were not rurfmed to see him. 

spend, siuandetr, waste, break They were dumfounded at the 

up, dissipate, separate, parcel, sight 

portion His great daring astounded them, 

amateur, n dilettante, novice, amazement, n astonishment. 


Note- Etymologicallj, the ama- 
teur IS one who loves, the con- 
noxsseur one who knows In 
usage, the term amateur is ap- 
plred to one who pursues any 
study or art simply for the love 
of It. the word carries a nat* 
ural implication of superficial* 
ness, though marked excellence 
IS at times attained by amateurs 
A connoisseur is supposed to be 
so thoroughly informed regard* 
ing any art or work as to be 
able to cnticize or select intel* 
ligently and authoritatively; 
there arc many incompetent 
eriMcs, but there can not in the 
true sense, be an incompetent 
eonnoisseur. The amateur prac- 
tices to some cx‘ert that in re- 
gard to which he may not be 
well infa'Pied; the connoisseur 
is well informed in regard to 
that which he may not practice 
at alL A notice of tyro may be 
a professional, an amateur 
iTcser IS, the amalcjr imy bo 
skilled and cxp-rienccd as 
nonce or tyro ncier is Dilet- 
tante, which had originally the 
sense of aifti^ir, his to some 
extent come to d«ti itc one who 
IS superficial prele-it ojs. and 
affected, wh t' -z n IH o*-! or 

confusion, surprise, admiration, 
awe, bcwildernent, perplexity, 

Note Amazement and astonish- 
ment both express the momen- 
tary overwhelming of the mind 
by that which is beyond expec- 
tation Astonishment especial- 
ly affects the emotions, amaze- 
ment the intellecb Aue is the 
yielding of the mind to some- 
thing supremely grand in char- 
acter or formidable in power, 
and ranges from apprehension 
or dread to reverent worship 
Admiration includes delight and 
and regard Surprise lies mid- 
way between astonishment and 
amazement, and usually re- 
spects mailers of lighter conse- 
quence or such as are less 
startling in character. Amaze- 
ment may be either pleasing or 
painful, as when induced by the 
grandeur of the mountains, or 
by the fury of the stormy We 
can say pleased surprise, but 
scarcely pteaseil asfonu/iment. 
Amazement has in it «omething 
of eonfiision or bewldcrmenl; 
but confusion and bewilderment 
may occur v ithoiit aino-eiitenl, 
as when a multitude of details 
require instant .-iltcition As- 
Somsfi-f ii may be without be- 
wi'deriuent or confusion Ib'on- 

der is often pleasing, and may 
be continuous in view of that 
which surpasses our compre- 
hension. as, the magnitude, or- 
der, and beauty of the heavens 
fill us with increasing tLonder 
Ant composure indifference 
stoicism, calmness, anticipation. 
Coolness, expectation, prepara- 
tion, self-possession, steadiness 
amazing, a astonishing, astound- 
ing, marvelous wonderful 
An atnasmg sight confronted 

ambagious, ? circuitous, circum- 
loeuf' - , devious, ambiguous 
The 1 jagiotu path wandered on 
ambassador, n envoy 
He was an atiibassador during the 
reign of Louis XVI 
A special emoy was sent to con- 
sult with him 

ambient, a enveloping, encom- 

i iassmg. enclosing, surrounding, 
ytng round about 
Ambtent clouds encompasses! 

ambigiuty, n equivocality dubi- 
ousness, uncertainty, vagueness, 
doubtfulness, obscureness ab- 
struseness, umntelligibility, re- 

Conclusions should be free of 

ambiguous, a indefinite, equivo- 
cal, dubious, enigmatic, vague, 
doubtful, uncertain, obscure, 
abstruse, recondite, perplexing 
His reply was ambiguous 
Ant definite, certain, clear per- 
spicuous, patent, unambiguous, 
unequivocal, plain, lucid, ex- 
plicit, simple 

ambition, n aspiration emula- 
tion, competition, rivalry, op- 

Note ^s^irolion is the desire 
for excellence, pure and simple 
Ambilton, literally a going 

around to solicit votes, has pri- 
mary reference to the award 
or approval of others, and is 
the eager desire of power fame 
or something deemed great and 
eminent The prizes of aspira- 
tion are always virtue, nobility, 
skill, or other high qualities 
The prizes of amfcifion are ad- 
vancement, fame honor, and 
the like There is a noble and 
wise or an ignoble, selfish, and 
harmful ambition Emulation is 
not so much to win any excel- 
lence or success for itself as 
to equal or surpass other per- 
sons There is such a thmi 
as a noble emulation, whei 
those we would equal or sur 
pass are noble, and the mean: 
we would use worthy But, a 
(he highest emulation is iif 
ferior as a motive to atpiralion 
which seeks the high quality oi 
character for its own sake no: 
with reference to another Com' 
petition IS the striving foi 
something that is sought by ar 
other at Mie same time Emula- 
tion regards the abstract, eo»t- 
peltlion the concrete rivalry ii 
the same in essential meaning 
with competition, but differs in. 
the nature of the objects con- 
tested for, which in the case 
of moiry, are usually of the 
nobler sort and less subject to 
direct gaging measurement, 
and rule We speak of compe- 
tition in business, emulation in 
scholarship malry in love, pol- 
itics, etc , emulation of excel- 
lence, success, achievement, 
competition for a prize, malry 
between persons or nations 
Competition may be friendly, 
raalry is commonly hostile 
Opposition IS becoming a fre- 
quent substitute for competition 
in business language , it implies 
that the competitor is an op- 

ponert and hndcrer 

Aj.t. contcrtmcnt, humility, in- 

ambitious, a aspiring, emulous, 
desirous, showy, pretentious, 

The bojs were ambUious to sue* 

He is an aspiriita young man 

He is emiilouj of his friend's suc- 

The> were e^jually desirous to 

He shonc'l great anenabildy to 

Ills omcHflir/ity under the law 
was Jall> prosed 

amenable, a. answerable, ac* 
coiinuble. liable, rc'ponsib’e; 
suhfni$«ne. tractable, respon- 
'i\e, docile, obedient 

This -ct made hin ametuible to 
the law 

He IS fliis*ierflWe to bis parents 
for results 

He 18 a couniabie to superior ol- 

He tnide a shouy display of his 

His mirncr vas pretentious 
That is an orteii/a/iouj home 
Ant • unambitious, indifferent 
ambrosial, a sweet, luscious, de- 
licious, diMne. htaveiiK. im- 
This IS embrojiaJ fluid 
ambulant, ambulatory, a walk- 
ing, mo'ing about, shifting 
The court was an ambulatory one 
ambuscade, n hiding, disposition 
(of troops), ambush 
The ambuscade checked the ad- 

ambush, n ' ambuscade. 

They lay in ambush 
am^sh, V. svaylay, ambuscade, 
lie in wait 

“Cupid had ambushed himself*’ 
ameliorate, v.- improve, better, 
meliorate, mitigate, amend 
Amehorale these conditions if 

amelioration, n.* improvesnenl, 
betteniTcnt, melioration, mitiga- 

There was an amelioration of 

ameliorative, a.: improving, bet- 
tering, mitigating 

amenability, n ; docility, tractiVil- 
ity, submissivenesi, obediency, 
comphanev, pliancy, plnbility; 
answerability, liability, account- 


Ife IS halle for the damages 

They are responsible for the en- 
tire affair 

He is subt! tsstte to their wishes. 

The nen are tractable and easily 

He was n ’t n a responsite mood. 

The child has a docile disposition. 

Me «s obedient 

A\t unamenable, una'COunUble 
irresponsible, disobedient in< 
$ubm!*si\e. intractable, indocile, 

amend, ' correct, mend, emend, 
repair, rectify, ameliorate, me- 
liorate. Utter, improve, purify, 
reform, make better, mitigate, 

The bj-Iaws were amended, 

Notc To omenrf 15 to change for 
the better by removing faults, 
errors, or defects, and always 
refers to that wh'ch at some 
point falls short of a standard 
of excellence Advance, better, 
and improve may refer either 
to what is quite imperfect cr to 
what has reached a high degree 
of exceilenee; we advance the 
kingdom of God. improve the 
minds of our children, belter 
the morals of the people. But 
for matters below the point of 
ordinary approval we seldom 
use these words; we do not 
apeak of bettering a wretched 


alley or improving a foul seu'cr engaging:, winsome, pleasant 

There we use cleanse, purtfy, kind 

or similar words We correct 

evils, reform abuses, rectify in- Note Amiable combines the 

cidental conditions of evil or senses of lovable or lovely and 

error, we ameliorate poverty loving, the amiable character 

and misery, which we can not has ready affection and kindh- 

w holly remove We mend a ness for others, with the quah- 

tool, repair a building, correct ties that are adapted to win 

proof, we anieiid character or their love, amiable is a higher 

conduct that is faulty, or a and stronger word than good- 

statement or law that is de- tialured or agreeable Lovely u 

fective A text, writing, or often applied to externals , as, 

statement is amended by the a lovely face Amiable denotes 

author or by some adequate au- a disposition desirous to cheer, 

thority. It IS often emended by please, and make happy A self- 

conjecture A motion is emend- ish man of the world may have 

ed by the mover or by the as- the art to be agreeable a hand- 

sembly, a constitution is some brilliant, and witty per- 

amended by the people , an an son may be cliormtns or even 

cient text IS emended by a critic ailroeitve, while by no means 

who believes that what seems amtoble The engaging, nin- 

to him the better readiM is mug and umsome add to amia- 

what the author wrote Com- bility something of beauty, ac- 

pare alleviate complishments. and grace The 

Ant aggravate, blemish, debase, benignant are calmly kind, as 

depress, corrupt, deteriorate. from a height and a distance 

impair, injure, spoil, harm, mar. Kind, good natnred people may 

vitiate, tarnish be coarse and rude, and so fail 

amends, n, pi,* reparation, resti- xo he agreeable ot phasiig the 

tution, atonement, redress, m- really amiable are likely to 

demnity avoid such faults by their earn- 

I shall make amends for your est desire to please The good- 

mistake natnred have an easy disposi- 

Reporation for property fosses tion to get along comfortably 

was demanded with every one in all circum- 

He sought the reslUution of his stances A meet disposition is 

property very sure to be amiable, the 

He has made atonement for his lotn ’ heart bringing out all 

wrongs that is lovable and lovely m 

There is no redress for such com- character 
plaints Ant acrimonious, churlish. 

He was granted full indemnity craWsed crusty, disagreeable, 

amenity, n agreeableness, pleas- sour sullen, hateful, ill-condi- 

antness, graciousness tioned, ill humored, ill natured. 

The amenities of social inter- ill tempered morose unamia- 

coursc may be enjo>ed by all blc unlove!), dogged, gruff, 

amiable, a gracious, good-na- surli. cruel 

tured, benign, obliging, affable, amicability, anucableness, n ■ 
agreeable, charming, sweet, be- friendliness, kindliness, har- 

nignant, gentle, lovely, winning mony, peaceableness 


Her oiincahthly ^tood her in good 

amicable, a friendly, well-dis- 
posed, kindly, harmonious, 


An amuiiLtc settlement was made 

AsT adverse antagonistic, un- 
fas orable, unkind unliarmoni- 
ous, unfriendli 

amid, amidst, prep among 
amongst, betwixt, between, in 
the midst of 

Note /fund or aiindsi denotes 
surroundfd h\ among or 

fliiiongif denotes i» iitgW ail/i 
Zlf/neeii (archaic or p'lctic, bc- 
IziiTl) IS said of two persons 
or objects, or of two groups 
of persons or objects 
The Corrfct Word gnes the 

Atmdtl IS preferallc to amtd, 
except in poctrj, when tbc lat- 
ter 18 (rcfiuentlv emplo>ed 
. denotes mere 

posuicin, oHtong, some active 
relation, as of companionship, 
hostililj, etc Lowell s “Amons 
my Books’ regards the books 
as companions, oimd my books 
would suggest packing, storing, 
or some other incidental circum- 
stance We say among friends, 
or among enemies, omidrt 
the woods, amtd the shad- 
ows In the iiiidrt of may have 
merely the local meaning, as. 
I found njself tn the intdst of 
a crowd, or it may express 
even clo‘er association than 
among, as, "I found mjself i« 
Ihe mtdtt of friends” suggests 
their pressing up on every side, 
one’s self the central object; 
so, "where two or three are 
met together in my name, there 
am I in the midit of tfrein,*' 
Mall xviii, 20, in which case 
It would be feebler lo say 
"among them," impossible to 
say "amtd them," not so well to 

say "amidst them " 

Akt bevond, without, afar from, 
away from, far from, outside 
amiss, adv improperly, incor- 
rectly, wrongl) 

Do not go amiss 

The rc'olution was vnfroferly 
draw n up 

The article was me rrciJ/j 

The letter was urongh addressed, 
amiss, a wrong, faulty, inappro- 
priate, injudicious, inopportune, 
unwise, untimely 

Ant right, wise, approprn'e. ju- 
dicious. opportune nmc! 
amity, n fncnd'hip harmony, 

He lived in amity with his neigh- 

Their friendship is important to 

He secured harmony between the 
two forces 

lie ‘Ought the gacd-unll ol hiJ 

Ant hostility, enmity, antago- 
nism. fnendessness 
ammunition, n munitions, pow- 
der, balls, rockets, cartrnlges, 

amnesty, n pardon, oblivion, for- 
getfulness, acquittal, absolution, 

An amnesty was proclaimed 

Ant penalty, punishnrent, retali- 
ation, retribution, vengeance 
amorous, a. amatory or amative. 

The swain was amorous 

Amatory passions swayed him 
amorphous, a. structureless, un- 
crystallized, unorganized, heter- 
ogenous; anarchic. 

The slag is amorphous. 

It IS not structureless. 

The thought 15 uncrystalliaed 

The fernrents are unorganised 

It IS made up of heterogenous 

The plan is anarehie. 
amount, v.: reach, rise, extend (in 


effect), be equivalent to etc The cliief difficulty of very 

amount, n total, sum, quantity, young writers is to amplify, to 

result get beyond the bare curt state- 

The amount of bis fortune was ment by dn doping, expanding, 

unknown vnfold ng the thought The 

The total will be announced later chief dilfculty of those who 

The sum of the various amounts have more matcrid! and e>.peri- 

VI as surprising ence is to condense suffiacntly 

The entire q lontUy is there So in the early days of our 

The result was the failure of her literature ainp’ify was use I in 

plans the favorable cense ti i at 

amphigonc, a nonsensical present this word ami r*os Vin- 

amphifoty, n nonsense verses dred words are comm? to share 

burle'que, rigmarole the d«.r< ,atO'v meaning that 

ample, a spacious, extensive has lo ? it'ac! ed to expat ate 

roomy, copious, plentiful, abun- We niav dete'ep a thought ex 

dant pond m i lu'tr t'on ex\iid a 

He had ample means with which iliscci-'sion expatiate on a hob- 
to work by, dilate on soire'hing joyous 

Their apartment was spoetous or sad enlur e a volume -r 

Extensile grounds surrounded the fold a «cheme, Hidiit the range 
building of treatment 

The house is rooHiy and old fash- Ant abbreviate, abridge ‘boil 
lonecl doivn ‘ condense, cut down. 

The crops are ahundaut this «<3- epitomne, sumrninee reduce, 

son retrench curtail, nmputate 

A fo/»t<7KJ supply of materials was amplitude, n greatness Jar^’C 
sent them ness, scope reach breadth, 

Help was not plentiful at that sire angular distance 

time ( Astron ) 

Ant inadequate, dehcicnt, insuf- Cultivate a certain amplitude of 
ficient, narrow, miserly, scant. expression 

small, stingy amputate, \ cut off, sever dis- 

amplify, v augment develop, member lop off 

dilate, expatiate, expand cn- It was necessary to uiii^iKcte the 

large, extend, increase, unfold, branches 

branch out amulet, n charm talisman phv. 

lactery fetich abraxas penopt 

Note Amplify is now rarely She cherished the amulet 

used in the sense of iKcrease, to amuse, v entertain, divert be- 

add material substance bulk, guile, please 

volume, or the like it is now We were amused at the game 

almost wholly applied to dis- They enfer/ainrd us pleasantly 

course or writing signifying to Our attention was inerted by 

make fuller in sfaicment, your coming 

whether with or without adding He could not beguile them into 

matter of importance, as by accepting 

stating fully what was before Wc wens pleased at his erfforts 

only implied, or by adding il- Ant annoy bore, disturb, tire 

lustrations to make the mean- amusement, n diversion, cnler- 

jng more readily apprehended, tainment. pastime, sport, pleas- 


poLiic or liiglil) rhetorical Ian- 
gingc, (lenorc a still, and the 
latter a persistent, anger. Tetn^ 
ter used alone in the sertSC of 
anger is colloquial, though we 
may correctly say a hot icHiper, 
a fiery temper, etc, Passton, 
though a word of far wider ap- 
plication, maj. in the singular, 
be emplojcd to denote anger, 
"did put me in a towcntiR pas- 
ston,' SiiAkt-rtABE Hamlet, 
act \, sc 2 linger is violent 
and vindictive emotion, which 
is sharp, sudden, and, hbe all 
violent passions, necessarily 
bricl Kerentment (a feeling 
back or feeling over again) is 
persistent, the bitter brooding 
over injuries Cxatperatifn a 
roughening, is a hot. supcrfienl 
intensity of anger, demanding 
instant expression Rage drives 
one bejond the bounds of pru- 
dence or discretion, fury is 
stronger >et, and sweeps one 
away into uncontrollable vio- 
lence Anger IS personal and 
usually selfish, aroused by real 
Of supposed wrong to one^ self, 
and directed specifically and in- 
tensel) against the person who 
is viewed as blamcworth' In- 
dtgnalian is impersonal and un- 
selfish displeasure at unworthy 
acts (from L. indtgiia), t e., at 
wrong as wrong I'urc tffdig- 
iiefien is not followed by re- 
gret, and necMs no repentance; 
It is also more self-coniroHed 
than anger, /inger is common- 
ly a sm: indignation is often a 
duty, H’rath is deep and per- 
haps vengeful displeasure 
... 'it may, however, simply 
express the culmriation of 
righteous iiidigno/ion without 
malice m a -•ure be ng; as. the 
ifrallt of God Jmpaltenee, fret- 
fulness, imlatioii, peetishnest, 
pettishness, peti'anee, and tex- 

ation are temporary and for 
immediate cause 1 relfulness, 
petluhness, and peeiishness are 
chronic states finding in any 
petty matter an occasion for 
their exercise 

Ant amiabilii}, mildness, pa- 
trcnce, peace, peacefulness, self- 
control, sclf-rcitraint, charity, 
forbearance, leniency. Icmty 
anger, v enrage, irritate, dis- 
please, ruffle, offend, cx.asper- 
ate, iiiu'iate, madden, inflame, 
vex provoke 
llie IS easily angered. 
angle, n corner, mclinalinn (of 
two lines), space enclosed, ang- 

angle, v fish, intrigue, scheme, 
angle-worm, n carthworn, dew- 
worn, Lumbrieus. 
anghcan, a English, 
anglicism, n form of speech, 

s indiRTiant, provoked, 
enraged, wroth, incensed, exas- 
perated, piqued, choleric, wrath- 
ful, hot, irate, resentful, ireful, 
passionate, furious, raging, in- 

anguish, n.: distress, misery, i r- 
turc, agony; pang, remorse, 
throe, paroxysm, torment 
Ills anguish was unmistakable 
They experienced great distress. 
Their imsery is apparent. 

She could scarcely endure the 

Such agony is Insupportable. 

Ifc felt pa>i7s of remorse 
She suffered the throes of death 
The paroxysm is subsiding 
He is in torment. 

Ant.: comfort, case, delight, 
peace, rapture, enjoyment, sol* 
_ ace. relief- 

animadversion, n • comment feen- 
soriout), censure, criticism, 
chiding, rebuke, blame, reproof 

He dismissed them with sharp 

Ant praise applause, approval, 
eulogv eiicoiiiutn, panegyric 
animal, c brute, beastly, brutal, 
brinish, bestial, carnal, physi 
cal, fleshly 

Man IS the most highly clifTeren- 
tnted being o£ the animat king- 

animal, n being, creature, man 
brut4 beast, organism, fauna 
d^tiimais are divided into twelve 
"tribes’ or "phyla ' 

As'ocrATED Words zoology, *o- 
ologist, protozoology, protozo- 
ologist, zoograph), zoopathol 
ogy, zoolatry, zoophilist, zooph- 
ily, zootomy, zoiatncs, zoologi- 
cal, taxidermy, taxidertnist, vet- 
erinarian, veterinarianism me- 
nagerie pound, warren animal 
ism animalize, animaUzation 

Note An ommal is a tfniifnt 
being, distinct from inanimate 
matter and from vegetable life 
on the one side and from men- 
tal and spiritual existence on 
the other Thus man is prop- 
erly classified as an animal But 
because the animal life is the 
lowest and rudest pare of his 
being and that which he shares 
■within inferior creatures, to call 
any individual man an unimaf 
IS to imply that the animal na- 
ture has undue supremacy, and 
so IS deep condemnation or nt- 
ter insult The is the 

anmal viewed as dull to all 
finer feeling, the beast is 
looked upon as a being of appe- 
tites To call a man a brute is 
to imply that he is unfeeling 
and cruel; to call him a beast 
1 $ to mdicate that he is vilely 
sensual We speak of the cruel 
father as a brute to his chil- 
dren, of the drunkard as mak- 
ing a beast of himself So firm- 

ly are these figurative senses 
established that we now incline 
to avoid applying brute or beast 
to any creature, as a horse or 
dog, for which we h ive any 
affection, we prefer in such 
cases the word animal Creature 
IS a word of wide signification, 
including all the things that 
God has created, whether in- 
animate objects plants, animals, 
angels, or men The annuals 
of a region arc collectively 
called Its fauna 

Ant angel mmtf soul spirit, 
substance (material) vegetable, 
mincnl, inanimate object 
animals, n pi (of an area or 
epoch) fauna 

animals, n , pi (invisible or nearly 
so' animalcules, microgo- pro- 
to. oa 

The protozoa are the siTp’c one* 
celled animals 

Associated Words 

(1) Lobosa (Amaba. £nd,imab3, 

(2) Masiigophora (Trypanosoma, 

(5) Sporozoa (Plasmodia, Piro* 

(4) Ciliata (Balantidium) 
animals, n , pi vermin (noxious 
little animals) 

animal spirits health and energy, 
frolicsomeness, sportiv'*iis>5, vi- 
vacity, life 

animate, s vitalize, vivifv quick- 
en. inspirit, stimulate rouse 

They were animated to "udden 

Ant depress, discourage deter, 
dishearten, oppress 
animated, a. lively, sfurited, vig- 
orous, brisk, vivacioiK gay 

An animated disct^Bton fii'Iowed. 

We 'pcf’t a IMy evemntg with 
our friends 

A sfinled conversation erssifcd. 

A tizorans attempt will be made 

A l^isk refreshed us 

Her manner was quite nt'anaM. 
They were certainly jray enongti 
animation, n.: \jtaliranon, spint- 
edntss, ’ftvawty, hie, BayetJ, 

Ant deprcs'^ion, despontJenej, 
gloom, solemnit) 

animosity, n malignity, rancor, 
hatred, vinilence 

To harbor ofuinortty destroys 
health and happiness 
animus, r. spirit, mind temper 
T^e flRttnus that m'pircd the jc* 
tion IS a happj one 
ankle, n. tarsus, 
ankle bone: astragalus, tarsale 
annals, n pi records thistoneal), 
archit-es, chronicles, rolls his- 
tory, registers 

The onnati the v-ere safe- 
ly guarded 

announce, v procla tn. publish, 
blazon, adtertise, trumpet 
noise abroad, pronalgatc her- 
ald, circulate, communicate gisc 
notice (of). gi\e out, maie 
VnoNMt, propound, res cal «pteail 
abroad, declare, enunciate, noti- 
fy, report, state, tell 
They eiifioanffd the ti'ne of mect- 

XoTT To cfncunce tf to pre n- 
ttlligenct of in some formal or 
public nay lie maj announce 
that which has occurred or that 
wlich is to occur, the wo-d is 
c.^-tefi use! n the anticjp live 
sen»e; we ernounee a hook 
when It IS m prc*s, a gue«t 
when he arrnes. We oJtrrMc 
our bu'incss, com-ntn irite our 
intentions, eiu<»ifi(j(f tmr slews; 
we nnlify an indisidnal. gi'C 
notice to the rubhe Declere has 
ofler an a.:ihoniatise force; to 
dfchre war is to ennse war to 
\t, where before there may 
haxe l>een onl^ hostilties; we 
*a\ declare w ar, fror/riw peace, 
lie profound a question or an 

argument, fromulgate the views 
of a sect or party, or the de- 
cision of a court, etc. \Vc rf- 
tort an internew, meal a se- 
cret herald the coming of some 
distinguished person or great 
etcnL in popular usage, 

IS becoming closely restricted 10 
the sense oi issuing through the 
press, we announce a book, that 
IS to he published. 

Ant conceal, hide, hush, keep 
secret, keep back, secrete, sup- 
press. withhold, coier up, bury, 
announcement, n proclamation, 
publication, adicriisement. pro- 
mulgation, manifesto, notice; 
pronunciamcnto, annunciation 
.\n onr-ounref’ient of the meeting 
has been made. 

^NT suppression, resmatlen 

announcer, n proclaitner, herald, 
annoy, i molest, trouble, bother, 
lex, hector, plague, pester, ag- 
graiate, chafe 

Nothing seemed to oiiiioy him. 
He was tno/ef/ed on all sides 
The) were greatly troubled o\er 
the report 

Ko attempt was made to lather 

He was zexed at the report 
He was planned with vusitors. 
The eicposure aggravated the 

He efca/fd Tinder the Tcstnctions. 
Avt.. help, rest, soothe, satisfy, 

annoyance, n.: vexation, molzsta- 
tion, irritation, harassment; 
plague, nuisance, bore, torment, 
infliction, trouble, thorn 
a-noying, a.* troublesome, sexa- 
tious, bothersome, carkrg 
The iHcrruplion was annoying 
annual, a j early, reckoned vrar- 
Iv, expiring, superseded, 
changed yearly 

Out onnuoJ expenditure is tot 

«nnuent, a ; notjthnf; 

Annul. V.: nbrofinic. mihfy, re- 
suml, al>oli<li, iiivtltUttr. rc- 
Ncr»e, rc^p^^e 

You seek to onnul )Our obli|;a> 

annuUta, n. pi ; animats, plijlum. 
tribe (formerly part of tril>c 

The ONnH/jM are now a ilisthict 

annulate. ii ; aiunnt. wonn, 
/.uirihn^ni, earthworm, llirmlo 

The tiflhworm is an unHn/ite 
annulet, ti • riny 
annulment, n. ahroiration. millt 
tieation. ahotition, hualnlition. 

An fliiiiufmeKr ean be easily sc- 

annunciate, v. anuonnee. pro* 
claim, make known ollwially 
annunciation, n l>roclamatl»n. 

The iT'iiiHrifiii/n'M of peaie ile* 
hrihteil ui alt 

anoUe, n ; point, p^th (of electric 
current) i pole (jmsuisc \oI* 
taic), plate 

anoilyne, n . leilitiie 
annolni, s,; rub witli oil, smear; 

Ihcv <ii(i'i/i(,</ him kiiiR 
onolntnicnt, n nnmntmj:, emhro* 
cilioii, uiKtion, ohitmcnt. u«* 


The pnet rceeiicit Iiis 

anomalous, a : ilcMalinc. non-con- 
formme, ilmo tut i1. pci ulnr, 
stniifre, eMei'lioiiil, ciieiilrii, 
irrcKulir, miuiiiil. imconform* 
abte. »iiicer, nh'unl 
Tint 11 an on im i/ins pronuncu 
tioii of the won! 

Ant tiiitmil, iimlevittinfr con- 
formluj;, n itur it, eoninion. 
mini, onliinry, woiitcil 
anomaly, n • atniormlty. irregu* 
■ant), iliiiation. 

“There are inciiulitiei miomls* 
teniKi, am! itnonioher “ 
anoniy. « hrcacli (of rotidiic). 
'\ml teml in cainiie to oiioniy 
anil ilnnlieiiiciKe 

anon. j«i» »traiKhlwn), soon, 

anonym n .tm iiimoiu person, 
pieiiilon) m (iiiiiiiiui nnme, 
pen name iiMiinyiii 

Uc iiic III .iii.'injri Ik lotiical Ills 


anonymous, a lumelets, un- 

It » n nil oo.KiiiN.'iij tetter 
anopheles, ii aiiuinl kciuis, ear- 
nci (of niKiipuliK 

another, n Riit<<iitmr, ileIcKatc, 

ptMM. ilepiiti 

tii-’ilui will Biiinff the |iiir|’0sv 
1 1ns Ins lireii iiicil as a aiihifitiilk' 
\ «fef,j,if> will represent us 
lie iKtfil l.> t'ors 
The wss «enl iii his ittsJ 

\vMSiir>ii Uohds uviriOMS, 
itcIfKiii'U. ilepui itioii 
answer. \ reply, make reply, re* 
spouil too. retort, comilerstate, 
refute with rc(li lontrovctt, 
solve give loliitu'ii to. meet re* 
Hinrement c^piite. atone for, 
yrmt. lonieile, repti to favor* 
ahl>. reialiale, give back in 
kuul give return for, corre- 
siHuil to I'c enrrelitiic to. re* 
S|*,>tut to reinroiill). be re- 
spotnilile for 

answer, n reply, reipoiiie. re* 
siript rrpirlee, re'iriplion, re 
j.Miulci reti'rt. rcfnlstion, ile* 
fcii'e solution 

Note \ icrlnl mirrirr ii ,i re- 
turn of worils to «omellnn|f that 
«eeiiis to nil for llieni, ami li 
tuaile to n ihni e si well ai 1 1 
a nnestu'ii an uiijn.r nny be 
even iiH'fe to an ii(«['oJ.c(i ini- 

t hi itioti or luaiilfe'tition; see 
,u\,e i, In a wiJ,.r seme. 


noon of that whicli wc expect both 

anterior, a.: prior, before, ante* with confideMcc and p!<.aiure In 
cedent, previous this use it is a stronKtr word 

That was an/rrior to the films of than hone, where oitcii 'the 

the claim wish is hihcr to the thought " 

anteriority, n. priority, antcccd* 1 hope for a visit from my 
ency fnemi though I have no word 

otiteroom, n antechamber. from him, 1 expect it when he 

antetype, n prototype wriics ilnt he is coming, and 

Its oiilelype existed thousands of as the iime draws near I antiri* 

years ago palt it witli pleasure 

anthelion, n.. halo, famt glory, 

colored rings Ant despair of, distrust, doubt. 

The aniArfioii was ouitc visible dread rccill, recollect, remcm* 

anthelmintic, n. vermifuge expel- Wr 

hnt. oniicipation n cxpcLtation, hope, 

anthem, n • musical composition, prcoctuiution, prctlusiun. fore- 
hymn, chant, solemn song, sa- taste miena'I, forithouglit 
cred music Associatid Words apprehension, 

anthology, n. selection collection <Kpeci3ncy, foreboding, lore- 

(of poems) , hymnal cast, (ore«igbt, prescnlimenl, 

This ant/iofsgy is a noted one prevision 

anthropoid, a maii-likc anihrop* 

ic, niithropological Nott F spectahon may be either 

antibiotic, a deitrucuve, injun* of good or evil, preienUment 

ous (to life) almost alwais, o/'/'rr/irnrn»i and 

antic, n prank, capes, dido, inclc, /orr/oi/iMg always, of cmI, on* 

J amboll clown, harleiuin, buf- UetpaUon and aHepasl, com* 

Qon moldy of good Thus, we speak 

anticipate, v expect, forestall, oi the pleasures of anUiipation. 

forecast, foretaste, apprehend, A loretottt may be of good or 

hope, look foeward to evil, and is more than imagi- 

Wc haic antiCipateJ any efforts niry, ii is a part actually re* 

to hinder us • ceived in advance Foresight 

and forethought prevent future 
Note: Toan/irigfl/e may be either evil and secure future good by 

to take before in fact or to take timely looking forward, and 

before in thought, in the former acting upon what is foreseen 
sense it is allied with pretent, 

in the latter, with the synonyms Akt astonishment, despair, real- 
above given This IS coming to leation, eonsiimmaiion, doubt, 

be the prevalent ami favorite dread, enjoyment, fear, sur- 

usc We expect that which wo prise, wonder 
have good reason to believe will anUcipatlve, a anticipating, 
happen; as, a boy expects to antidote, n counterpoison, atexi- 
grow to manhood \Vc hope phamiic, alexiicric, corrective, 
for tfnc ssfiich wy miicfi desiro remedy, cure 
and somewliat expect \Vc op- anUnode, n loop, section 
Prehend what we both expect antinomy, n contradiction, irre- 
and fear Anticipate is com- concihbility, self-contradiction, 
monly used now, like foretaste, antipathetic, a., constitutionally 

Opposed, naturally repugnant. phonons, corresponding in 

He IS antil’alhehe to me. sound, 

antipathic, a. opposed, opposite. Those words are onlif’honelte. 
contrary, adverse {in action) antiquarian, n.: antiquary, arch- 
She is anltpathtc to them xologist. 

antipathire, v.. disagree, be op- antiquated, a • antique, archaic, 
posed to. obsolete, ancient, old-fashioned. 

He onlipolhtted them in every antique, a aithaic, old, old-iash- 
way. loned, quaint, antiquated, an- 

antipathy, n.' aversion, enmity, cicnt, superannuated 

dislike, hatred, repugnancy, re- This is an antique vase, 
pugtiancc, abhorrence, antago- Kora Antique refers to an an- 
nism, detestation, disgust, dis- eient, ant quoted to a discarded 
taste, hostility, repulsion, oppo- $t>le Antique is that which Is 
sition, uncongeniality either ancient in fact or ancient 

Marked antipathy was shown to in style The reference is to 
the movement. the style rather than to the age. 

Note: Antipathy, repugnance, and 
uncongeniality are instinctive, 
other forms of dislite may be 
acquired or chenshed for cause 
Uncongenialiiy is negative, a 
•want of touch or sympathy An 
antipaih}/ to a person or thing 
is an mstinctit'e rdcod from 
connection or association with 
that person or thing, and may 
be physical or mental, or both. 
Antagonitm may result from 
the necessity oi circumstances, 
oppoAiton may spring from 
conflicting views or interests; 
abhorrence and detestation may 
be the result of religious and 
moral training, distaste and 
disgust may be acquired, ater- 
Sion is a deep and permanent 
dislike. A natural antipathy 
may give rise to opposition 
which may result m hatred and 

Ant. aftnity, attraction, fellow- 
feeling, kindliness, sympathy, 
agreement, congeniality, bar- 
^ irony, _ regard. 

antlperiodic, a.; preventive (of 

an^phlogistic, a : counteracting 
(irflammation; or of fever), 

antiphonetic, a.; riming, homo- 


We can speak of the antique 
architecture of a church just 
built The di/Tercnce bctw-cen 
antiquated and antique is not 
in the age, for a Puritan style 
may be scorned as anti/jualed, 
while a Roman or Renaissance 
st)le may be priaed as antique. 
The antiquated is not so much 
out of date as out of vogue. 
Old-fashioned may be used ap- 
provingly or contemptuously In 
the latter ea'e it becomes a 
8)non>-m for antiquated: in the 
good sense it approaches the 
meaning of antique, but indi- 
cates less duration We call a 
wide Mew England fireplace 
old-fashioned, a coin of the 
Cxsars, antique. Quaint com- 
bines the idea of age with a 
pleasing oddity; as, a quaint 
gambrel-roofed house. Anti- 
quated is sometines used of 
persons in a sense akin to jm- 
f'eraiinuafed The antiquated 
person is out of stile and out 
of s>mpath> with the present 
generation by rca«on of age; 
the superannuated person is in- 
capacitated for prc'cnt activi- 
ties by reason of age 
Ajtt.* new, recent, st>Iish. fresh, 
modern, modish, fashionable 

antique, n.s relic, object, e:eampte 

(of antique art). 

She enjoyed collecting antiques 
antiquity, n ancientness, early 
ag^s, ancient times, people, civ- 

AssociATir Woans arehxotogy, 
paleography, paleology, paleon- 

antler, n horn 

The deer locked horns 

Associated Words deciduous, 
foching, croche, burr, fraying, 
t>ne. velvet 

anto-'ytn, n counter-tem. 

Joi IS the antonym of sorrow 
anrie n solicitude apprehen- 
s on disquietude, foreboding, 
di'ouiet, disturbance, fretful- 
re s, fretting, misgiving, tron- 
LJe worry, care, concern dread, 

Note Anxiety is according to tt> 
derivation, a choking disquiet, 
akin to d>i£uir/i, anxiety ss 
mental, anguish may be mental 
or physical, anguish is m re- 
gard to the known, anxiety in 
regard to the unknown, an- 
uish IS because of what has 
appened, anxiety because of 
what may happen Anxiety re- 
fers to some future event, al- 
ways suggesting hopeful possi- 
bility, and thus differing from 
apprehension, fear, dread, fore- 
boding, terror, all of wbi^ may 
be quite dc'painng In mat- 
ters within our reach oiwrrfy al- 
ways stirs the question whether 
something can not be done, and 
IS thus a valuable spur to do- 
ing, in this respect it is allied 
to care. Foreboding, dread, etc, 
commonly incapacitate for all 
helpful thought or endeavor 
Worry is a more petty, restless, 
and manifest anxiety, anxiety 
may be quiet and silent; aorry 
is communicated to alt around 

Safitilude is a milder anxiety. 
FrelfiHg or frel/ulness is a 
weak complaining without 
thought of accomplishing or 
changing anything but merely 
as a relief to one's own disquiet. 
Perplexity often involves anx- 
iety but may be quite free from 
It A student may be perplexed 
regarding a translation, yet, if 
he has time enough, not at all 
anxious regarding iL 
Ant See apathy 
anxious, a solicitous, apprehen- 
sive, concerned, worried 
We were anxious to learn the de- 

Ant unconcerned, assured, in- 

apathetic, a passionless unfeel- 
ing, unconcerned, indifferent 
She IS too apathetic to succeed, 
apathy, n dispassion, indiffer- 
ence, unconcern insensibility, 
calmness, composure, immobil- 
ity lethargy, phlegm, impassi- 
bility, quietness, quietude stoi- 
cism sluggishness stillness, 
tranquillity unfeelingness 
It was impossible to arouse her 
from her apathy 

Note Apathy, according to its 
Creek derivation, is a simple 
absence of feeling or emotion 
There are persons to whom a 
certain degree of apathy is nat- 
ural, an innate sluggishness of 
fte emotional nature In the 
apathy of despair, a person 
gives up, without resistance or 
sensibility to what he has fierce- 
ly struggled to avoid Compos- 
ure IS freedom from agitation 
or disturbance, resulting ordi- 
narily from force of will, or 
from perfect confidence in one’s 
own resources Impassibility is 
a philosophical term applied to 
the Deity, as infinitely exalted 
above all stir of passion or emo- 

tion Vnfedinf^rifss, the Saxon 
viord thjt should l>e the exact 
equivalent of ufath\, really 
nears more, a lack of the feel- 
ing one ought to have a cen- 
suri.We hardness of heiM In- 
diUcrettce and u iffirt' des- 
ignate the ahsence of feeling 
toward certdi 1 persuis or 
things, a/'at/u ent re absence 
of feeing /iidi/7fre«rf a 
want of interest, nuenjibi/ity 
IS a want of feeling, uneot.ccm 
has reference to consequences 
We speak of iiijenj«f>i/i/y of 
heart, tntinob^Uly of cotmte- 
nanee- i'fotrism is an inten- 
tional suppression of feeling 
and deadening of sensibilities, 
while afa\hy is m\oluniar> 

A^T See anxiety, 
ape, n simian, pongo RonlU, 
chimpanzee, orang-outang, bab- 
oon, troglodyte, 
ape, \ imitate, mimic 
•phis, n puceron, aphidian. plant 
insect; pi., aphides, aphidae. 

AssoaxTCo Wous aphidian, 
aphidis'orous, aphidophagous 
aphorism, n.' maxim, precept, 
pithy statement. 

He quoted a well-known afhor^ 

apiece, adv.- to each, for each, 
each, individually, separately, 
severally, distnbutivcly 

Note* There is no discernible 
diflerence in sense between so 
much and so much rath, 

the former is the more common 
and popular, the latter the more 
elegant expression. nij/nbn- 
tii (ly IS generally used for 
numbers and abMract relations 
Indntdually emphasizes the in- 
dependence of the individuals, 
selarattly and leteroMy still 
more emphatically hold them 
apart The signers of a note 
may become jointly and sn-trol- 

ly responsible, that is, each lia- 
ble for the entire .amount, as if 
he had signed it alone W'lt- 
ne«cs are often brought xe*- 
aralcly into court, in order that 
no one may be inlVjcnced by the 
iestim<in> of another Ifacom- 
pan> of laborers de.nand a dol- 
lar apiece, that is a demand that 
each shall receive that sum; if 
thej indtiidunlly demand a dol- 
lar, each individual makes the 

Ant accumulatively, collectively, 
en ma'se. synthetically, togeth- 
er unitedly, confusedly, indis- 

apuh, a foolish, foppish, ape- 

apogee, n point (most distant), 
aplomb, n assurance, self-posses- 

111' aplomb never deserted hint, 
apologist, n vindicator, defend- 
er, advocate, apologircr. 

You need no apolosiU. 
apology, n tustification, extenua- 
tion. defense, acknowledgment, 
confession, exculpation, vindi- 
cation. amtnie honorable; 
makeshift, substitute, excuse, 

Kote All these words express 
one's answer to a charge of 
wrong or error that is or might 
be made Apoloscy has under- 
gone a remarkable change from 
Its old sense of a valiant de- 
tente — as in Justin Martyr’s 
Ayclogifj lor the Chnsuan 
faith— to its present meaning of 
humble eoHfetsion and conces- 
sion He who offers an apology 
rdmits himself, at lea^t techni- 
cally and •eemmgly, in the 
wrong An apology is for what 
one has done or left undone; an 
exnite may he for what one 
proposes to do or leave undone 
as well; as, one sends before- 


hand his excuse for not accept- 
ing an invitation, if he should 
fail either to be present or to 
excuse himself, an apology 
would be in order An excuse 
for a fault is an attempt at for- 
tial justification, a«, one alleges 
haste as an excuse for careless- 
ness Confession is a full oc- 
knoaledsment of wrong, gener- 
ally of a grave wrong, with or 
without e/'olosy or excuse Plea 
ranges in sense from a prayer 
for favor or pardon to an at 
tempt at full nndieatiott De- 
fense, exculfahovi, )\ist\iicaiion 
and iindiratioii are more prop- 
erly antonyms than synonyms 
of apolozy in Its modern sense, 
and should he so given but for 
their connection with its historic 

Akt See accusation, 
apostacy, n unfaithfulness, re- 
nunciation, desertion, defection 

Their afosiasy was due to certain 

We could not explain his unfattk- 

Th» made complete renunetaMn 
of their faith 

They condemned his desertion of 
the creed 

apostate, n deserter, pervert, ren- 
egade, turncoat, backslider, run- 

He IS an apostate 

apostate, a false, traitorous, ren- 

He was apostate to the cause 
apostatize, v forsake, abjure, 
(one’s faith) 

He apostalisci the faith 
a posteriori: reasoning 
apostle, n witness messenger, 
zealous psTson, relormer 
apothegm, n • pithy saying. 

He used a striking apothegm to 
illustrate his argument 
apotheosis, n.: deification, eanon- 


ization, homage 

“The story was the apotheosis of 

apotheosize, v exalt 

He apatheoFiced bis benefactor- 
appall, V frighten, ternfj, dis- 

He was appalled by the conditions 
found there 

apparatus, n outfit (of tools or 
of instruments) , complex de- 
apparatus. n , pi • [rarely ap- 

apparel, n clothing vesture, 
garb dress, equipment (of a 

apparent, a vrsible perceptible, 
palpable, manifest obvious, evi- 
dent seeming, ostensible, spe- 
cious. likely, probable presum- 

Note The apparent is that which, 
appears, the word has two con- 
trasted senses, either of that 
which IS mantfest, visible, cer- 
tain, or of that which merely 
seems to be and may be very 
different from what is. as. the 
apparent motion of the sun 
around the earth Apparent 
kindness casts a doubt on the 
reality of the kindness, appar- 
ent neglect implies that more 
care and pains may have been 
^stowed than we are aware of 
Presunmblc implies that a thing 
•nay be reasonably supposed be- 
forehand without any full 
knowledge of the facts Prob- 
able implies that we know facts 
enough to make us moderately 
confident of it Seeming ex- 
presses great doubt of the real- 
tty, seeming innocence comes 
very near tn meaning to prob- 
able guilt Apparent indicates 
less assurance than probable, 
and more than seeming. A 

man’s frebable intent we belicte 
V.1II prove to l>e his real in- 
tent, his intent vve be- 

lieve to be a sham, his af-f^arrnt 
intent may be the true one. 
though vie have not jet evi- 
dence on which to pronounce 
with certainty or even with con- 
fidence Ltkely is a word with 
a wide range of usage, but al- 
ways implying the belief that 
the thing is, or will be, true. 
It IS often used with the infini- 
tive. as the other words of thu 
list can not he, as, it is likely 
to happen Compare evidevt 
Ant doubtful, dubious improb- 
able. unlikely, unimaginable 
apparition, n spector, ghost, 
phantom, wraith, phantasm, il- 
lusion, chimera, shade 
They saw the aptarilion distinctly, 
appeal, n entreaty, application, 
petition, recourse, resort. 

An opkeal for assistance was 

His entrroty was ignored 
An et/'lication had been nrevious- 
ly Wed 

A petihon was cirniJated in their 

No other recourse could be found 
We appealed to her as a last 

Associated Words appellant, ap- 
pellate, appellancy, apcllatory. 
appellee, appellor 

appeal, v address, apply to, call 
upon, entreat, invoke 
He appealed to them for assist- 

Ant defy, deny, di<clarra, dis- 
avo.v, repudiate, 3b;urc 
appealing, a imploring, bescech- 

He gave us an appealing look. 

He pave the judge an imploring 

He stood leseeclung them to leave 

appear, v.: emerge; seem, look. 

resemble, hare the semblance 

lie appeared soon after we had 

lie emerged all covered with 

If appeared to be quite small. 

They seem to have pone. 

It hohj as if i! would rain. 

1 his resembles the other one. 

Note Ippear and took refer to 
what manifests itself to the 
senses . to a semblance or prob- 
abiliti presented directly to the 
mind icriii applies to what 
IS manifest to the mind on re- 
flection It suddenly appears to 
me that there is smoke in the 
distance, as I watch, it looks 
like a fire, from my knowledge 
of the locality and obsenatm 
of particulars, it seems to me 
a farmhouse must be burning 

Ant be exi‘t, be certain, real, 
or true, be the fact 
appearance, n emergence, emer- 
sion. phenomenon, phase, as- 
pect, presence, look, atr, sem- 

Ills appearance iras sudden 
appeasable, a. placable, forgiving 

ills anguf was not appeasable. 

liis disposition was mild and 

She was of a forguvtg nature 

Ant.: implacable, unforgiving, 

appease, v • conciliate, pacify, 
calm, reconcile, placate, assuage, 
mollify, tranquilue, propitiate, 

His excitement was soon ap- 

Ant agnate, arouse, excite, stir 
up, kindle 

appeasement, n pacification, pro- 
pitiation, conciliation, reconcil- 
iation, placation 

appellant, n, person appealing 
appellate, n person appealed 
against, appellee, defendant 


appellation, n. name, title, desig- ties out further something a!- 

nation ready existing We add an ap- 

He was unknown by that appela- pendix to a book, to contain 

lion^ names, dates, lists, etc, which 

appellative, a designating, nam- would encumber the text, we 

ing, connotalive add a supplement to supply 

It was an appelaUie distinction to omissions, as for instance, to 

which he was entitled ^lug it up to date An ap- 

appellative, n name, nickname, Pendtx may be called an od- 

appellation denum, but addendum may be 

The appellative pleased his fancy used of a brief note, which 

append, v add, attach, affix, an- would not be dignified by the 

nex, subjoin, subscribe name of appendix such notes 

He appended the amendment to are often grouped as addenda 

the resolution An addition might be matter 

appendage, n concomitant, pen- interwoven in the body of (he 

icle, adjunct, appanage, appur- work, an index, plates, edi* 

tenance, appendix, attachment, lorial notes, etc , which might 

addendum, extension be valuable additions, but not 

That IS only an ornamental op- withm the meaning of op- 

pendage pendix or supplement 

Associated Words accessory. Ant total, whole, mam body, 
accompaniment addition, aux- original 

iliary, supplement appendix, n supplementary mat* 

ter, appendage 

Nots An odjuitet (something The name- will be found in the 
joined to) constitutes no real appendix 
part of the thing or system to apperception, n mental synthe- 
which It IS joined, though per- sis, union (of ideas) , self- 

haps a valuable addition, an consciousness 
appendage is commonly a real. The statement was beyond hiJ 
though not an essential or nec- oppereepUon 

essary part of that with which it appertain, s pertain, belong to. 

IS connected, an appurtenance This does not appertain to the 
belongs subordinately to some- question under discussion 
thing by which it is employed, appertainance, n appurtenance, 
especially as an instrument to Those were the oppertamanees of 
accomplish some purpose A his trade 

horse’s tail is at once an oma- appetence, appetency, n strong 
mental appendage and a useful desire, craving, propensity, ap- 
appurtenanee, we could not call petite 

It an adiuiict, though we might /Ippelency for certain kinds of 
use that word of his iron shoes food is characteristic of the 

An attachment in machinery is disease 

some mechanism that can be appetent, a seeking eagerly, 
brought into optional connec- craving, inclining toward, im- 
fion with the principal move- polsive, non-cognitive 
menl, a hemmer is a valuable appetite, n desire for food, hun- 
attachment of a sewmg-ma- ger, desire, appetency, appet- 

chine An extension, as of a ence, craving, relish, zest, thirst, 

railroad or of a franchise, car- disposition, liking, longing, pro- 


clivitj’, proneness, impulse, in- stncll> b/ the voire abnt. 
ciination, lust, propensitj Thus o^e u chosen moderator 

His affcUte was quKklj satis- t> ccclamaUon when he re* 

fied cene<i a umnimous \na voce 

Note Ap['ctitc is used onlj of sote, we could not say he was 

the demands of the physical nomimted by Acchtm 

system, unless otherwise ex- ts the more poetic term for or- 

pressly stated, as when we say clamcticn, commonly under- 
an opf'CUIe for knowledRC, stood in a loftier *ense; as, a 

^ajjion includes all excitable nation s acclaim I'landit is a 

impulses of our nature, as shout of applause, and ts com- 
anger, fear, love, hatred, etc monh U'cd m the plural; as. 

Appetite IS thus more animal the plsudils of 3 throng Ap- 

than passion and when we plause is al'O used m the gen- 

speak of passions and appetites era! jcn'c of praise 
as conjoined or contrasted we Avt denunciation, decrial, hoot- 
think of the appetites as wholly ing, derision, obhrjuy- 
physical and of the passion as, apple, n pome, fleshy fruit (of 
:n part at least, mental or spirit- famil} ofalacat) 
ual We say an appetite for apple of the eye’ pupil, 
food, a Passion for fame apple-shaped, a pomiform. 

Akt • See antipathy. worm, n Ursa (of codlin 

•appetizer, n relish, zest, sauce moth. Carpocapsa premonella). 
applaud, V. cheer, laud, praise, appLanet, n, device, apparatus, 
admire facility 

The speaker was loudly <s/»- He bought the latest roedi'eal «/• 
plauded pltanees 

They were cArererf as they passed. appUeabOlty, n.: relevancy. 

Their efTons were lauded by the It has no opphcebtlity to this 
assembly case 

He was praued for his faith- applicable, a : relevant, pertinent. 

fulness apposite, germane, appropriate, 

Akt * belittle, denounce, decry, befitting 

execrate. His illustration is not appUeoble. 

applanders, n., pi,; claque (hired His remarks were not reln-ant. 

applauders). He asked a pertinent question rt- 

applauding, a. plauditory, plans- gardmg it. 

ive, accUmatory, cheering The suggestion is apposite. 

applause, n.: acclamation, cheers. That is not gennone to the sub- 
eclat, plaudit, acclaisw ject 

Appropriate demonstrations were 
IsoiE’ Proiir IS the expression made- 

of hearty approval of an indi- Be^thng applause was given him. 
'udual, or of a number or Ant.: inapplicable, irrelevant, m- 
muhitude, one by one; applause, apposite 

the spontaneous outburst of all appbcaat, n.: candidate, pelition- 
at once. Applause is expressed er, aspirant, suitor 
yv any way, W stamping of There were several applicants for 
» \ hands, waving the position 

of handkerchrefs, etc., as well All the candidates were present 
as by the voice; cseelamaticn is The petitioner put in his claxn 


tie U .in fi'r the fr**!* 


tic Mil' one ^.>f her mtl'rt 
spi'liCAtk'ii, II uxr cni> 

p'oiiiient c'er«Mr. irkvtiui 

Um( 1' a I’ravtivai /». iifi of 
the I'liiKii'lc 

Tint III' nil iifZ-h. n/i '>1 here 
AppIkatliMi. 11 a'-iOiuU pcisHl- 
eini . tonic'l, tMiiiini, appcjl 
'oluitilieii aj'i'l,»i<'K 

Ihc oAr/i. n IS not made 

f. r tW I'O'itton 

apply.' "’f ntiluc. I'lJitnr at* 

pri'i'nilc nltot. «"!».>' «'«'>*vi 
Btrk till ailJt't. niljii'i. tit. leici . 
eiiij'loi, e\rfMxc 

Mr I'/iflied hiiU'ell diliKently to 
the tJ'V 

appoint, \ estahll'h pteairihc. 
ordnn enjoin, at'Kii allot. 
eimtin"i'n. nonninte, depiilue. 
ilepiitc. ikleif'te 

He wa' ii/ifi'iNfed to il > the work 

Tin' eiMtv*m "as rauN 

Till' I'Uii "I* pre/.ri'ed by the 

Hr "ai duly rrifimed a mini'ter 

They were rN/.'iie.l to nuke the 

Thev "ere ti/rtyNeJ to separate 

They "cre oU^itJ hinlteJ re* 

He "at 4 0 »i»iini.'iied to do the 

lie has been noiiiin,ile.f for the 

Will )oii liifutiif me to do it? 

She "as de^ii/ej to km 

Thei "ere drh-e.ilrd In present 
the milter to the ollivhf' 
appointment, n cotnnii"ionlns. 
npivliitiiii;! ■nectmi; time o( 
iiieelmir cnjsaKemeiit ■ lr)$t.a'« 
siK'istion. ^^lll}'lIlfll^ forni* 

Thei met by ii;'?i'i>ilMirn{ 
apportion, \. allot, ih'lflhittr. di. 
M.le, ferain, share, .ippripriate. 

a"i^n deal, iti'peme, appoint. 
\ evitaiii fliiioimt was ayper* 
Il • 1 . / to ri. h ".iril 
Soiv lo -ill <1 or lUrtien Ills) 
Ir i« make an aihiirary ih* 
tiuii ilie <anir is true of 
tiiiijf I hat 

in I 


' ti\rii iiile, i\h(.h is 
meant to I'e iiinl Tin and fair, 

Il Hi I aitioiiH Ihe Malrt luord- 

in^ to II lodirprnre 

IS i . t.x\r K III Irerly a', the 
Mill i/i.p.n.ei listii un.l lieat 
V tliiiifc i' ippropr aird t.s or 
t f 4 .(..III. inrp.*>r ito "hiili 
It iliiis hc.'inn in the 

oiixind 'rmr ol beiinc lit 
owtii inone) iT^^riipinifril hy 
eoiiKiets lor one pnrpo'c ran 
not he r'l'emlrd (or «ni other. 
One may .i/'Piirri.'n "liit he 

iiiK hoMs 111 ini't. he ihjm 

"hat i» III* own 

apportionnuni. n Klloiineiil. par* 

Ihr .ipp.’f»i ’lunriil limit be 

appo'itr. B proper, hi. t'ertlncnti 
»ell.4.Up<e.1 nppo'ei! 

Her lemark not n/'ponir. 
•pposlteneia, n hine's, peril* 
neiuy n.laptation 
Ihe iifpo'irriirir t<( his rematk 
was evideol to all 
appoaltlon. n relation, eoniaet. 
jwMaiHisln.'ii, adhlion 
Ttie words are in iipp.inh.'ii 
appralBBl. n appraisnii:. sahia* 

An .i/'priiini of the properly was 

•ppralse. ' JinlKe. salne, estlinalc 
fvahie). e'tiniaic (anmunl, 
qiiaht) 1 

He rty/rKiaeif her at her true 

appreciable, a perceptible, dis* 

Ihe dill<rtni.c t* not o/.^refij^f/. 

The change is barely 
Your plans are dearly disctm~ 

Ant.' inappreciable, impercept- 
ible, undiscernible 
appreciate, v. value, esteem, 
prize; be keenly sensible of. 
sharply discriminate 
Her eiioits v.tTe not opprecioted 
He .affreciatts differences of 

appreciate, v.* rate, estimate 
north of, rise (m price), in- 
crease (m >alue) 

appreciation, n \aluation. estima- 
tion, esteem 

They expressed affreewtion of 
our efforts 

They placed no valuation on his 

Their «/iwo/ioh of the prospects 
nas flattering 

Their tiferm was greatly de<ired 
Ani depreciation, inapprecia- 

apprehend, v seize, lay hold of, 
Uke possession of, taict cogni- 
zance of (mentail>). under- 
stand, recognize, consider, be- 
lieve, arrest, seize, make 
prisoner of 

I can easily anrehend that 
He was «peedily affrehtndid 
apprehend, s be m fear of. be 
apprehensive, dread, fear. 

Do not affrehend disaster 
apprehension, n seizure, opin- 
ion, conception, belief, notion; 
fear, dread, arxietj , under- 

You have no oZ/Tf/inujim of the 
difficulties to be overcome 
He had no et'frfkension of 

apprehersive, a • di'cernmc. apt; 
fearful, anxious, worried 
They were apprchenstie of the 

He had a diicerning mind for de- 

He was o/if in his studies 

TTiey were fearful of result' 

We were anartous concerning his 

They were ti-orned over the 

apprentice, n novice, tyro, 
apprise, v inform, give notice to, 
acguaint. notify, tdl 

We opfriscd him oi the f^ct. 
approach, n access, appronma- 
tion, way cntranct 

The efj'roach to the subject was 
made cautiously 

He had access to the ircc'-arcs 
of her mind 

There was an fl/'proj:iiKOt::n to 
the truth 

The ucj to the bridge w'as im- 

This entrance to the park is 

Ant departure, egress, exit, ex- 

approach, v address, advance; 
draw near 

He opf-Tooehed us several tires 
on the subject 

approachable, a accessible. 

He vvas quite eft^oaehablt ©n the 

The rece'sary data were ret 

Ant unapproachable, 
approbation, n commendation, 
encouragement, admiration, ap- 
proval, praise 

He sought our ai'frohaticn cf 
Ins plans 

He received high eommendot an 
for his effort. 

They gave him all the enccurasc' 
tneni po'sibte 

Their arfmiro/ie« was evid-n‘. 

Our atf-rotal was given to iL 

They sang his praises. 

Note' Pratse is always u’tered; 
affrobatton may be si'ent 
"Aff-rohauan speaks of the 
ibirg or action . . PrsiSi is 
alnais per'onal” A W AN» 
J C Hafe Guesses at Truth 


first series, p S49 [macm ’66] 
Acceptance refers to an object 
or action, approbation may re- 
fer to character or nataral 
traits Approiol always sup- 
poses a testing or careful ex- 
amination, and frequently im- 
plies official sanction, approb^ 
iton may he upon a general 
view The industry and intelli- 
gence of a clerk win his em- 
p/ojer’s approbation, his decis- 
ion in a special instance re 
ceives his approial 
Ant blame, censure, disap- 
proval, dissatisfaction 
appropriate, a fitting, proper ap- 
plicable, apposite, pertinent, nt 
An appropriate reception was 

Fitting honors were given him 
He was not given proper treat- 

The rule is not appheabU 
That IS an apposite simile 
It was not a iff setting for the 

Akt inappropriate, unsuitable, 
unbecoming, inapplicable 
appropriate, v assume 
They appropriated all the avail- 
able means 

approval, n approbation, sanc- 
tion, commendation, liking, 
indorsement, ratification 
Their approval was gladly given 
Ant disapproval, disapproba- 
tion, dislike 

approve, v commend, counte- 
nance, favor, like, sanction 
They approved of his action 
He was commended for bis valor 
We could not countenance such 

They favored more modem meth- 

They did not Uke to interfere 

with his work 

We could not sanction such a 

Ant. disapprove, dislike, dis- 


approximate, v approach, come 
near to, come close to 

approximation, n approach, pro- 
pinquity. nearness, contiguity, 
neighborhood, resemblance, like- 
ness, similarity 

Note In mathematics, approxi- 
motion IS not guesswork, not 
looseness, and not error The 
process of approximation is as 
exact and correct at every point 
as tliat by which an absolute re- 
suit IS secured, the result only 
fails of exactness because of 
some inherent difficulty m the 
problem The attempt to 
‘square the circle” gives only 
an approximate result, because 
of the impossibility of express- 
ing the circumference m terms 
of the radius But the limits of 
error on either side are known, 
and the opproxmaliSn has prac- 
tical value Outside of mathe- 
matics, the correct use of ap- 
proximotion (and the kindred 
words approximate and approx^ 
tmolely) is to express as near 
an approach to accuracy and 
certainty as the conditions of 
human thought or action in any 
given case make possible 
seinblance and rimi/orify may 
be but superficial and apparent, 
approximation is real Approach 
IS a relative term, indicating 
that one has come nearer than 
before, though the distance may 
yet be considerable, an approx- 
vnalson brings one reallv near 
Nearness neighborhood, and 
propinquity are commonly used 
of place, approximation, of 
mathematical calculations and 
abstract reasoning, we speak of 
approach to the 'hore, nearness 
to the town, approximation to 
the truth 

Avr distance, remoteness error. 

tiniiVeness, variation, difference 
appurtenance, n. appendage, at* 
tachrotnt, appanage, adjunct, 

The o/’/’KrtfMjjifff of his trade 
blocked the entrance to hi* 

appurtenant, a appended, at- 
tached, accessorj, belonging, 
pertaining to 

That IS of/'urifiiQtit to the man- 
agement of the affair 
apron, n pinafore, tier, boot, 
apropos, a \Mth reference to, 
with regard to, opportune, sea- 

1 urote him oprofoj of our com- 

The remark was quite afropot 
apt, a fit, relcMnt, applicable, 
germane, appropriate, felicitous, 
pertinent apropos likeU. lia- 
ble, intelligent, deter, bright, 

He IS an apt student 

More Apt implies nacural fitness 
or tendencj , as ‘ John is an opt 
pupil" Ltktly refers to a con- 
ungent esent regarded as serj 
provable, as, "It is Itkely to ram 
todsj^'" Liille IS used of a 
possible esent regarded as dis- 
astrous; as, "He IS liable to die 
at any moment ” — Tnc Comect 

Ani. unfit, irrelesant, inappro- 
priate. inapplicable, unlikelj, un- 
intelligent, stupid, dull, clumsy, 

aptitude, n.- inclination, prone- 
ness, propensity, prodirity, 

He shows great aptitude for the 

An’t : inaptitude, aversion, disin- 

aptness, n.: appropriateness, pert- 
inence, pertinency; cleverness, 

The flftnfji of his remaik sur- 
prised them. 

They commended the apprepriatt^ 
tiest of his address 

There is a certain pertmeKey ia 
the illustration 

His eleterness could not be de- 

He did not possess sufficient in- 
telhsence to grasp the idea, 
aquarelle, n. water-color, paint- 
ing tin water-colors) 
aquarium, n tank, pond, public 


aquatics, n . pb boating, swim- 
mng, aquatic «port5 

He was fond of aijuattcs. 
aqueduct, n water-cooduit, canal 
aqueous, a watery 
aquiline, a hooked, curved, 
bealtd, cjgle-hke 

arabesque, a Arabian, fanciful, 
Koman, Renaissance 

That IS an crabeiQue pattera 
arable, a tillable, cultivable, 

This land is erohU. 

\ST worthless waste, barren, 
wild, rock), craggy. 
ar''itrament, n award, decision. 

The crbiiramfiif was perfectly 

arbitrary, a. tyrannical, absolute, 
imperious, unrestrained, dicta- 

His rule is an arbitrary one. 

Ant • constitutional, fret, lenient, 
limited, obliging, restrained, re- 
str cted 

aibitrator, n.- arbiter, judge, um- 
pire, referee. 

arbor, n' bower, pergola, trelli*. 
arboraceous, a.' woody, 
arboreal, a.: woody, (pertaining 
to wood), wooded, arboreous 

The orboTtal growth was beauti- 

arboreous, a.: tr“e-!ike: well- 

arborescence, n.: dendrite. 

The arboreteence is profuse 
arborescent, a : trec-like. branch- 
ing, dendritic, dendriform 


arboretum, n • tree-Barden toil or imaRinary), first form, 

arboriculture, n tree-culture. original, model, ideal, immate- 

arc, n cur\c, bow, arch, voltaic rial, pre-existing, exemplar 
arc. (Plato) pnmitiie plan (modi- 

arcade, n xaiilted roof or pas- fiexl or lo\f by dilTercntiation). 

'agewa) Compar mat 

arcana, n, pi mysteries, secrets; This form js the urchttife 
(sing arcanum). architect, n builder 

The Qrrdim of the ancients ab- architecture, n Imildmg 
sorbed his interests arc light, ii eitiiric light 

rch, a . greatest, chief, cunning, archives, ii p! public records, 
roguish, niiseliievous, sportive, rigistir-. niiiiunients 
waggish archly adv roguishly, waggish* 

Her ercli ways were nnsunder- I\ c \l) 

stood She ghiiccil art Illy at us 

He was the ereatest statesman of archness, n coyness, shyness, 
his time arctic, a n >rt!ierii polar 

He was tlienr cliitf adviser arcuate, n bow shaped 

lie plajed a noiiiing trnk on him arcuated, a boxi shaped. 

Her foj7i<w/i smile attracted them arcubalist, n crossbow 

lie IS a uiirr/iici 'lilt l>o\ ardent, a zealous, passionate, 

SforlKf aclisities of all kinds warm enthusiastic, vehement. 

were encouraged in the school 

His «fli7ptj/i pranks were dis* 

arch, V vault, eoncamerate 
arch, n ■ vault, eoncamerate, arc, 

trehaologist, n antt<iuary, anti* 
quarnn, pileologist 
archaology, n paleology 
archaic, a obsolete, antiquated, 

archaism, n word, expression 


An occasional arehoum is permis- 

archbishop, n • primate, ntetro- 

arched, a.: vaulted, cameraied, 
forniciform, fornicated 
archer, n • bowman, 
archery, n 

Archery develops a high type of 

Assoctated Word* toxophilite 
archetypal, a • archetypical, pri- 
mal, original 

The arehety[‘al mind projected 
these wonders 

archetype, n : primal form (ac* 

sanguine impassioned spiri- 
uious, alcoholic, fiery hot, in- 
tense, burning, flagrant 

He was an supporter of 
the c luse 

Ant calm, cold dispassionate. 
■ndilTereiit stolid 

ardor, n eagerness, zeal, hearti- 
ness uiipiuioMty fervor vThe- 
mence eiiiprcssenient, intensity, 
wanmh, enihiisnsm 

His itrdor could not be checked 

The toRfrnejt of his reply con- 
vinced us 

Ills teal was feigned. 

The hearlinett of the welcome 
pleased u 

Uis i»i^r(iionfy 

He showed great ftnor for his 

His se/icnirnre startled us. 

The announcement was made 
with rmfrettexient 

The (Hieinry of his interest was 
not lessened 

The narmlli of his reply assured 

The speaker showed great e>ilhu~ 


t Jjr . 

Am indilTerent, apathy, calm* 
rc ?, coldness 

arduo- 3 , a dithcult, laborious, 
v^eansome, onerous, toiUome 
A ] arduous task awaited them 
The problem was difficull to 

The task was laborious and 

The lotlsome journey had come 
to an end 

Ani easj, light, pleasant, slight, 

arduousness, n difficulty, 
area, n le\cl ground, field, yard, 
court, close, plane surface 
The area was safely enclosed, 
area, n measurement 
arefaction, n drying 
arefy, > dry 

areiu, n amphitheater, rmgfield 
The arena furnished ample room 
arenose, a sandy 
areola, n spot 
areolatioR, n spot, 
argent, a bright, 
argentiferous, a silvery. 
argUlaeeous, a. 
argilliferous, a 
argillous, a ’ clayey, 
argon, n : element, gas. 
argonaut, n forty-niner, 
argosy, n boat, 
argot, n.: language 
arguable, a., debatable, disput- 
able, contestable, moot, moot- 
ed, mootahlc. 

The point was not arguable 
A debalable qaestJon was raised 
Disputable evidence was produced. 
His rights arc not eontesiabU 
That IS a moot (mooted or 
mootahle) question. 

Ant.; incontestable, 
argue, v.* reason, plead, remon- 
strate, contend, dispute, discuss, 
controvert, moot, prove, evince, 
betoken, indicate, imply, denote 
They argued over the matter un- 

Not*: Persons may rontrni cith- 
er from mere ill will or self- 
interest, or from the highest 
motives ... to argue is to 
make the matter clear by rea- 
soning, to discuss IS to shake 
It apart for examination and 
analysis One may argue and 
discuss without an opponent To 
demonstrate is to force the 
mind to a conclusion by irre- 
sistible reasoning: to prate is 
rather to establish a fact by evi- 
dence, as, to prove orre innocent 
or guilty That which has been 
either demonstrated or proiei 
so as 10 secure general aaept- 
ance is said to be established 
Reason is a neutral word, not 
necessarily implying contest 
We reason about a matter by 
bringing up all that reason can 
give us on any side We ma/ 
<}uestion or discuss a proposi- 
tion without reference to my 
one’s advocacy of it, but to con- 
tend, debate, or dispute implies 
an opponent A dispute may be 
personal, fractious, and petty: 
a debate is formal and orderly: 
if otherwise, it becomes a mere 

arguer, n.: disputant, debater, 
controversialist, rcasoner. 
argument, n • reasoning, contro- 
versy, discussion, debate, dis- 
pute, ditputation, argumesta- 
fion, pofc'mie 

lie produced a lengthy argument 
on the subejet. 

His rraroKing was easily fol- 

The eontroiersy was of short 

The discussion is interesting 

A debate will be given on the 

The dispute was easily settled 

One disputation followed another. 

The argumentation was tedious. 

It was the age of polemics 


argumentation, n.: reasoning, 
argumentative, a disputatious, 
polemical, controversial, dialec- 
tical, ratiocinative 
He IS by nature argiiiK#fi/o/ii'f 
Argus: watch 
argus-eyed; sharp-sighted, 
ana, n air 

and, a . dry, barren, unproduct- 
ive, sterile, parched, uninterest- 
ing, dull, unsuggcstue 
We passed over the and plains 
aridity, n drought dryne«s, ster- 
ility, unproductiveness, dull- 
iress, unsuggestiveness 
aright, adv exactly, accurately 
Do I hear ang/it/ 
ariose, a melodious 
anse, v.* mount, ascend, rise, 
proceed, issue, originate, spring 
New problems arise daily 
arista, n.. beard, 
aristate, a bearded 
anstoeracy, n nobihty, patrici- 
ate, peerage, patrician order 
. There is an anstatracy of intel- 

Ant commonalty, yeomanry, 
proletarian, bourgeoisie, peas- 
antry, rabble. 

aristocrat, n.: nobleman, patri- 
cian, peer 

He IS nature's true artsieerot. 
aristocratic, a.: undemocTatic, pa- 

That IS merely anstocrattt pride 
arm, n : upper limb, fore limb, an- 
terior limb, fore leg, wing, pec- 
toral fin, projection 
The human arm is analagous to 
the pectoral fin. 

The strong arm of the law pro- 
tects us 

Associated Words akimbo, solen, 
cradle, triceps, chevron, bras- 
sard, pinion, discriminal, ges- 
ticulate, gesticulation, gesture, 
brachial, chelidon, elbow, biceps, 
arto, n.: inlet (of the sea), fiord, 
firth, frith, cove, estuary. 


It IS an arm of the sea 
arm,v equip, fortify, strengthen. 

He had aniierf himself ior attaclc 

They were well equipped for the 

They fortified themselves against 
the enemy 

Their forces were strengthened by 
our army 
armada n fleet 
armament, n force 
armature, n armor 
armiger n armor bearer 
armipotent, a powerful 
armistice, n peace 
armor, n armory, panoply, mail, 
armjture, cuirass, jambeaux, 
corselet haulberk 
armor-bearer, n armiger. 
armorer, n gunsmith, 
armorial, n 

armorial bearings coat of arms, 
armory, n arsenal 
arms, n, pi weapons, imple- 

ariillen. accoutrements, guns, 
ordnance , escutcheon, scutch- 
eon. ensigns armorial, coat-of* 
arms, harness, mail, armor 

Note ylmis are implements of 
attack, aniior is a defensive 
edvering The knight put on his 
ofiiipf, he grasped his oriHj 
With the disuse of defensive 
armor the word has practically 
gone out of military use, but 
It IS still employed m the navy, 
where the distinction is clearly 
preserved, any vessel provided 
with a cannon is an arnred ship; 
an armored ship is an iron- 
clad Anything that can be 
wielded m a fight may become 
a neapon, as a pitchfork or a 
paving-stone, arms are especial- 
ly made and designed for con- 

■my, n troops, ioice, arma- 
nient, host, legions, throng, ar- 


ray, soldiery, soldiers, forces, 
military, multitude, phalanx 
The ormy was on the ino\e 
Associated Words militia, mili- 
tary, strategy, logistics, general- 
ship, tactics, regiment, squad, 
company, stratographj, flank, 
barracks, bivouac, muster, cais- 
son, deploy, deployment, van, 
mobilize, mobilization, demobil- 
ize, demobilization, ctat major, 

aroma, n . perfume 
aromatic, a fragrant, balmy, sa- 

An orewofic odor pervaded the 

The b'ossoms are fragrant. 

The breeze is balmy 
A salary dish was placed before 

arousal, n awakening, revival 
This defeat resulted m the 
arousal of his ambition to sue- 

arouse, v : excite, rouse, animate, 
stimulate, awaken 
They failed to arouse any enthn- 

Akt. See allay, 
arousing, a. excitement, 
arquebus, n ^n. 
arrack, n rack. 

arraign, v accuse charge, sum- 
mons, cite, censure, impeach, in- 
dict, prosecute 

>JOTE arraign is an official word, 
a person accused of crime is 
arraigned when he is formally 
called into court, the indictment 
read to him, and the demand 
made of him to plead guilty or 
not guilty; in more extended 
use, to orroign is to call in 
question for fault in any form- 
al, public, or official wav One 
mav charge another with any 
fault, great or trifling, private- 
1; or publicly, formally or in- 
formally. Accuse is stronger 


than charge, suggesting more 
of the formal and criminal; a 
person may charge a friend 
with unkindness or neglect; he 
may accuse a tramp of steal- 
ing Crnjwrf carries the idea 
of fault, but not of crime; it 
may be private and individual, 
or public and official A judge, 
a president, or other officer of 
high rank may be tmpeacked 
before the appropriate tribunal 
for high crimes, the veracity of 
a witness may be mpeached by 
damaging evidence. A person 
of the highest character may be 
summoned as defendant in a 
civil suit, or he may be cited 
to answer as administrator, et^ 
Indtct and arraign apply strict- 
ly to criminal proceedings, and 
only an alleged criminal is tn* 
dieted or arraigned One is in- 
dteted by the grand jury, and 
arraigned before the appropn* 
ate court 

Ant acquit, discharge, condone, 
excuse, exonerate, forgive, over- 
look. pardon, release, set free 
arraignment, n ; indietment, aceu- 
sation. charge, crimination. 

Ills arraignment was expected 

arrange, v.* dispose, classify, pre- 
arrange, devise, contrive; ad- 
just, settle, determine 

His work was systematically or- 

He disposed of the work in its 

The subjects were ehsstfied 

The matter had been prearranged 

New methods will have to be dr- 
r ised 

They contrived to upvet his plans 

The matter was finally adjusted 

The qiie't on has been settled 

A course of action was detef 
mined on 

Akt.’ confuse, disarrange, dis- 
turb, unsettle, derange, dis- 
order, perturb 

arrangement, n disposition, dis- 
tribution, classification, prepar- 
ation, settlement, adjustment, 
agreement, management, regu- 

The arrangement of the program 
was completed 

Ant disarrangement, confusion, 

array, n arrangement, exhibition, 
order, collection, disposition, 
parade, show, sight 
It was an imposing orroj 
Associated Words battle array, 
line of battle, order of battle 
array, v. arrange, range, mar- 
shal, draw up 
He arrowed his troops 
arrearage, n debt, arrears 
There » an arrearage here 
arrest, v,. apprehend, stop, check, 
restrain, apture, catch, detain, 
hold, secure, seixe 
He arrtsUi the attention of the 

The guilty man has been arrested 
AssoctATEs Words make prison- 
er, take into custody, take pris- 

Note* The legal term arrest car- 
ries alw^s the implication of 
a legal offense, this is true even 
of arresting for debt But one 
may be detained by process of 
law when no otTense is alleged 
against him, as in the case of 
a witness who is field m a house 
of detention till a case comes 
to trial One may he reslratned 
of his liberty without arrest, as 
in an insane asylum , an indi- 
vidual or corporation may be 
restrained by injunction from 
selling certain property In case 
of an arrest, an officer may se- 
cure his prisoner by fetters, by 
a locked door, or other means 

effectually to prevent escape 
Capture IS commonly used of 
seizure by armed force, as. to 
capture a ship, a fort, etc 

Ant discharge, dismiss, release, 
free liberate, set free 
arrest, n apprehension, capture, 
detention , custodj' , restraint, 
interruption, hindrance, preven- 

His arrest soon became known, 
arnswise, adv ndge wise, 
arrival, n coming 
arrive, v come 
arrogate, v take, 
arrogance, n insolence, hauteur, 
baughtmest, lordliness, con- 
tumelj, superciliousness 

The employees resented his ar- 

Such ^nsolence is unbearable 

Her manner was one of extreme 

Her haughtiness repelled him 

Ant humility, self-abasement, 
meekness, lowliness 
arrogant, a haughty, disdainful. 

Her manner toward them was 

She was of a haughty disposition. 

She replied in a disdainful man- 

arrogation, n usurpation, 
arrow, n dart, matras. 

Associates Words barb, ouabam, 
sagittal, sagittary, quiver, sheaf, 
arroyo, n stream 
arsenal, n armory, magazine. 

They visited the arsenal 
arson, n burning 
art, n craft, dexterity, cleverneSi, 
ingenuity, cunning 

She was a lover of art 

His craft in plotting was un- 

Ills dexterity made his services 

He was admired for his clever- 

His vigciiuily t\as a valuaWc as- 

He showed great cunfitng tn the 
execution of his plans 
arterialization, n oxidation 
Artenahsation of the blood is 
necessary to life 
artery, n. blood vessel 
artery, n channel 
artful, a designing diplomatic, 
dextqrous ingenious, crafty, 

He IS artful in deception 
He is of a dcsiv'^w nature 
The new secretary is \-ery diplo- 

He IS dexterous in handling the 

She IS an iii’e>iioi<r woman 
She IS a erafly woman 
He IS tery ^oJitie 
Ant See artless, 
artfulness, n craftiness 
article, n thing, commodity, 
clause; detail, item, contribu- 
tion, feature 

This ertide of clothing is expen- 

There is no such f/img m the 

The price of the eommodtty has 
been raised 

An important clause has been 

No detail was overlooked by the 

The Item is of little importance 
This IS his only contribution to 

Every feature of the program was 
a success 

articulate, v,: speak, 
articulation, n • utterance, pro- 
nunciation, enunciation 
His ar/if«/a/i’crn is not good 
There was no utterance against 

^is IS the correct pronunciation 
Her enunciation is quite clear 
artifice, n.: stratagem, subtlety, 
diplomacy, art, craft, device, in- 

■vcntion, contniance. finesse, 
cunning, g iilc, ru'e, blind, im- 
posture, clicat, dodge, subter- 
fuge, machimtion, trick, fraud, 
mancuicr wile 

He was dcceiicd by the artifice. 

Note A contniance or device 
may b* either good or bad A 
cheat IS a mean advantage in 
a bargrin a fraud, any lorm of 
covert robbery or injU'y /«i- 
posture IS a deceitful c ntrn- 
once for securing cliari , cred- 
it, or consideration A strale- 
g,em or maneuier may be of 
the good against the bad. as it 
were a skilful inoven';"t of 
war A uile is usualh but not 
necessarily evil A tncL » often 
low. injurious, and m Icious; 
we say a mean tnck, tie ivord 
IS sometimes used playfu" with 
less than its full mean g A 
rust or a blind may b’ quite 
innocent and harmless An arti- 
dee 1$ a carefully and dc'icately 
prepared conimance for doing 
indirectly what one could not 
well do directly A den.e is 
something studied out for pro- 
moting an end, as m a mechan- 
ism, the word is usejl of indi- 
rect action, often, but not nec- 
essarily directed to an evil, self- 
ish, or injurious end. Finesse 
IS especially subtle eontriivnce, 
delicate artifice, whether for 
good or evil 

Ant • artlessness, frankness, 
guilelessncss, honesty, candor, 
fairness, ingenuousness, inno- 
cence, openness, truth, simplic- 
^ hy, sincerity 

artificial, a * made, manufactured; 
feigned, unreal, assumed, af- 
fected, unnatural 

That 15 an artidcial product. 

His aplomb is entirely artificial 
artillery: See arms. 

artisan, n : mechanic, handicrafts- 

Tire artisan was skilled in lus 

artist, n artificer, operator, 
sculptor, painter, iiistno. 

He IS a true artist 

Note Arlisf arhficer, .-mil ertt- 
jsn are ill from the root of 
art, but arhsl holds to the es- 
thetic sen'i. whilt rr and 

artisan follou, tlu^ mr<hinical 
or iniUistrial ‘■cnsc of the word 
(se« AHT under s< u\( li Jrf 
Iff thus comes ciil\ ml i leii 
dental assocnlion with the « th 
cr words of tins r-o"? '’"t l>s 
ing .a sjnonvm of nny om of 
them and having rrKti>.illy no 
sjmonyin of its own The work 
of the artist is creative, that 
of the orfuan ricehinuat Ihd 
man who paints a bcnitifnl pic- 
ture IS an nrfi’ff the nnn who 
makes pm-lwidv a/J iIm h an 
orlifi’ii The arliKftr is between 
the two, putting more thotight. 
mtelliRence and taste into his 
work than the artisan l«it Icfs 
of the idealinng, creative power 
thin the artist The sculptor 
shapifigr hfs model in clay, is 
ariiliccr as well as artist pa- 
tient nrlifOrtf, working simply 
by rule and scale, chisel and 
polish the stone 

crtiiielal. a. feigned, affected, as- 
sumed. ficCiCioos counferfipf, 
spurious; factitious 
Arti/i<\al means were employed 
to produce the effect 
Their surprise was feiRied 
Her manner is affteted 
He wore an assumtd air of indif- 

He signed a fteUtlons name to the 

The money Is fOKnlrr^rif 
That is a sfunous com 

He assumed a digni‘> quite (ac- 


artillery irms 

artisan, ii craftsman, mechanic 
\ skillful arfuaii IS m constant 

Noik but experienced rra/ffPiioii 
were vilcitcd 
lie ic ag->.l 'lUihiiHu 
artless, i iiikvimmis naive sin- 
ccri luialltiicii undcxigning 
Sic »i'c an ii'llt'js reply to his 

l| K'l.Oli 

Her pliiis were xiccniioiif 
Htr in t manner was attractive 
7 ftev wire fi'ncrr in thchr belief 
His mtcrtxt in the business is 
unafff, lid 

llif Miliire wis iiniifsignin': 
artlessness, n ingenuousness, 
viiu<rit\, candor, innocence, 
niivc'ti’ ciiilelc'sness, 

The aitifssiu ss of her manner de- 
ceived him 

Ills int,,iiite»s»ess surprised us 
Their swernly could not be 

The raider of his remark con- 
vinced us 

Ills iiiwoicniit was not nuestioned. 
Ant artfnlnccs, adroitness de- 
ceitfulness. cunning, trickery, 
•hreudnc's. subtleness 
arts, n (Ane arts) music, paint- 
ing sculpture, architecture, 
poetry, 'engraving, (liberal 
arts) grimmar, logic, rhetoric, 
anlhmdlir geometr), mu'ic. as- 
tronomy, the sciences, philoso- 
phy, history, craft dexterity, 
cleverness, ingenuity, cunning, 

Assoctateo W’oads technical, 
naleolechnics, technics, fcchmc, 
intransigeint, intransigeance, 
artist, artistic, artistry 
ascend v mount, 
ascendancy, n domination 
ascendant, a rising, 
ascendency, n. influence, 
ascending, a : rising. 


ascension, n.* rising, ^ ashes, n., pl.t cinders, Iapill». 

ascent, n : ascension, tising, tU- Associatlo Woaoj ashefy, mor- 
iation, height tuarj urn. «podomancy, leach. 

The ascent to the hilltop was ashes of barilla: pulvcrme. 

steep ashy, a ashen, cincraceous, cin* 

The ascension was a difficult one eritious. cinctreous 
They watched the rising of the An fl//iy paleness spread over his 
moon face 

The slight cfcxatiow was not no* Asu, n 
ticcablc Associated Wows Asiatic, Asia- 

The /.eight of the building is not ticism, Curasian, Eurasiatie, 
known Asian 

ascertain.! discoier aside, ad v away 

ascertamable, a knowabte. aslnuie, a foolish, 

ascertainment, n discosery. asininity, n foolishness 

Ascetic, n recluse, hermit, ere- 
mite, anchoret, solitarj 

He was a confirmed eseelic 

Am toluptuao. sensualist, sy- 
barite, worWUng. epicute, gor- 

asceticism, n. self-denial 
ascribable, a assignable, attrib- 
utable, chargeable, imputable, 

That may be asenbabte to any 
etre of sesetral causes 
oscfibe, V attribute, assign, im- 

He ascribed their failure to neg- 

Their success was attributed to 
his efforts 

Ko cause was assigned for the 

Hd imputed the failure to care- 

ascription, n imputation, attribu- 

ashamed, a confused, mortified, 
disconcerted, abashed 

They were ashamed of their con- 

The>' were confused by our en- 

We were mortified at his reply 

They were discorcerled by our 

He was abashed by the nnrstion. 

Am • tna'hamed, farazen-facetL 
ashen, a. asbi. 

ask, V in<]uire, question, request, 
solicit, petition, entreat, desire, 
beg. implore, require, exact; 
nwte. bid 

He erftrd many qucMionS about 
the business 

They inquired about the methods 

W’e were quesihfied as to oar 

The> requested us to remain 

They loUcUed funds for the 

The court was fthtionei to re- 
lease him 

They entreated him to give up 
the work. 

He desired an inlertirfy with 

He begged ui to accompnny him 

They' implored him to assist them 

They were required to make 
many concessions 

Large sums of money were ex- 
acted from them 

We were nfitrif to accompany 

Thej bade us enter. 

Associated Words • interrogate, 
quiz, catCKhizc; supplicate, seek, 
beseech, erase, importune, dun, 
apply ; demand, expect, chal- 
lenge. claim 

askance, adv • sidewise, obliquely. 
aska''t. askew, asqumL 


He glanced askance at his in- 

askant, adv. awry 
asker, n petitioner, inquirer, 
questioner, solicitor, s^intant 
suitor, supplicant, postulant 
askew, adv awry, askance, as- 
quint, obliquely, sidewise, as- 

asking, n petition, solicitation, 
inquiry, quiz, interrogation, 
question, instance, entreaty, 
supplication, request, importun- 
it^, application, imploration, ui- 
\ nation 

aslant, adv obliquely, slanting, 
athwart, sloping, aslope 
asleep, a : sleeping, 
aspect, n. appearance, view, 

His aspect was stern 

General appearances we|re against 

The ti«t« was pleasing 

It was a beautiful scene. 
uperity, n . acrimony, 
asperse, v. revile 
aspersion, n slander, 
asphyxiate, v suffocate 
asphyxiation, n suffocation, 
aspirant, a aspiring 
aspirant, n.: candidate 
aspirate, v.: breathe 
aspirated, a toneless 
aspiration, n breathing 
aspiration, n desire, 
aspire, v • desire 

aspiring, a aspirant, emulous, 

asquint, adv obliquely, awry, 
askew, askance 

assail, V. attack, assault, oppugn. 
impugn, defame, malign, as- 
perse, vilify 

He was assailed by the mob 

Thcty attacked him unawares 

He was assaulted by one of the 

They attempted to defame his 
good name 

He was maligned by his enemies 

No prudent man will oppugn this 

Do not impugn his motives 
His enemies attempted to asperse 
and iihfy him 

Akt aid, befriend, defend, pro- 
tect, shield, shelter, uphold, 

assailant, n antagonist, assaulter, 
aggressor, assailer 
His assailant is unknown 
His antagonist is a man of in- 

Thd assaulter was punished 
assailing, n assault, 
assart, n clearing 
assassin, n killer, 
assassinate, s kill 
assassination, v killing, 
assassinator, n killer 
assault, n charge, invasion, at- 
tack, onset onslaught, aggres- 
sion, assailing, incursion 
The assault was unexpected 
They made a charge against the 

The Diiujion was successful. 

The ottock was sudden 
assault, V attack, assail, 
assaulter, n assailant, 
assay, n test of purity (of ores); 
Inal, examination, attempt, es- 

Th^ made an assay to estimate 
the value of the find 
Associated Words docimology, 
docimacy, docimastic 
assemblage, n gathering, 
assemble, v congregate, gather, 
convene, meet, muster, invoke 
They assembled to discuss the 

They congregated in the entrance 
to the building 

The village gathered to hear bis 

The meeting coniened in the new 

They met to arrange prelimi- 

The troops werer mustered in. 


They contol-cd a meeting of the 

assembly, n congregation, meet- 
ing, convention, concourse, as- 
semblage, convocation, con- 
gress, 'jnod, diet, council, can- 
cus, consistory, conclave, con- 
venticle, conference, galaxy 
The assembly reprc-cnled both 
capital and labor 

assent, n.: agreement, acquies- 
cence, consent, concurrence, 

He gave osscnl to our plans 
Ant dissent, declension 
assent, v concur, acquiesce, 
jield, consent 
He assented to our plans 
They eoncurred with us in the 

He aeqxixesced to our proposition 
We jiclrffrf to thc|ir persuading 
They fontcnlcd to his going 
Ani refuse, dissent, contradict, 
demur, disagree, protest, deny 
assentation, n compliance 
assentient, s assenting 
assenting, s agreeing, acquiesc- 
ing, consenting, jielding, assen- 
tient, complurt 

predicate!, asseverate, maintain, 
assert, \ affirm, state, say, aver, 

assertion, n : affirmation, state- 
ment, declaration, averment 
assertive, a positive, peremptory, 
dctlaratoTj, affirmative 
His manner was asxertne 
He gave posxUie proof of his in- 

His tone was peretTiptory 
assertory, a declaratory, affirm- 
ing, supporting 
assess, v. rate, 
assessable, a : taxable, 
assessment, n. tax. 
assets, n , pi : resources, property, 
effects, possessions 
The company's assets were large 
He has exhausted his resources. 
His property is listed for sale 

Her porsonal eifeeis were not 

All Its possesswns were lost, 
asseverate, V declare, 
asseveration, n saying. 
assideratiOn, n killing 
assidmty, n diligence, persever- 

Assiduity marked his early efforts. 

Ddigenre scon brought its reward 

Their sutctsi. was won through 
perse. ciait‘ e 

Ant cliangcablcncss, inatten- 
tion, mconsiancy, neglect, idle- 
ness indolence remiss 
assiduity, n sedulity, sedulous- 

assiduous, a diligent, persistent, 
industrious, unremitting 

They are assiduous in their ef- 

He IS a diUzent student 

He was pernsicnt m dehvandsng 
his rights 

Tliey were industrious children, 
assign, V allot, apportion, ap- 
point, transfer, make over, con- 
vey. advance, adduce, specify. 

They have oingncd a day for the 

He was alhttPd control of the 

They apportioned the work equah 
ly among themselves 

The property has been trans- 

The deed was made oter to him 

Many new ideas were advanced 

Several important duties wefl 

Ant. See allot 
assignable, a.: ascribable. 
assignation, n. appointment 
asdgnment, n.: transfer; appor- 

The assigntnent of lessons occu- 
pied the time 

A transfer of property has been 

They made an equal apportion- 
ment of the property 


AisOLiATED Wowib conveyance, 
appointment, allotmetnt, alloca- 
tion, emplacement, determina- 
tion, specification, adducing; 
assimilate, v absorb 
assimilation, n blend, 
assist. V abet, eooperate with, 

He assisted us with the work 

They aheittd him in Ins plans 

We shall cooftrale sttlh them in 
the matter 

Thcfy aided him in accomplishing 
his purpose 

Ant thw art, resist, oppose, with- 

assistance, n aid, relief, coopera- 
tion, reinforcement, aidance 

No ojririuiifc necessarv 

They have asked us for eid 

She was given instint relief 

Ihey have our hearty toe/ptra- 

A rri'i/orcemeiif of troops hat 
been sent 

Associated Wosos succor, col- 
laboration, subservience 
assistant, a . helping, auxiliary, 
subsidiary, cooperating, adju- 

An assistant bookkeeper hat been 

An aunltary committee was 

A subsidiary branch has been 

A eodferatxns branch of the com- 
pany was organized 
assistant, n. aider, helper, auxil- 
liary, coopentor, collaborator, 
coadjutor, abettor, aid, acces- 
sory, ally, adjuvant, adjunct, 
confrere, accomplice, confeder- 
ate. subsidnrj 

assisting, a auxiliary, subsidiary, 
assize, n court 

associate, v join, connect, alHli- 
ate; fraternize, consort, hobnob 
associate, v connect: affiliate: 

llic two ideas cannot be asso- 

Ant dissociate, disconnect, dis 
join, disrupt, disunite, dividi. 
divorce, sever, sunder, estrange 
part, separate, dnerge, a\oid 
associate, n companion, col- 
league, pirtner 

Ills associates were men of high 

hiOTf An associate usually im- 
plies a cliief, leader, or principal, 
to wliom the associate is not 
fulljr equal m rank Associate 
may he used of merely friendly 
relations but oflcner implies 
some work enterprise or pitr- 
s lit in which the associated per- 
sons unite We rarely speak 
of ««<7iit;(cr m crime or w-rong, 
using eonfederotts instead 
Co»ij'D«io;i gives itself with 
equal readiness to the good or 
eail sense, as does atso eomrade 
One may be a roM/>aiiion in 
travel wlio would not readily 
become an ossoctale at hom& 
A lady advertises for a com- 
f anion, she would not adver- 
tise for an ossoeiole Peer im- 
plies equality rather than 
companionship as, a Jury of his 
peers Comrodv expresses more 
fellowship and good feejmg than 
comPquioii FelloK' has almost 
gone out of use in this connec- 
tion, except in an inferior or 
patronizing -ense Conxnrj is 
a word of equality and dignity, 
as applied especially to the mar- 
riage relation 

Ant antagonist, enemy, foe, 
htndercr. opponent, opposer, 
rival stranger 

issociation, n alliance, fellow- 
shin, afTiliation, connection, in- 
timacy, conj’unction, combina- 
tion, participation, collaboration 
collusion. CO operation, eoad- 
juaancy, fraternity, sodabty, 


syndicate, coniratemity, lea^ac, 
corporation, guild, club, society, 

Their close asjoctation must be 

assort, V. distribute 
assortment, n variety, 
assuage, v. allay, 
assuagement, n reliel. 
assuage, n balm, 
assuasive, a rehesing 
assume, t undertake, presume, 
prcstipposc, postulate, take for 
granted, arrogate, appropriate, 
affect, stimulate, pretend, feign, 
accept, claim, put on, usurp 

Kote One may acrefi an obliga- 
tion or oiiiime an authority that 
properly belongs to him, or he 
may anume an obligation or 
indebtedness that could not be 
required of him He may or- 
time authorii) or office that is 
his tight, if he astutiiet «.hat 
dots ncil belong to him, be is 
said to arrogate or usurp it 
A man may usurp the substance 
of power in the most unpretend- 
ing way: what he arrogatft to 
himself he assumes with a 
haughty and overbearing man- 
ner One orjunier the robes or 
insignia of office by putting 
them on, with or without right. 
If he lakes to him<clf the credit 
and appeaiance of <iuafstics be 
does not possess, he ss said to 
affect or or to pretend 

to, the character he thus flJ- 
sumes What a debater poslu^ 
tales he openly state* and takes 
for granted without proof; 
what he assumes he may lake 
for granted without mention A 
favorite trick of the sophist !s 
quietly to assume as true trhat 
would at once be chal’enged if 
expressly stated What a man 
claims he asserts his right to 
take; what he assumes he tatet 

assume, a.‘ supposed; pretended, 
feigned, postulated , make-be- 

lie gave an assumed name 
assuming, a pretentious, pre- 

Ills general air was assuming. 

Her manner was pretentious. 

His aUiiudc is presumytiouf. 
assumption, n supposition, 
assurance, n surety, promise; 
confidence. con\iction, assured- 
ness, effrontery, audacity, imp- 
udence, arrogance, assertion, 
assumption, boldness, presump- 
licn, 'clfasscrticin, sell confi- 
dence, self-reliance, insurance, 

We had full assurance of his in- 

Kote vtssuronce nay be used in 
a good sense, as, the saint’s 
assurance of hetven Can- 
ffdenee is founded upon rea- 
sons, ojjuroBff is largely a 
matter of feeling In the bad 
sense, assurance is a vicious 
courage, with belief of one’s 
ability to outwit or defy others; 
the hardened criminal is re- 
markable for habitual oxjiiranfC, 
Tor the calm conviction of 
one's own rectitude and ability, 
self-confidence is a better word 
than orrMrance; self-reliance 
expresses confidence in one's 
own resources, independently of 
others’ aid In the bad sense 
crfwraiiff is leis gross than im- 
pudence, which t* (according 
to Its etymology) a shameless 
boldness Assurance is in act 
or manner; impudence may be 
in speech Effrontery is impu- 
dence defiantly displayed 

Akt • bashfuincsi, confo'ion, 
shyness, timidity, distrust, 
doubt, consternation, dismay, 
hesitancy, misgiving 


assure, n. promise, 
assure, v. secure, 
assured, a certain 
assuredness, n assurance, 
assuring, a encouraging, 
asteism, n raillery, 
asterisk, n star, 
astensm, n star 
astonish, ^ amaze, astound, 
stagger, overwhelm 
We were ustomshed to see them 
They were emased over the re- 

The news astounded them 
The disclosure staggered him 
They were oierukelmed with de- 

acute, clear-sighted, crafty, cun- 
ning, penetrating, penetrative, 
•harp, shrewd 

Note Acute, from the Latin, 
suggests the sharpness of the 
needles point, keen, from the 
S.>xon, the sharpness of the 
cutting edge Astute, from the 
Latin, with the original sense 
of fttiniiiii has come to have 
a meaning that combines the 
sense oi acute or keen with 
that of sagacious The astute 
mind adds to acuteness and 
keenness an element of cunning 
or finesse The astute debater 

astonishing, a amazing, astound- 

Astonishing progress has been 

An amasing sight confronted 

The arfounrftiiy news could not 
be credited 

Rstonlshment, n amazement, sur- 
prise, wonder 

He expressed no astenulimeni 
oser the report 

They were all filled with amaee- 

She feigned surprise at his re- 

We were filled with wonder at 
the beautiful scene 

Ant, preparation, composure, 
coolness, expectation, indiffer- 

astuteness, n acumen, 
astound, v amaze 
astounded, a thunderstruck 
astounding, a amazing 
astraddle, adv astride, 
astral, a starry 
astnction, n binding 
astrictive, n binding 
astride, a astraddle 
astringent, a contracting 
astute, a discerning discnminat- 
ing, keen, knowing, perspica- 
cious, sagacious, subtile, subtle, 

leads his opponents into a snare 
by getting them to make ad- 
nissions or urge arguments, of 
which he sees a result that they 
do not perceive The acute, 
keen initilect may take no tpe- 
cul advantage of these quali- 
ties. the osiiite mind has af- 
wa>s a point to make for itself 
and seldom fails to make it. 

AsT undi'cerrung, uniivteUigeM, 
blind, dull, idiotie, imbecile, 
stolid, stupid, shallow, short* 

astuteness, n acumen. 

No retreat could be found 
The library was hu sanctuary 
where no one intruded 
asylum, n hospital 
asymmetry, n irregularity 
atavism, n reversion 
ateber, n artists workshop, 
athanasia, n immortality, 
atheism, n godlessness 
atheist, n infidel 
atheistical, a godless, 
athirst, a eager 

athlete, n gymnast pancratest. 
Several athletes are to take part. 
He was a popular gymnast 
athletic, SI stalwart, muscular, 


He was of athUlic build. 

His slalu.ari arm supported her. 

He was fond of viuscular exer* 


Several able-bodied men offered 
their services 

athletic, a gymnastic, stalwart. 

muscular, able-bodied 
athletics, n., pi gymnastics, alh- 

Associated Words agnostics, 

athletfsm, n athletics 
athwart, adv across 
at intervals' now and then, 
atlantes, n figure 
at length* m full 
at loggerheads, at variance 
atmosphere, n air 
atmospheric, a aerial 
atoU, n island 
atom, n particle, hit, gram 

Not an atom or evidence could 
be procured 

They showed not a f article of 

A bit of humor wms apparent 

There was not a gram of trvth 
in the statement 
atomic, a molecular 
atoms, n. smithereens 
at once, n. immediately, 
atonable, a expiahle 

The offense was atonoble. 

It was a great wrong but still 

atone, v. expiate. 

atonement, n.' amends, reparation 

He made atonement for bn 

No amends could be made 

Reparation of the damage was 

atonic, a toneless 
at random, a • dash, 
atrophied, a stunted, 
atrophy, v.* dwarf, 
at short notice, adv.: summarilr. 

He arrived at short notice. 

The order must be obeyed nm. 

He re-.ponded promptly 
atrocious, a heinous, outrageous. 

The act was atrocious. 

His offense was heinous. 

His condjc; is outrageous 
atrocity, n hcinousness, enor* 
mit> , crime, outrage. 

The atrocity of the deed was ap- 

The heinousness of the crime was 
not fully known 

The enormity of the offense 
frightened them 

The crime was a heinous one 

It was an outrage against society 
attach, V affix, annex, append. 

No wrong was attached to the 

He afired his name to the paper 

The adjoining lots were onntsed 

The paper was appended to the 

attachment, n devotedness, ^de* 
votion, adherence, adhesion, 
union, adjunct, appendage, ap* 
pnrtenanee, seizure, distress, 
affection, affinity, friendship, 
tnciinaiion, love, esteem. esU- 
tnatton, regard, tenderness 

Note rlttachmenl is a feeling 
that binds a person by ties of 
heart to another person or 
thing, we speak of a man's 
adherence to his purpose, his 
adhesion to his part), or to any- 
thing to which he clings tena- 
ciously, though with no special 
tenderness; of his allachmenl 
to his church, to the old home- 
stead, or to any persons or ob- 
jects that he may hold dear. 
Affection expresses mote 
warmth of feeling; we should 
not 'peak of a mother’s attach- 
ment to her babe, but of her 
affection or of her devotion 
Inehnation expresses simplj' a 
tendency, whi^ may be good 

ov bad, jrwlded to or ovtrcome; 
as, an tiichnalion to study, an 
tncltnalion to drink. Regard is 
more distant than affttlto* or 
atlackment, but closer and 
warmer than esteem, we speak 
of high esteem, kind regard 

Ant alienation, animosity, an- 
tipathy, aversion, coolness, dis- 
like, distance, divorce, enmity, 
estrangement, indifference, op- 
position, repugnance, separa- 
tion, severance 

attack, n , assault, onset, aggres- 
sion, onslaught, invasion, esca- 
lade, siege, descent, charge, 
bombardment, fusilade, allonge, 
oppumancy, access, fit, en- 
croadiment, incursion, infringe- 
ment, intrusion, trespass 

Note An attack may be by 
word, an aggressicn is alwavs 
by deed An assault may be 
upon the person, an aggression 
IS upon rights, possessions etc 
An intfljton of a nations ter- 
ritories IS an act of aggression 
an intrusion upon a neighboring 
estate is a trespass Onslaugtit 
signifies intensely violent as- 
sault, as by an army or a des- 
perado though It IS sometimes 
used of violent speech 

Ant ■ defense resistance, retreat, 
repulsion, submission, surren- 

attack, V assault, as^a I imade, 
charge, beset, storm, besiege, 
bombard waylay, impugn, cen- 
sure, beleaguer, combat, en- 
counter, fall upon, set upon 

They attacked the citadel 

His motives were attacked 

Note A general {modes a coun- 
try by marching in troops, he 
attacks a city bv dramng up 
an army against it, he assaults 

it by hurling h s troops direct- 
ly upon Its defenses Assail 
and assault, though the same 
original ethology, have di- 
verged in meaning, so that as- 
sault abne retains the meaning 
of direct personal violence One 
may assail another with re- 
proaches, he assaults him with 
a blow, a brandished weapon, 
etc Armies or squadrons 
charge, combat and encountcT 
may be said of individual con- 
tests To beset is to set around, 
or, <0 to speak, to stud one's 
path, Miih menaces attacks, or 
persuasions To besiege and 
beleaguer are the acts of 
armies To encounter is to 
meet face Co face and may be 
Slid either of the ettaekmg or 
of the resisting force or per- 
son, or of both 

Ant aid. befriend, protect, shel- 
ter, shield, cover, defend, re- 
sist. support sustain, uphold, 

attain v achieve, compass, 
gam. accomplish, acquire ar- 
me at. earn, get, grasp, mas- 
ter, obtain, procure, reach, se- 

Note \ man may obtain a sit- 
uation by the intercession of 
friends, he procures a dinner 
by paying for it Attain vs a 
lofty word pointing to some 
high or desirable result, he at- 
tains the mountain summit, he 
attains honor or learning as the 
result of strenuous and earnest 
la^r Even that usage of at- 
tain which has been thought to 
refer to mere progress of time 
carries the thought of a result 
desired, as, to attain to old 
age, the man desires to live 
to a good old age, we should 
not speak of his his 

dotage One may oftat'n an oI>» 
jcct that will pio\e not worth 
his labor, but what he achines 
is in Itself great and splendid, 
as, the Greeks at Marathon 
achieved a glorious victory 
Ant See abandon, 
attainable, a accessible, practica- 
ble, feasible 

It is attainable, but not easily of- 

His plans are frocticobfe 
That is certainly feasible 
attainment, n achievement, ac- 
complishment, acquisition, ac- 
cession, culmination. 

He sought the attoinmrnt of 

attar, n : perfume 
attempt, n effort 
attempt, v seek 

attempt, v endeavor, strive, 
undertake, try 

He attempted to solve the prob- 

They endeazored to make it 

He has stnzen hard for success 
He has undertaken a diSentt 

They have tried to interest him 
in their work. 

Ant." See abandon, 
attempt, n • effort. 

He made an attempt to finish the 

His efforts were in vain, 
attend, v : guard, look after; ac- 
company, escort ; pay regard, 
heed, listen 

He was attended by an armed 

They carefully guarded the pack- 

He personally looked after all ar- 

They accompanied us to the door- 
He escorted him through the 

He paid no regard to their warn- 

Their advice was not heeded 
He would listen to no reasoning 
Ant ignore, scorn, slight, neg- 
lect, disregard 
attendance, n 
attendant, n follower, 
attendants, n., pi train 
attendant, a con'^cquent, accom- 
panying, attending 
The attendant results were pleas- 

CoHscgKfii; failure resulted from 
his actions 

The accompan\ing demands were 
not surprising 

The attending influences could 
not be overcome 

attention, n regard, considera- 
tion. watchfulness. notice; 
courtesy, deference 
He gained the ettenUon of the 

He had no regard for others. 
Little eonsiderotton was given 

His watchfulness was appreciated 
by his employer. 

He took nouee of the smallest de* 

His courtesy was admired by all 
He «howed great deference to his 

Ant : inattention, slight, disre- 

His mistake was due to inatten- 
tion to duty. 

There was no slight in his work. 
He showed disregard for their 

attentive, a heedful, observant, 
intent, watchful; courteous 
He is ottcnrire to duty. 

He is intent in his work. 

He IS zvatchful of the slightest 

His reply was extremely cour- 

Ant : inattentive, neglectful, re- 
miss. unheedful, heedless, neg- 

attenuant, n : dilutee. 

aJtcfluanf, a ; weakening-, 
attenuate, v.: iMn. 
attenuated, a. gaunt, 
attenuation, n dilution, 
attest, V. confirm, indorse, eertlty, 

He attested his innocence before 
the court 

attestation, n corroboration wit- 
ness, authentication, confirma* 

attestator, n voucher, 
attire, n dress. 

attitude, n position, posture, 

His attitude was mdinerenl 

Note Positwn as applied to the 
arrangement or situation of the 
human body or Imibs may de- 
note that which is conscious or 
unconscious, of the living or 
the dead, but we do not speak 
of the altitude, pose or posture 
of a corpse, unless. «i some 
rare case, we mi^ht tiy the 
body was found m a sitting 
posture, where the posture is 
thought of as assumed in life, 
or as, at Ursi gbnee, suggesting 
life. A posture is assumed 
without any special reference 
to expression of feeling, as, an 
erect posture, a reclining pos- 
ture; offirude is the ponlion 
appropriate to the expression of 
some feeling; the attitude mav 
be unconsciously taken ihrougli 
the strength of the feeling; as. 
an altitude of defiance, or it 
may be consciously assumed in 
the attempt to express the feel- 
ing; as, he assumed an atii- 
lade of humility A pose is a 
position studied for artistic ef- 
fect, or considered with refer- 
ence to such elTect! the imcon- 
scious Posture of a spectator or 
listener may be an admirable 
pose from an artist’s stand- 

etcftudimize, v.- pose, 
attorney, n lawyer, 
attorney-at-law, o lawyer, 
attract, v allure, entice, draw, 
engage induce 

JJcf pkasiiig manners aHracted 

lie was o/hircil by iheir promise 

Ibcy eutired him jo follow ihem 

ik was drawn into their com- 

Her cleverness engased our at- 

She was induced to sign the pa- 

Amt repel repulse, alienate, de- 
ter, estrange 

attraction, n allurement, fascina- 
tion. charm, inducement, mag- 
net ism 

Her beauty was her great aline- 

Ant repulsion, repugnance, an- 

attractive, a alluring, engaging, 
magnetic, prepossessing, be- 
witching, enticing, personable, 
winning, mcsmeri:, taking, se- 
ductive, repellent 

AwT unattractive, repulsive, 
forbidding, repugnant, repel- 
lant, dulling 

attributable, a ascnbable. im- 
putable, refcrnble, assignable, 

That might be ot/nbii/obie to 
some other cause 
attribution, n quality, 
attribute, v ascribe, impute, re- 
fer, assign, connect, charge 

Note We may otlribHte to a per- 
son cither that which bdon« 
to him or that which we merely 
suppose to be his We at- 
tribute to Cod infinite power. 
We may attribute a wrong in* 
tent to an innocent person We 
may ailnbule a result, rightly 
or wrongly, to a certain cause; 
in such case, however, attribute 


carries always a conces'ion ol 
uncertainty or possible error. 
Where v.e are quite sure, we 
simply refer a matter to the 
cause or class to which «t be* 
longs or atcTibe to one what 
is surely his, etc. Many dis* 
cases formerly aUnbuled tO 
•witchcraft are now referred to 
the action of micro-organisms 
We may attribute a matter in 
silent thought, we oirnSe any- 
thing openly in speech or writ- 
ing We associate things 
which tna> ha\c no rtcc^saty 
or causal relation, as, we may 
associate the striking of a clock 
with tlic serving of dinner, 
though the two are not neces- 
sarily connected We c/iarge a 
erson with what we deen 
lameworthy We may tn.tutt 
good or evil, but more com- 
monly evtU 

Akt. den}, separate, sever, sun- 
der, disconnect, dissociate 
attribute, n characteristic, pecu- 
liarity, predicate, !)mbol. 

Kote a quality (from L qualis, 
such)— the "suchness" of any- 
thing, according to the German 
idiom — denotes what a thing 
really is in some respect, an 
attribute is what we conceive a 
thing to be in some one re- 
spect, thus, while attribute may, 
quality must, express something 
of the real nature of that to 
which It is ascribed; we speak 
of the attributes of God, the 
quahitet of matter. ‘‘Originally 
the olirtbules of God' was pre- 
ferred, probably, because men 
assumed no knowledge of the 
actual qualities of the Deity, but 
only 01 those more or less fitly 
attributed to him" J A. H. 
Mma-vY (M ) Holiness is an 
tiftritule to trod; the 

of many heathen deities have 
been only the qualities of 
wicked men loincd to super- 
human power. A froperty 
(from L pTotnus, ones own) 
IS what belongs especially to 
one thing as its own peculiar 
possession, in distinction from 
all other things, when we speak 
of the qualities or the proper- 
ties of matter, quality is the 
more general, property the 
more limned term A quality 
js inherent, a property may be 
transient, physicists now, how- 
ever, prefer to term those quaU 
tties manifested bj all bodies 
(such as impcnctrabiUt}, exten 
Sion, etc ), peneral properties of 
matter, while those peculiar to 
certain substances or to cer- 
tain nates of those substances 
(as fluidity malleabilit), etc.) 
are termed speci^e propertiit. 
in this wider me of the word 
properly, it becomes strictly 
synonymous with guahty. 

attribution, n. quality. 

attme. a worn away. 

attntion, n. wearing away. 

attune, v tune. 

attuneraent, n.. sytitoniring, di- 

at variance*, bickering, contending. 
They were of lanonre with each 

They were lielering among them- 
selves ov er the profits 
Each was rontrncfiiig for his 

audacious, a ; presumptuous, itu- 
pudent, insolent, unabashed 
He was an audacious leader 
His manner was presumptuous. 
He was tmpudenl in his reply. 
He gave them an insolent look. 
He was unabashej before them 
Avt.: careful, cautious, fearful, 

audacity, n,: boldness. 


The audacity of her reply sur- 
prised us 

Ills boldness repelled them 
audible, a aloud 
The remark was audible. 

He spoke aloud 
audience, n hearing 
audience-room, n council-cham- 

audit, n examiaatioti 
audit, V examine 
auditor, n examiner 
auditor, n hearer 
auditorium, n hall 
au fait, expert 
augment, v swell 
augmentation, n enlargement 
augur. V portend indicate be- 
token, forebode, presage 
This oifgiirj well for his success 
Ant. establish, prove, assure, 
demonstrate, insure 
augurial, a foretelling 
augury, n prophecy divination, 
omen, portent sign 
That IS a propitious augury 
august, a m.'i;estic imposing, 
impressive, grand, pompous 
His august presence silenced 

Ant, common, inferior, undig- 
nified. senile, mean, beggarly 
august, a ma/estic, sublime im- 
posing, impressive, grand, 

augustness, n grandeur 
aura, n aroma, effluvia subtle 
essence, vaporous spirit 
aural, a * vaporous, streaming, 
emanating aerial 
aural, a auricular 
He specialized in eiiral surgery 
aurate, a golden gilded, golden- 
ycllow, aureate 
aurate, a eared 

Burelia, n nymph, chrysalis, pupa 
aureola, aureole, n halo radi- 
ance. luminous cloud, light 
aureoled, a haloed 
au revoir: good bye 
auricle, n.: ear-trumpet. 

auricular, a • privately addressed; 
ear-shaped, aunculate, auricu- 
laled, auriform, aurate, aural 
auxora. n dawn, rising light (of 

aurora australis: southern lights, 
aurora borealis; northern lights, 
auscultation, n tapping, testing 
auspice, n omen, prediction; 
favoring influence, protection, 

This will be under your auspice. 
auspices, n , pi protection, favor. 

guidance, patronage, charge 
auspicious, a favorable, en- 
couraging, opportune, promis- 
ing successful 
The occasion was auspictous 
Ills reply was fatorable 
The conditions are encouraging 
It was an opportune moment- 
The outlook is promising 
His efioris were s^iccessfui 
Ant inauspicious, unfavorable, 
ditcouraging, depressing, bale- 
ful, hopeless, unpropitious 
auspictously, adv. fairly 
auster, n south wind, 
austere, a severe, rigid, severely 
simple, harsh, sour, rough (to 

His austere mien awed them 
austerity, n rigorous simplicity, 
harshness, severity 
Austerity IS unnecessary there 
austral^ a southern, austral, Aus- 

authentic, a genuine, trustworthy, 
certain, original, real sure, 
true, authoritative, credible, ac- 
credited, authorized, legitimate, 
Tcbiblc accepted, current, re- 

The report is authentic 

Note Authentic is used by rep- 
utable writers as synonymous 
with genuine, though usually 
where genuineness carries a 
certain authority We speak of 
accepted conclusions, certain 


evidence, current money, fen- 
Minf leueis, a Irgitimolf con* 
elusion or legitimate authority, 
original manuscripts, real value, 
received interpretation, sure 
prooi, a /r«c statement, a trujt. 
xvortliy witness, a lerilable dis- 

Ant fabulous, fanciful, illusory, 
suppositious, theoretical, unreal, 
incredible, fictitious, fraudulent, 
false, spurious, unauthorized, 
apocrjphsl, baseless, counter- 
feit, disputed exploded 

authenticate, v verify, attest, 

authentication, n verification, at- 
testation, confirmation 
There is the auiheniteatton for 
every detail 

authenticity, n authorization. 

No one doubts the auihentietly of 
this document 

author, n originator creator, 
father; litterateur, writer 
The author of the book ij un- 

authoritative, a positive, com- 
manding:, magisterial 
Is that an outhontatiie edition’ 
He assumed an autkorxiauvt 

authority, n. right. Influence, 
dominion, jurisdiction, authori- 
zation, prestige, a'cendenej’, su- 
premacy; precedent, justifica- 
tion, warrant; permission, sanc- 
tion. permit, license, warranty; 
credibility, reliability, trust- 

His auihonty was «n^ucst^oned 

authorization, n confirmation, 
permission, e'tabli«hment 

You have secured cuthorieoUon 

authorize, v.’ empowered, com- 
tnission; j'ostify, confirm 
They autJiorjzrd him to make At 
necessary improvements. 

He was ertfovered with full au- 

He was eoinmissioued to do the 

They were justified in their con- 

He eottfrmed our statement 
BUlhorless, a anonymous 

An auihorless manu'cript hy be- 
fore him 

Several anony^nous letters were 

auto, n automobile 
auto, prefix self, one’s self, 
autobiography: memoir 

He IS writing his autobiography. 
autocar, n automobile 
autochthonal, a native 
autocracy, n absolutism, desoot- 
ism. dictatorship, self-govern- 
ment. autonomy 

Autocrory rules there, 
autocrat, n despot, 
autocratic, a absolute, arbitrary! 

His manner was autoiratie. 

He was given absolute control ol 

His rule is arbitrary. 

That shows a despotic regime 
autograph, n signature, 
autolatiy, n • acli-worship. 
autology, n • self-knowledge 
automatic, a self-propelling, self- 
moving, automatous; involun- 
tary. mechanical 

This is an automatie regulator, 
automatism, n.- automatic actioa 
automation, n : machine 
automatous, a - automaitc. 
autometry, n • measurement, est^ 
mation (of self). 

Autometry is being reduced to a 

automobile, a ; self-moving, seli- 

ri«<oma6i{r torpedoes are being 
tried out. 

automobile, n.* motor car. anto- 
car, motor, auto 

Associato Wotps: garage, ton- 


ncau. carburetter, chtssH, autcw 
mobilist, chaiifTeur, mechani- 

•utomobilist, n ndcr ('river (of 
automobile), cliauiTeur 
lie IS a confirmed aiitomobihsl 
automorrhic, a framed, con- 

cci\cd to he true of others, 
taieme one a pattern 
automonihism, n jiidpineni 
autonomist, ii self-g cernor, 


As an nuionninisl he believes in 
autonomous, a pendent 
autonomy, n independence 
autonym, n name 
autopsy, n observation (person- 
al), demonstration (ocular) 

He believes he m miking i care- 
ful auiot‘'Sy, an otnervation of 
his personal activities 
autopsy, n necropsy, post mor- 
tem examination, critical dis- 
serimn, examination 
They held an <jK»o/fy over the re- 

autosuggestion, n. self sugges- 
tion, idea (self-originaimg) 
Discriminate between aulotngget’ 
lian and telepathy 
autoioxic, a self-poisoning 
1 do not know why that particular 
combination of foods >s auto- 

■utotoxleation, n poisoning 
autumn, n fall, 
autumnal, a • fall, mature 
These are aiitumxal blossomeri. 
auxiliary, a helpiiiK, aiding, as- 
sisting, subsidiary 
That IS an aunlmry measure 
auxiliary, n ‘ .is'islant, coadjutor, 
helper, aid, ally, confederate, 
mercenary, subordinate, pro- 

Note' An aunltary is a person 
or thing Ihit helps in a «iibor- 
dmate capacity. Alhet unite as 
equals; a\txtl(anes are, at least 

tcchnicilly inferiors or subor- 
dinates Yet the auxiliary is 
more than a mere assiilant. 
I he w'lrd is oficnest found in 
the plurii ind in the military 
SCI St iiixihani^ are troops of 
one nttijii uintin,; with the 
arniKs, iiid iiiin^' under the 
oriUri of amiUcc Afcrrciianfs 
scrii oily for pay, ok rdioricj 
often lor rt4 »iis of state, pol- 
I y. or pitnotism as well 

Ant inti i ist, hinderef, op- 

availing. a effective, 
avalanche n fill, sudden de- 
scent, citastrophe, cataclysm, 
avaunt-couricr, n runner. 

Ills oiorifc IS well known 
avaricious, a covetous, greedy, 
misetiv, mggirdly, piriimoni- 
ous, close penurious, rapacious, 
sordid, stingy 

Note Avaneioui and tomtous 
refer especially to acquisition, 
wircr/y, niggardly, parswioni- 
ous. and feniiriotis to expendi- 
ture The otencioiij roan hat 
an eager craving for money, 
and ordinarily desires both to 
get and to keep the covetous 
man to get somcilimg away 
from Its possessor, though one 
may be mide oturtcioHr by the 
pressure of great expenditures 
filtserly and niggardly persons 
seek to gam by mean and pet- 
ty savings , the miserly by stint- 
ing thcinsclvcs, the mggorrffy by 
stinting others rorsimonious 
and penurious may apply to one’s 
outlay either for himself or for 
Others, in the latter use they 
arc somewhit loss hirsh and 
reproichfiil terms thin niggard- 
ly The elose min holds like a 
vise all that he gets. Near and 

ntgh ore provincial word* of 
similar import The rapacious 
have the roller instinct, and 
put It in practice in some form, 
as far as they dare The aia- 
ruious and ropotiem are ready 
to reach out for gam, the par- 
simonious, miserly, and nig- 
gardly prefer the safer and less 
adventurous way of avoiding 
expenditure Greedy and siingy 
are used not only of money, 
but often of other thing*, as 
food, etc The greedy child 
v.ishcs to enjoy evcrjthir-g him- 
self, the stingy child, to keep 
others from getting it 

Avi generous, liberal, munifi- 
cent prodigal, free, bountiful 

avatara, n . 
avatar, n inearnation. 
avaunt, mterj. begone 
ave, inter] hail, farewell 
ave, n salutation, ave Maria 
avenge, v. punish, revenge, vindi- 
cate, visit retalute 

Kon: Avenge and reicnge, o'ce 
close sj-nonyms, arc now far 
apart in meaning To aienge is 
to Wfil some offense with pun- 
ishment m order to tindicair 
the righteous, or to uphold and 
illustrate the right by the suf- 
fering or destruction of the 
wicked To reienge is to inflict 
harm or suffering upon another 
through personal anger and re- 
sentment at something done to 
OLrsel.cs Avenge is unselfish; 
retenge Js selfish. Revenge, ac- 
cordirg to present usage, could 
not be said of God To retafi- 
aie may be rece»sary for self- 
defense, without the idea of re- 

avengement, n : vengeance, 
avenue, n : road. 

iver, V,: assert. 

average, a : medium, ordinary. 

The book is of overage thickness 

He It of medium height 

Ordinary means were employed 
by the force 

averment, n statement, 
averse, a disinclined, hostile, 
indisposed, loath, opposed, re- 
luctant slow, unwilling, un- 

1 am ozerse to inactivity- 

He was averse to their pleading. 

They were disinehned to grant an 

He was indisposed toward our 

They were reluctant to grant his 

V'e were hath to part with them 

Not* a dunce i* always eterst 
to study, a good student is die- 
inflinra to it when a fine rnorn* 
ing tempts him out; he ti iV 
disposed to it in some hour of 
weanness A man may be ilov 
Of f-oriuflrd in entering upon 
that to which he is by no means 
ozerse. A man is hath to be- 
lieve evil of his friend, reluct- 
ont to speak of it, absolutely 
wnasJfing to use h to his injury. 
A legislator may be opposed to 
a certain mea'urc, while rot 
oime to what it aiwi to at* 

Ant desirous, eager, favo'able, 
inclmed, willing 
averseness, n • indisposition, 
aversion, n : dislike, abhorrence, 
dn nchnaiion, backwardness. 

He had an aversion toward such 

Hvs diifitf was evident 

He showed his abhorrence by hiS 

He had a ditincftnofton to join 

His baekzvardnesi retarded his 


avert, prevent 
averted, a turned away, 
avertible, a . preventable, pre- 

Those are aierttbU disasters 
averting, a warding off 
avian, a., remote, distant, re* 


avian, a ‘ ornithic 
avtanan, a bird-like 

aviary, n bird-house, bird-cage, 

aviate, v. operate (flying ma- 


aviation, n.* art, practice o( aviat 

aviator, n.; operator 

avidity, n • eagerness, greediness. 

intense desire 
avocation: business 
avoid, V • parry, evade, shun, 

elude, eschew, shirk 
He famed the blow 
He tried to at'oid meeting them 
lie could not etade punishment 
They fhunned Ins company 
He eluded the officers grasp 
Cicliew evil 

He has tJurked his duty 
Ast ■ See approach, 
avoidance, n eluding evasion 
eschewing, pirrying, annul 
ment; vacancj 

There was an aiotdance of the 

avouch, V • maintain 
avow, V • acknowledge, admit, 
aver, own, proclaim, profess, 
testify, witness, avouch, declare, 

He atoived his belief in survival 

another's claim or his own 
promise, he admits an oppon 
ent s advantige or his own er- 
ror, he declares either what he 
has seen or experienced or what 
he his received from another, 
he a-.ers whit he is sure of 
from Ills own knowledge of 
eonsctuusiiess , he gives his as- 
surance is the voucher for what 
he avouches , he a ozts openly 
a belief or intention that he has 
silently held oio and aioiich 
take 1 direct object, aier is fol 
lowed by a cniijtiiiction a man 
aiovis his faith, avouches a 
deed a ers that he was present 
Atou. has usuallj a good sense, 
what a person atot^s he at least 
does not treat as blameworthy, 
crimmil or slnmeful if he did 
he would be siid to confess it, 
yet there is always the sugges- 
tion ihai some will be ready to 
challenge or censure what one 
avail's as, the clergyman 
atoned his dissent from the 
doctrine of his church Owt 
applic> to all things, good or 
bad great or small, which one 
takes as his own 
Ant contradict, deny, disown, 
disavow, disclaim, repudiate. 

avowal, n statement, 
avrait, V look 
awake, ' waken 
awaken, v wake, awake, rouse, 
.arouse excite 

ffe was a vaiened from his sleep 
Ant soothe still, pacify, quiet 


Note* Acknonlrdse, admit and awakening, n excitement 
declare refer cither to one’s self award, n 
or to others , .all the other award, v See assign, 
words refer only to one’s own aware, a cogiiirant, conscious, 
knowledge or action To azoto apprised, mindtul. 

IS to declare bol<Uy and openly, away, adv hence, absent, gone, 
commonly as something one is a*icle, off 
read/ to justify maintain, or awe, n veneration reverence 
defend A man ocknoxtledges awe. v overawe, intimidate 


awtul, a • 

dreadful, , terrible, 

dread. alirminff, 

shocking, htwsomc, horrible, 

awe-inspiring, f'nous, fiigrant 

dire, direful, ai gust, 

posing, noble, f>orv"i ff^nd, Jin- 
emn, statel) tcrrifc ‘entous. sol- 

Noti Auful 'liould not i 
of things which are Tiicrcl>e 
agreeable or .inno\irg nor 
ail that arc fl/ariiiiiig and tetri'^' 
tie, but only of such as bring 
a solemn awe iijwn the soul a> 
in the prc-cncc oi i superior 
power, as, the oa/n/ hush be- 
fore the battle We speak of 
an eiallcd station, a grand 
mountain, an iinpormg presence, 
a ina;«lif cathedral, a nobIt 
mien, .i soUmn litany, a stalely 
march, an oiigurt a*scmbl>. the 
awful scene of the Judgment 

Akt commonplace, beggarly, 
contemptible, despicable, lowlv, 
mean, undignified, humble, pal- 
try, vulgar, base, inferior 
awfully, adv tearfully, dreadfully, 
awkward, a clumsy, bungling, 
boorish, clownish, maladroit, 
gawky, inelegant, loutish, un- 
couth, ungainly, unhandy, un- 
skilful, unwielay, embarrassing 

Notx- Awhuard, from arul (kin- 
dred with oil, from the Norwe- 
gian), is off-Hvrd, turned the 
wrong way; it was tncicntly 
used of a Inck-handed or Jeff- 
handed blow in battle, of sgumt- 
ing eyes, etc Clumsy, on the 
other hand (from ^luinse. also 
through the Norweaian), signi- 
fies benumbed, stifTened with 
cold; this is the original mean- 
ing of clumsy finger*, clumsy 
limbs Thus, azek^tard primar- 
.sV’ ••L'X'.v iV j\.Vibir, I'ibwiy rt? 


condition A tool, a schlcIe, 
or the humTn fr.amc may be 
clumry ill sinpc or build, awk- 
vard in irolioii I he rlHDtjy 
m in IS .iltiio-.! of necessity awk- 
«arl, hst flic O'lluard man 
m V not he mtunllv clumsy 
Iht finc-t iintrjiiicil colt is 
aukw rd 111 harness a hor^e 
that IS chinisv in bui’d can 
nc\cr he trnned out of awk- 
ttirfiess An atcLziVrl state- 
mcni has an unromforiahle, and 
peril ips recoiling force, ^ state- 
, mem that coiUains ill-as'orted 
tOnd ineongni ms material in ill- 
sptH'*cn hnguigc is clumty We 
nicnt, • 'in a'j.Lu‘ard j rcdica- 
ojihiar?'^ awktt.'ard senpe An 
fleets <n i excuse common y re* 
\Vc sa> thihe one who oflcrs it 
an ati4uai> admittel facts have 
none of thesc"i appearance In 
sy be used .cases could 
cver, applied to ik how* 

seem as unsuitabnovcments that 
benumbed and stiff os those of 
A dancing bear ts iXened limbs, 
and atikward V>dt clumsy 

Ant graceful. dexterA 
handy, skilful, courtly, \u5, deft, 
adroit, clever. \ elegant, 

awning, n . sun-shade, i 

baldaquin, tilt Vanopy, 

awry, a • distorted, wry, era 

asquint, askant, perverse, loked, 

Uer cap is aury. I 

ax, n adz, mattock, bro)‘ 

battlcax, dolabra, hatchet./ odax 
ax, bipennis y polt* 

axiom, n ; truism; postulat^ 

Nots* Both the aricun \ 
truism arc in'tantly seen,“d the 
true, and need no proof. P to b* 
an axiom there is pmmy b-it m 
thought while the Crutf’}.c<t f>i 
ply says the same thinlM s f' 
again, or says what is tooy nver 
Asitf Ar iTCVU* suyiinr rihriiv ■mar* 

that ’tthings wbch are equal to 
the same thing are equal to one 
anoth'Ci’' unfolds m the latter 
part <if the sentence the truth 
implied in the first part, which 
might ha'C been oierlooked if 
not stated In the frHism that 
“a man can do all he is capable 
of," the former and the latter 
part of the sentence are stmpiy 
identical, and the mmd is left 
just where It started Hence 
the axiom is valuable and use- 
ful ^shile tne truism is weak 
and Bat un'ess the lorni of 
statement makes it striking or 
racj, as ‘all fools are tut of 
their wits’ 

Akt absurditv, contradiction, 
paradox, sophism demonstra- 
tion, nonsense 
axiomatic, a self evident 

(of a whe^n, axis, gudgeon 
axletree, n axle 
ay, aye, adv yes 
aye, adr always, eser 
aye. n consent, aflirmation yea 
arote, n nitrogen (old name still 
u<ed in Europe) 

Azerael. n Angel of Death (Mo 

Astec, n aborigine, native (of 

azym, axyme, n bread (un- 

azymic, a azymous 
azymious, a unleavened, unfer- 

azunte, n lazulite, malachite, 


baa, n : bleat, blenting 
babble, v • murmur, purl, chatter, 
prate, prattle, blab, blurt out, 
cackle, chat, chatter, twaddle, 
gabble, sossip, jabbtr 
The stream taSbUd on its way 

Note Most of these words art 
onomatopoetic The racA/c ol 
a hen, the gabbJe of a goos^ 
the chatter of a magpie tht 
babble of a running stream, ar 
applie I to 'lumao speech, ircJx 
cate a rapid succession of whal. 
arc to tils hsien'T meaningless 
sounds Bub and bl ,rt (conr 
moilv Hurl out) refer to tl« 
Ictlng ou. ii 1 hit the bps cas 
no loigcr keep n blah of a 
secret Hurl out, of passionate, 
fecli 1^ 1 o . hji IS to talk it 

an easy jli sin; way, not w;t)> 
out seise but without special 
purpose Cliolitng i, the orao 
lice of adults pranling that oi 
child’-cn To frate is to talk 
idtj, presumptuously, or fool- 
ishlv but not necessarily inco’ 
lierently To jobber is to ex- 
press a rapid succession of uff 
intelligible sounds generally 
more noisy than clattering To 
gossip IS to Ulk of petty pe» 
sonji matters as tor pastitne 
or mischief To twaddle is to 
calk feeble nonsense 

babble, n gabble, chatter prattle; 

prating, murmur, purl 
babbler, n prattler, tattleg 
prater, chatterer 
The ttny babbler amused us all. 
babe, n child 
babel, n confusion 
baboon, n ape 

baby, n infant babe, nursling 

baby, v humor indulge, fondle, 
coddle, pet cosset 
baby, a infantile, infantine, baby 

babyhood, n infancy, 
babyish, a baby 
bacchanal n reveler 
Bacchanalia, n festival (to Bac* 
ebus), festival, feast, orgy 
The feast degenerated into a tac- 



baccJunahan, n.: drunkard, 
bacchanals, n.. orgies 
bacchant, n reveler, 
bacchantic, a. 

bacchic, a. riotous, mad (wtfh 

The dance is becoming more 
bofdiic daily 
bachelor, n celibate 
bachelorhood, n celibacy, bache* 
lofship, bachelorism 
back, n reverse fundament, pos- 
teriors, buttocks, seat, rump, 
breech , ndge 

The back of the chair is broken 

Associated Wobds supine, resu- 
pine, resupinaiion, dorsigcrous, 
dorsiferous, crick, dorsiparous. 
doi-fl-doj, tergiferous. lumbago. 
notaJgia, lumbar, aitchbone, 
loins, dorsicumbcnt 
back, V support, maintain abet, 
cooperate \Mth. mount, second, 
subsidize, indorse 

They have refused to ba^k him 
in the enterprise 

He was tupported by the oppo** 
tng faction 

They tnauunncd an attitude of 

He abetted them m the crime 

They have promised to cooperate 
tilth us 

back, a posterior, aft, after hind, 
hinder, hindmost, hindermost. 
rear, dorsal not it, tcrcal, neu- 
ral, remote, di ta t, frontier, 

You will r ' n in the Ijr* pan 
of the banding 

Norr V,’c «pcak of the aft or 
after pert of a ship, of the 
bach part of a building, of the 
hvtd ley of any quadruped and 
more rarel> of the hinder part 
of a vehicle or a ship After 
is used also in reference to 
time, as, the afler-ume On 
the other hand, while the ad- 
jective back can not be applied 

to time, the cofrespotiding ad- 
verb can be; as, iatf bort in 
time I 

Akt Anterior, foremlost, fore, 
forward, front, headJ leading; 
near ) 

back, aclv backward [rearward; 
in reiurn. in lesiiiuvjon, in re- 
quital, m arrear j 
backbite, \ defame (clandestine* 
1 > ). malign, traduce, ^vilify, ca- 
lumniate, scandalize 
backbiter, n defaoior. detractor, 
maligner, vihficf, slanderer, ci- 

backbiting, n defama.ion, vilifi- 
cation, traducement, calumny, 
‘lander (secret) 

backbone, n spine, spinal col- 
umn, rachu. chine 
Animals having a backbone, or 
even s notochord are now 
classed as chordata 
Associated Words vertebrs, 
Veftebran, vertebra, chordata, 
chofdaie. vertebral, spinal, 
spme. notochard 

backbere. n moral principle, 
steadfastness, stability, firmness, 

backboned, a • vertebrated, verte- 

backdown, n.' surrender, reces- 
sion, withdrawal 
backer, n : second, 
backing, n.’ assistance, support, 
cooperation, seconding, subsidy, 
back, web, back *'ructure. 

He 1 $ vvillirg to give farting to 
any scheme 

Her assistance will be valuable to 

You may count upon their sup' 
port and cooperation 
The plan will succeed without any 

The subsidy was granted, 
backing out: withdrawal, retreat, 
recession, retirement, 
back out (Colk>q)t withdraw, 
retreat, resile, recede, retire. 

backset, n ■ d scouragement, re- leed, stnister, licentious, unprin* 
pulse, lebuff, setback, check ciplcd, incorrigible, abandoned. 

This was the only bactfset gnthss, vicious, unserupulou'. 

He met with discouroseHtent at miscreant, reprobate, disreputa- 
rr tiaughty, malevo- 

The offer was met with repulse tent, malicious, unrighteous, de 

The rebuff was unexpected grading, dissolute, hardened, 

backslide, v break faith, aposia* wanton 

tize, retrograde, relapse, desert, AssociATcn Words injurious, 
fall away prejudicial, pernicious, detri- 

backslider, n apostate, renegade, mental baneful, unwholesome 

deserter, recreant pervert baleful, deteterious, mvschiev- 

backsliding, n apostasy, defee- ous, noisome, malign, malignant 

tion, relapse, recidivism, recre- noxious, unpropitious, disad 

ancy, retrogradation vantageous, offensive, serious 

backsliding, a apostate renegade. grave, severe, defective, imper 
retrogressiie, recidivous, recre- Tect, incompetent, untoward, dc 
ant, unfaithful pressing umvelcome, adver'C 

backward, a reluctant averse, grievous, unfavorable, inauspi* 

loath, dull, inapt, late, tardy, oous, infertile, inaraMe, bar- 

delayed, undeveloped retro- ren, unproductive, worthless, 

grade, retrogressive, reverse. bard, heavy, serious, irrepar- 

regressive, retrospective, un able, egregious, nefarious, fe- 

willmg, disinclined lonious, infamous, villainous, 

lit made a baclward movement heinous, flagrant, atrocious 
with his hand The example was had 

We were reluctant to part with Ant good excelfent, nrst-rate, 
him honorable, just, true, worthy 

They were cierse to his plans badge, n device cognizance, em- 
They were loath to give him up blem ensign, brassard, cordon, 
He proved to be a dull student <lar. insignia 

The pupil was tnapl and bis prog- badge, n worry 
ress was necessarily slow badinage, n raillery, banter, per- 
He was late at his classes siflage asteism 

His development was tardy Their badutase relieved the ten- 

The delayed package finally sion. 

reached us She rebuked him with good-na- 

Our plans are undeveloped as yet tuned raillery 
backwardness, n reluctance, un- The lively banter put him at hiS 
willingness, averseness, hesi- ease 

tancy, disinclination, lateiress, No perstffase is necessary here 
tardiness, unclevelopment , in- bad luck misfortune 
aptness, dullness badly, adv poorly, unjkillfully, 

backwoods, n , pi forests imperfectly greatly 

bacterium, n , pt bacteria micro- ^he sings badly 

organism, microbe The work was ^oorfy done 

Bacteria cause many fermentative He handled his tools unjlifffitliy 
changes TTie picture was mper'ectly 

bad, a arrant evil, wicked im- drawn 

moral, iniquitous, corrupt, de- He is greatfy m need of help 
praved, sinful, base, demoral- badness, n depravity, uuscrupu- 


lousness, immoralitx, turpitade, 
miquitj, \illainy, kna^jshncss, 
profligacj’, >enahty, ljcentiou<i- 
ness, peccancy, baseness, obli- 

quity, pravity, degeneracj, vi- 
ciousness, wantoniiess, cnmi- 
nalitj, incorrigibility, libcrun- 
ism, rascality, malevolence, ma- 
lignity, noxiousness, mischief, 

baffle, s foil, thwart, frustrate, 
disconcert, nonplus 
The officers were bafrled in thaf 

He iodtd their attempts at dis- 

\Ye were ihzLvrted in our efforts 
Our plans were frustrated 
He was dwoncertrd by their sod- 
den appearance 

Thej were notiflussed by our 

Ast. See assist 
bafflement, n thwarting, frustra- 
tion, foiling, circumvention, dis- 
concertion, defeat 
baffiinf, a disccncerung. con- 
fusing, perplexing 
His manner toward the ofBeer 
was bafltns 

bag s capture, catch entrap 
They soon bagged the game 
The fugitive was captured 
They caught him as he was leav- 
ing town 

The enemy was entrapped, 
bag, n reticule, knapsack, pocket, 
sack, pouch, wallet, cul-de-sac, 
haversack, portmanteau, poke, 
scrip, satchel, valise, suitcase, 
sporran, gunny sack, qairer; 
udder ; cyst vesicle, utricle, 
bladder, saccule, 
bagatelle, n.: gewgaw. 

^Egage. n.; luggage, traps, 
baggage truck: lorrie. lorry 
baggy, a • unshapely, fiabby, 
swelled, puffed 
The dress was baggy 
Her hands were unfkapely. 

His flesh was flabby 

bahut, n chest 

bail, n security, surety, vadium; 
handle, pail, scoop 

The prisoner has given bod. 

The company offers good Sff«r- 

A surely was put up by his as- 

bail, V set free, liberate; deliver; 

free from water, ladle out. 
bairn, n child 

bait, n lure, enticement, induce- 
rnent. temptation, decoy, allure- 
ment kibblngs 

The deicctivLs threw out a bott 
to catch him 

The lure of the amusement drew 

The place had no enticement for 

Several mducementt were held 
out to him 

The lempioiien was too great 
bake, v roast. 

balance, v foise. Iibratei CQUil 
eounterpoi't, counteract, coun- 
terbalance, countervail; adjust 
equalize, square. 

The accounts balanced perfectly. 

Ast unbalance, derange, pre- 

balance, n.: scales; weighing, esti- 
mate, surplus, excess, remain- 
der, overplus; poise, equipoise, 
equilibrium, steadiness. 

The bflfonft* was carefully ad- 

You must learn to keep your baf- 

Awr ; preponderance, deficit ‘de- 

balcony, n ■ gallery, terrace 
bald, a • hairless, polled: tonsured; 
unadorned, laconic, literal, un- 
disguised, unvarnished, unquali- 
fied, unembellished. nncorrcAo- 
rated, vnsuppiorred, glaring, 
mere, barren, bare, dry 

The bald eagle is the national em- 
blem. ol the Uwvted Sutes. 


Thtt is onl/ a bald statement o£ 

baldachin, n. canopy 
baldaquin, n awning, 
balderdash, n tlumnicry, jargon, 
nonsense, fustian, bathos, twad- 
dle, fudge, moonshine 
baldness, ii alopecia, bareness, 
barrenness, dryness, meager- 
ncss, plainness, curtness 
bale, n bundle 
balefire, n beacon 
baleful, a pernicious. 

balk, V frustrate, foil, thwart, 
baffle, disappoint, jib 

balky, a refractory, rccalcilranl, 
contrary, perverse stubborn 

ball, n sphere, orb, glolic, pellet, 
pommel, baseball, I lerosse. bas- 
ketball, football , bullet, projec- 
tile, missile, dejectile, glomera* 
tion, conglobation 

ballad, n poem 

ballast, n steadiness, setf-con* 
trol, equipoise, stability, judg* 

lie lacks ballast to make him suc- 

Sleadinest of habits won his pro- 

He showed unusual stlf-eonlrel 
He won the position through rfo- 
bthly of character 
He has used good fudgmtnt in 
the matter 

ballet, n dance, pantomine. in- 

AssoaATEP Wouds : choreograph, 

ballet-dancer, n danscusc, cory- 
phee, figurante. 

balloon, n aerostat, Montgolfier 
(hot-air balloon) 

The balloon made a safe descent 
Associated Words parachute, in- 
flate, inflation, detlate, deflation, 

ballooning, n • aeronautics, aero- 
station, balloonery. 
balloonist, n. aeronaut, aerostat, 

ballot, n vote. 

balm, n unguent, ointment; miti- 
gant, anodyne, assuager, nc- 
pcntlic. bilsam 

balmy, i aromatK, odoriferous, 
sweet stnclling, odorous, bil- 

A balmy breeze blew over them 

Ihc air was filled with the aro- 
tiuiSu odur 

Sued smelling flowers filled the 

The room was odorous with the 
smell of spices, 
balsam, n balm, 
balsamic, a balmy 
bahstcr n pillar, support. 

This bahster is loosened from the 
hand rail 

balustrade, n barrier, railing (in- 
cluding bTlisteri) 

The balustrades were artistic, 
bamboozle, v (Colloq) cheat, 
humbug impose upon, dupe, 
banderole, n banner 
bandolier, n belt 

ban. n notice, announcement, 
anathema, denunciation, male- 
diction, curse, execration} m* 
terdiclion. proscription, taboo. 

ban, V curse, execrate, anathe- 
matirc. interdict, forbid, taboo, 

banal, a commonplace trite, plat- 
iludinons, hackneyed, stale, 
worn out 

banality, n platitude, common- 

band, n fetter, fillet, shackle, 
manacle gyve, cincture, girth, 
swaddle, belt, eestus zone; 
bandage, bond, Imk, vinculum, 
withe, crew, company, troop, 

f ang, coterie, club, cabal, clique, 
unto, league, orchestra 
band, v league, confederate, 

They banded themselves together 
to carry out their plans 
They have leagued themselves for 


immediate action. 

They were forced to confederale 
aj a means (or defense. 

They base untied into one organi- 

bandage, n ligature, dcligalion, 
fillet, capcline, fasciaiion, fascia, 

bandage, \ deligaie. smtlie 
bandit, n outlaxs, hrigaml, (oot- 
pai highwajman, marauder, 
bane, n nuisance 
baneful, a injurious 
bang, cudgi I, maul, thump, 
slam, resound, re-echo 

He banged the chair gm i the 

bang, n thump, np knock. 

whack, clangor, clang 
banish, \ dme away drive out, 
dislodge, dismiss, expci, exile, 
expatriate, relegate, ostracize, 

He has bantrfied the thought (tom 
his mmd 

Kcrrt Ranish, pTimaT»l> to put 
under ban, to compel f>> author- 
ity to Icate a pi tee or countr>, 
perhaps with rcstnctiort to some 
otiref place or country I rom 
a countr), a person may be ban~ 
uhed, exiled, or exf<atnoled, 
baimhed from any country 
where he nny happen to Ic, but 
expatriated or extled only from 
his own One may expatriate 
or exile him*elf'. he is bamshtd 
by others liainsh is a word of 
Wide import; one may bamsh 
disturbing thoughts; care may 
bannh steep To expel if to 
drize out with violence or rude- 
rress, and so often with dis- 

banished person: exile, expatriate. 

banishment, n.: exile, expatriation, 
proscription, expulsion, relega- 

banister, n : (corruption of) bat- 

bank, n mound, pile, ridge, dike 
heap, drift, emuankment; brnk, 
‘bore, rivage, rim, brim, marge, 
strand, shallow, shoal, bar; 
levee, terrcplem 

Note A beach la a strip or ex- 
pan«e of incoherent wave-worn 
sand, which is often pebb!> or 
full of boulders, we spea< of 
the beaili of a lake or oces-i; 
a bea,h ts sometimes (ourd n 
the bend of a river SlrunJ m 
a more poetic term for a wa.e- 
vadicd here, especially as a 
place for la idmg or cmba'ki ig; 
as, the keel grates on the s'rand. 
The whole line of a countrj or 
continent that borders il c sea 
ts the coast ishore is an hnd, 
whether eli/f, or sand, or mrsh, 
bordering water \Ve do not 
«p«ak of the cooif of a river, 
nor of the bonki of the ocean, 
though tliere ma> be banl-t hy 
or under the sea Ldpe is t'‘e 
line wliere hnd and water 
meet, av, the water’s tdzt> 
Brink IS the place from w'neh 
one may fall, as, the rner’s 
brink, the brink of a prccipce; 
the brink of rum. 

bank, v embank, dike, heap Jp, 
pile up 

bankrupt, a insolvent; in; ^-v'- 
erished, depleted 

The firm was oidered to 

suspend business 

Avt solvent, sound, prospe'OJS, 

bankruptcy, n insolvency. 

He was in a state of bankruptcy 

Ills «nio/,r«ry was due to specu- 

Avt pro'perity, soundne s. »oT 

banner, n flag, standard, cn'ign. 
oriflame. gonfalon, vex 'I'lm. 
banderole, colors, pavihoa 

ba-iquit, n feast, junket, regale- 
ment, regale, entertainment 
banquet, v. feast, junket 
barqtitte, n . seat, 
ban t-, n joking, jesting, badin- 
t chaff, pleasantry, persiflage, 
iJiilery, asteum 

hoiE Battler IS the touching 
upon some fault, weakness, or 
fancied secret of another in a 
nay half to pique and hall to 
please, badinage is delicate, 
refined hauler Raillery has 
more sharpness, but is usuallj 
good humored and well meant 
Jroin, the saving one thing that 
the reverse may be understood, 
tnaj be either mild or bitter 
All the other words have a hos- 
tile intent Ridicule makes a per- 
son or thing the subject of con- 
temptuous merriment, dermon 
seeks to make the object de- 
rided seem utterly despicable— 
to laugh It to scorn Chaff is 
the coarse witticism of the 
streets, perhaps merry, oftener 
malicious, jeering is loud, rude, 
ridieuU, as of a hostile crowd 
Of mob Mockery is more 
studied, and may include min- 
scry and personal iiolence, as 
■well as scornful speech A 
eahre is a formal composition. 
ajareajtn maybe an impromptu 
sentence The satire shows up 
follies to keep people from 
them , the sarcasm hits them 
because they ate foolish with 
out inquiring whether it will do 
good or harm, the satire is 
plainly uttered, the sarcasm 13 

banter, v. jest, chaff rally, roast 
baptism, n baptizing, parabap- 
tijm, pedobaptism, hypothetical 

A'sociateo Words baptize, chris- 
ten, font, baptiatery, baptismal 


bar, n obstruction, impediment, 
obstacle, barrier, barricade, hin- 
drance, sandbar, bank, shoal, 
ingot, lever, rod, pole, tribunal, 

bai, % debar exclude, except; 

hinder, obstruct, restram 
barb, n prickle 

barbanan, a rude, uncivilized, 

The tribe was barbanan 

He was rude to his parents 

He acted as if he were uncivilised 

His treatment of her was bar- 

barbaric, a crude, showy, gaudy, 

Their barbaric songs entertained 

barbarism, n savagery, savagism, 
brutality, outrage, atrocity, vul- 
garism. impropriety (of speech), 

barbarity, n barbarism, barbar- 
ousness, inhumanity, brutality 
barbarous, a barbarian, inhuman, 
atrocious, merciless, truculent, 
brutal, uncivilized, uncouth, un- 
tamed, rude, savage 

Note Whatever is net civihred 
IS barbarian, barbaric indicates 
rude magnificence, uncultured 
richness, as, barbaric splendor, 
a barbaric melody Barbarous 
refers to the worst side of bar- 
barian life and to revolting 
acts, especial!) of cruelty, such 
as a civilized man would not 
be expected to do , as, a bar- 
barous deed We may, how- 
ever, say barbarous nations, 
barbarous tribes, without im- 
plying anything more than 
vsant of civilization and cul- 
ture Sazage is more distinctly 
bloodthirsty than barbarous In 
this sense we speak of a sav- 
age beast and of barbarous 

AitT-: civilued, courtly, cultured. 

clcfTTint. CT'ffful. liuniTif, nice, 
delicate, tender, polite, refintil. 

tare, a unclre^'^ed, nude, naked 
unadcirncd, CNpci^ed. utidraptd, 
M f-unt natura'i’us denuded, 
un%ciled, nieiRer. ur\ ami'bed . 
empt\, destitute bild unctn- 
bclli«hed, unrolored, unfur- 
nished. lUreadharc. pdenom, 
napless, meer alcwie, sheer 
bare, \ demule di\esi strip, ex- 
pose, unmask, undress 
barefaeed, a unmasked undis- 
jrnsed, 'hameless unabashed, 
braren E^-^rmej, audacious no- 

barefooted, a. barefoot, un<hod. 
barely, ad\ merelj 
bareness, n nakcsine'S nudits 
barcain, \ apres contract, eo\e- 
Hint , stipulate, barter 
barL, n c riex 

A«sociatl.i Wot's cortical cor- 
ticate, cortinferois cortia- 
forrt, pli'cophicus conico<e, 
pendcrni liber, dckt*tica:>on. 

bark, ^ peel flij skirt, decorti- 
cate , In), selp, jap 
barm, n jetn 
barmy, a seasij 
barnstormer, n .ictor, 
barometer, n glass, 
baroque, n proiesque. 
barracks, n quarters, 
barred, a streaked, 
bam, n. stable. 

barrel, n butt, punclieon. ci'k, 
cade tierec, hopsheid, kep. 
Tundlet; {of trttie) 3I'j pal- 
lons, {of (lour) 1% pounds 
barren, a sten’e. unproli'lc, aecn- 
c«tie, infecund unfertile, effete, 
desert, iinproduetinr. unfruit- 
ful, u'lpro'ltahle, unremunera- 
tne, stupul. dull, ii-imairnatnc, 
pros-ic de\oid iinntcfcstinB 
The fields are barren 
As’t : prolific, fecund, virile. 

Iraitful, fertile, tecinirc 
barrenness, n stenlitj. unprolific- 
ness, infectindit), inferiilitj 

Ant fccunditj, prolificness, fer- 

barrens, n Imd 
barricade, n t ar 
bamcade, \ obstruct 
barrier, n impediment obstruc- 
tion obktaele barnrade, 1 n- 
dra'ice Inr. bulwark, rampart, 
pinpct rc'trun!. breasts irk. 
(rcvhibiticn resiriciion 

Korr \ fee IS someihinp that 
IS rmn lie iiitis ’iscil. ordi- 
naril) mi h mu i- t present en- 
tence <r e^Tc- the / ''s 

of a prison ^eli Ibr ' rrj n a 
tvood I l \ /orn.v obstructs, 
brt IS ict iiecessanlt n'p's*- 
able i amer i> used of 
jects ri< re e'lrnsi« than those 
to ttlic'i fitf IS applied A 
tnotntun ni’pe na) le a 
larnrr to evplir'tion, b»t a 
mass of sand across the cn« 
trance to a h'.rliir ts called a 
tar I'seosered f-lsc!iond i' a 
tar to eonfid'nce Vain 'ie 
has become pr.icticallj a tec'll* 
cil nmne tor an improsned 
•treet foriifienion and .ur’c'i 
in some \sa\ modified, is usual* 
1> so I'nd'T'lOoJ 

Ant admutmee. entrance, open- 
inp. passiEC. road, tlioro-cTh- 
fare, W3) 

barrister, n. lawjer. 
barroom, n saloon 
barter, n trade, IrafTic, excharce. 
Inis ness 

barter, \ trade, exchanpe. traffic. 

The famrers barterfd their prod- 
ucts for merchindi‘C 

ITc traded 1 s cattle f">r land 

Trrsents were exchansied between 

Thej traffic}, ed in ‘ouls. 
basa], a : fundamental. 

base, a debased, spurious, aJIoyed, work, scuttle 

impure, counrerfeit, low-nsind* bastard, n illegitimate child, love- 
ed, unworthy, mean, servile child 

ignoble, groveling, despicable, bastard, : 
discreditable, disgraceful, venal , nous, 

plebeian, obscure, untitled, un- tious 

honored baste, ' 

base, n basis, bottom, ground* 
work, foundation; pedestal, 

The bate of the monument has 
been cracked 

baseboard, n. mopboard, scrub* 

basebom, a • plebian 
baseless, a.‘ unfounded, ground- 

illegitimate, false, spu- 
counterfeit, suppositi- 

beat pound, pommel, 
cudgel, buffet, thrash, maul, 

bat, n club cudgel, brickbat, 
vampire clieiropter . racket 
batch, n quantity, collection, as- 
sortment. lot 

A batch of bread has been made 

Your accusation is baseless 

The statement is unfounded. 

The report is groundless 
basely, adv mcanli 
base mmded, a low-mmded 
baseness, n.. badness, 
bashful, a • over-modest, diffident, 
eoy, shanrefaced, timid, sheep- 
ish, retiring 

Ant : forward, pert, saucy, arro- 
gant, confident, impudent 
bashfulness, n modesty, shyness, 
diffidence, over-modc*ty 

Ant : Sec assurance, 
basic, a underlying 
basilic, basilical, a kingly, royal. 
basUjca, n church 
basilisk, n serpent 
basin, n • pan 
basis, n foundation. 

The basis for his argument v 

Ills contention is based on 
logical foundalion 
bask, V. luxuriate, revel. 

Her assortment is varied 

iiow much IS the lot worth 
bath, n ablution, lavement, lav- 
atory, bathroom 

bathe, v wash surround, en- 
velop, siilTiuse 

She balked the child m warm 

The children's bands have been 

Thc> were surrounded with lux- 

Smoke enj eloped the building 
Iter face was suffused with 

bathmg, n ablution washing 
bathos, n balderdash 
bathymetry, n sounding, 
baton, a staff, wand, sceptre, 

battalia, n battle array, 
battalion, n force 
batten, n strip . . , , 

batten. V fatten, feed high, fasten 
They baf/Vot'm'th^ favor of the batter, v smite, assault, pelt; de- 
king mohsh, shatter, rate 

They luxuriated in their pleasant battery, n bapusm 

They rebelled m the warm sun- 

basket, n hamper, creel, pannier, 
canister, prickle, dosser, corf, 
bassinet, flasket, wicker, wicker- 

battle,' n conflict, engagement, 
contest, fight, encounter, com- 
bat tournament, strike, skir- 
mish, action, affair, bout 
Note Conflict is a general word 
which describes opponents. 


whether intlmduals or hosts, as 
dtshed together. One continu- 
ous conllict between entire 
armies is a batllf Another bat- 
tle may be fought upon the 
same field after a considerable 
interval, or a new battle may 
follo.v immediately, the armies 
mctlmg upon a new field An 
crtion IS brief and partial, a 
battle may last for days £n- 
gagfiiiiiii IS a somewhat formal 
expression for battle, as, it was 
the commander’s purpose to 
avoid a general emta^ement A 
protracted war, including many 
boItJei, may be a stubborn <e>n- 
tesl. Combat, originally a hos- 
tile encounter between mdmd- 
uals, IS now used ai»o fur ex- 
tensive engagements \ sktr- 
tntsh IS between smalt detach- 
ments or scattered troops An 
e»ifOwii/er may be either pur- 
posed or accidental, between in- 
dividuals or armed forces 
right IS a word of less dignity 
than battle, we should not ordi- 
narily speak of Waterloo as a 
fight, unless where the word is 
used in the sen<e of fighting, 
as, I was in the thick of the 

A^T : armistice, concord, peace, 
suspension of hostilities, truce 
battle array; n. battalia, 
battlement, n : wall 
battleship, n.. ntan-of-war. 
bauble, n . gewgaw, gtmcrack, 
kickshaws, trinket, plaything 
bawdiness, n obscenity, 
bawdry, n • nastiness, 
bawdy, a.’ indecent, unchaste, ob- 

bawl, V.* cry. 
bawling, a : clamorous, 
bay, V.- Lark 

bay, n.' bay-tree, sweet laurel; 
pi, honors, renown, garlands, 

bay, n • htgkt, lath fiarxt fajmr. 

recess, alcove, sinus, oriel (toy 

bay, n desjieralion 
bayou, n.. inlet, 
bays, n garland, 
bay window: window, 
bazaar, n fair 
be absorbed: merge, 
beach, n shore, strand, shingle, 

beachcomber, n seaman, 
beached, a stranded, aground 
beacon, n Laletirc, signal fire; 
signal, pharos 

beadle, n servitor, apparitor, 

beads, n. pi rosary, passemen- 
terie ibended trimming); chap- 
let. suckanhock. wampum, peag 
beak, n lull, nib, neb, mantlible; 

prow, bow, rostrum 
beaker, n glass 
beam, n girder, joist, 
beam, n ray, gleam, 

A beam of light shone across the 

A ray of sunshine lightened the 
dark room 

A gleam of light could be seen 
beam, v gleam shine, glitter, 
glisten, scintillate. 

Her face beamed with pleasure 

The fire gleamed in the darkened 

• room 

The sun shone through the win- 

The gems glittered in the sun- 

The sun ghtleiied on the snow. 

The stars scintillated in the heav- 

beaming, a : radiant, bright, shin- 
ing, beamy, gleaming 
beanltke, a : fabaceous. 
bear, n Ilrum; Ursus, Ephraim; 
cub. whelp; grumbler, boor, 
growler; musquaw. 
bear, v. endure, stand, tolerate, 
press, pu<h, oppress, undergo, 
brook, suljTiit to. suffer, bear 
with; entertain, harbor, cberi^h. 


lUw vm jou t'i.'ir iiuh Inv'* 

litter ^^Mr a f,uuK^. 
tear, %. su<taiu. ''iti'i'f''’t, upJu'Ul: 
wait. ksrr'. eonvev. tnntjnnt 
Uii< fvMiiuhUoii will f*r» the su* 

rcrtaitH< ate ^ im wi the wm l< 
bear, \ i-roihlvc. \irll teem 
bniiir tclur rein m* 


Ihr'e tree» ?,.ir uu iltiiuluue 
of trviit 

Thu «tateit'eiit m. n the 


bearable, a emUirable. sullnahle. 

Ihe 'itiiJtioii Is hulk fiumM. 

‘I he I'ain was 1 mlK .iifiiruM. 
Sitvh llisoleme is Ui>t antf.rtMi 
Ihc I'erfcrntJiKe was only iaUf- 

Ant ! unbetraMe. mtolnalle 
bearil, n iinist 4 v.he whisker*, 
koatee; awn. aristi (K<irJ of 


bearO. \ Oely, eiuounfer s't*i'ose 
Ite ^s■l»■l^^^ their (.ritklsms s*iien* 

He Mii their atithcrlty 
Ihev fMii’Miii.r*-./ a »troi'K opro* 


■J hey have bitterly otfottJ hU ef- 

bearsleil, at whtskereil, arUtate. 

bearilless, a • jmootlufaceil. 
bearer, ii. carrier 
beaririK, n.- carrlaKe air, ilerort- 
• ineul mien ni ri. ilemeatior. eit- 
iliirance. i I'e iraiwe loiiB*»uf- 
ferine toleration. miiTennce 
Ills heiM'ie is tint of a sohlier. 
Uis iiirri.iee is ereit. 

''he hss the rtir of a ot’een 
The fhiUl s (Ifforlmfiil is good 
Her mien wss mslestU' 

In his fort was ihenttv 
Her i/.ineaiine wjs a ileUehtIul 
mhtnre of er’ie ami airine** 
He hjj wonderful tnJuroncr 

^ has been sorely 

His f rKo 

bearing, •> dri'emlcnej. relull >n, 
loimnli. >1 aim, cinrse. ihree* 
thm. hi inputs lorih )iridine 
Ihr f t ts li ji no roljli >11 to )oii» 


si lie III 

• 'in^ilion between 
I tiiJ out by the 

UaittV/"lo n'sh, iineiill. dl*- 
lomii 11 ru le. ursine, iirsiforni 
bear sHii t. irohorate loiihrm, 
susl III MU’JH’lt, uphold 

W«"t. n hiiiie riuudniped, mon* 

leastljr. a he tial briitat !rra« 
il tiul (tolli'ij> abotmnablei 
dis.fciccsblr. lusty 
beat \ toiKe weld, hammer. 
nieuUeste. leelle belabor hob 
ter mull buffet, whack, pelt, 
iliikr smile, iliseliate chistisn 
iiiikri iioinmel |>oimd, fronrge. 
ipaiik, twiuh. thrash 

Nois NtMi'r Is the word for a 
ahiRic blow, to hr It is to it'i^r 
rrpeitedK. as u bird hmtJ the 
air with its wmes Others of 
the ubow words describe the 
manner of beutini* as 
to beot sm the soles of the feet! 
Mobor. to iniha a comprrhen* 
sive and eshsnstice hriitui?. 

• wdysf to tool \ulh 1} rti,*.’ 
Ihrath as wheat was hriifrn o«t 
with the old haiid’llall: to 
apiiwf (akin to fcotJui. a 
netcht) IS to hril with a heavy, 
and pommel with a blunt in- 
airtiment To t*iflrr amt to 
bfsiite refer to »he results of 
l>eatlnjT. that Is hi/trmi whkh 
is broken or defaced b** 

peated Wows on tlie surface tion, jorgin?. welding, defeat, 
(compare sjmonyms for shat- repulse, pulsation, throb, throb- 
ter) , that is bruised which ha* bing, saltation 
suffered even one severe contu- beating, a pulsating, pulsatile, 
Sion The metaphorical sense throbbing 
of heat, however, so far pre- beauteous, a beautiful, 
ponderates that one may be beautification, n embellishment 
very badl> bruised and battcreJ, beau, n lover, sweetheart, swam, 
and yet not be said to be beaten, flame, gallant, cicisbco, adnurer, 

unless he has got the worst of suitor, inamorato; dandy, pop- 

the beating To beat a combat* mjay, dude fop, coxcomb, ex- 
am is to disable or dishearteO quisite, blade 
him for further fighting Hence beautiful, a fair comely, lovely, 

heat becomes the synomm for 
every word which implies get* 
tms \Vit idvamage oi unovbet 
Ant fail, fall, get the worst of. 
go down, go under Almost all 
antonyms in this class are pas- 
sive, and can be formed indefi- 
nitely from the conquerinS 
words by the use of the aux- 
iliary be, as, be beaten, be de- 
feated, be conquered, etc 
beat, v overcome, sutpass, eon- 
Quer, vanouish, eclipse, worst, 
whip, subdue, cheemate, rout, 
excel, outdo, cheat, swindle, de- 
fraud, pulverize, comminute, 
bruise, bray, triturate, throb, 

He could easily beat them alL 
Look out or he will beat you out 
of all your savings 
"btat, n throb, pulsation; round; 

beat, a. (Colloq) exhausted, 
weary, fatigued, beaten, 
beat back, v repel, repulse, re- 

The enemy was beaten back. 

His manner repelled them 
fie repulsed all their advances. 
They resisted all our efforts 
beaten, a • conquered, defeated, 

beatific, a.- rapturous 
beating, n • castigation, flagella- 
t^ion, flogging, fustigation. dnib- 
bing,_ thumping mauling, ver- 
beration, pomrtelmg; rnaTlt»* 

handsome, personable, bewitch- 
ing. bonny, cliarming, delight* 
iul. elegant, exquisite, beaute- 
ous, fine, graceful, picturesque, 

Note The definition of beauty, 
“perfection of form," is a good 
key to the meaning of beautiful, 
if we understand ‘ form" in its 
widest sense These must also 
be harmony and unity, and in 
human beings spiritual loveli- 
ness. to constitute an object or 
a person really beautiful. Thus, 
we speak of a beautiful land- 
scape, a beautiful poem But 
beautiful implies also, in con- 
ere e objects, softness of out- 
line and delicacy of mold; it is 
opposed to all that is hard and 
rugged, hence we say a bfouli- 
ful woman, but not a beautiful 
man Beautiful has the further 
limit of not transcending our 
powers of appreciation. Pretty 
expresses in a far less degree 
that which is pressing to a re- 
fined taste in objects compara- 
tively small, slight, and dainty; 
as, a Pretty bonnet; a pretty 
Stirl That is handsome which 
is not only superficially pleasing, 
but well and harmoniously pro- 
portioned. with usually the 
added idea that it is made so 
t>v art. breeding, or training; 
«, a hawdsowv* botst’. i Ivuni- 


some hoii'c llandtome h a 
Icrii) fjr inferior to tieaiiliful, 
wc liny even >iy a kunlsome 
/ilh n lair duioli'i wlial m 

brn^lit, ^iiHiiiili, cleir, and with 

out i'lcinnli , ai, a fair face 1 he fir>n 
won! .ipjilie* wliully to what 
Miiirrliual, wc cm »«y yet tlicun 

fine' In a gpcvirii icntr fair t-nlxl 
111 ) ilic iciDc of blond, A) op Ad >111 

po)i,d to dark or lirnneiic One If ■•iii 

wlio |>U)irc))C) viviixy, wit beaver n 
Rooij iiiturc, or olitcr pkitinp becalm \ 
riuilitic) nuy be nKraitiit with bct-iuve a 
out beauty Conie/y denote) an nnnli 
aspett tliat I) iniootit, eeiiial 
and wlioirsome, witli a icrum 
fulliieo of conlutir and pIco 
ini; symmetry, llic fai>iii(; »>iofi 
of tbe be">ili/ii/. 3 ), A <v»iWy 
nnifon Tint d pu lun ffut 
wIikIi would iiiultc I iirikinK 

;jiiiilii(jj of !ii.r braiily 
( iimot be dovribcd 
Her iliirm wa) in her radiant 

Her «)«» were !icr ilncf <i//nif» 

i> Wouiis rcMlielit), XJ- 
xitfictuioM. xsllielf, 
otlicUiIoity, Apollo, 
Vcmn. IIcIjc, ilyperion. 

Akt awkward. (.liiiiKy fnxbtfid. 
RiiDlly, KrolD'ine Imleout, re* 
liuMvr, tliockiii)' u».ly. de* 
loriiicl dDKiDlim', vnin. pridy. 
iinittnctivc, inKunlli, tiiiKunly. 
iiiilevely, iiiiplcxani 
beautify, v. eiiibeltDb adorn. 
Rrace, pirnDli 

llicy t•raul|t,e^| the proiind) witb 

Itarc putitrct lulariuJ ibc wall) 
He i.niffi/ ilie nieenng by Id) 

Tlie dull wa) farjiij/ict/ with pu) 

beautifying, i ornamental 
beauty, ii lovcline)), tairno) ele 
Riiirc, prace, cMiwUilrnc)) 
cliiriii aitriclion, pul lintinle 

Her irnuly wi) in licr eolormp 
The fairnrst of her «kin con 
ir Died willi llic il irkirr)) of tier 
hair, made her rcein liill fairer 
She WI) iin|ire')cd by the efe- 
Sanet of lier iiirroimdmB) 

Slie wa) adiiiired for I 

oTi Hnause liicnlly fiy-caiiie, 
I) (tir moot direei iind complete 
word fill piviiip ihe rrDon of 
I (liiiiK 'mir. iiriKinally ilcnot* 
MiK ii<u))i»n III time, »i(rnirtea 
a Ml ((.onion in ii (Inin of rei* 
Miinp I iniiiral nilerenee or 
iroiili At mditair) lomrtlilnB 
like, (oordiii lie, nirallcl .Sinrr 
I) wrikcr ill in iirriTiiir, m is 
weiker iliaii sime, cither may 
Mitrodtiie the rca)oii heforc the 
111(111 Rtitrment, tliii). vine or 
,u you are friniiir I will ae* 
eoniiiiny >oii Often the weak- 
er woril 1) the more courtcui), 
iiiiplyihx Irocoii'lraiiit, ("K** 
iiifc <11 yon rc'iuett it, I will 
itl.rr 111 in 1 will eornc 
y<ni rr'iitc'l it /iiar- 
1 1) 1 formil and auih* 
reMiioii. iniplyiMK by iint 
II, and no more, ihui, 
h III the debtor In) no 
iwrty. I ftbimloii the claim 
, — . Kivini? 

.. , . :mIoii or mdi- 

eitiiii rather tlnii rn»on or 
time, a», it is mornnip. far 
(not Inaiist) the bird) are 

Awr dtlimipb yet liowcver, 
ncvcrthrle)) iiotwilint mdint,' 
bechance, v befall 
Vriifr Icckon, » wave 




before, prer preceding, abead of, 
anterior to, previously to, prior 
He su<]denl> appeared before 

On the preceding daj, wc ms- 
iteii the art galleries 
They walked j'liad of as 
This was done prc'iously to your 

beggar, n tramp, vagrant, mendi- 
cant, starveling, fakir, eleerrosy- 
nary, prog bezonian, mumper, 
schnorrer (Jeziish) 
beggar, \ impoverished, ruined, 
exhausted surpass, go beyond. 

Me vvj» le^sitrid by the bank’s 


This occurred prior to his leaving 
before death: anie-mortem 
before the flood antediluvian, an 

The house n as built before the 

It harks back to anKdduvtaa 

before the war ants- lel'uri 
He made hu lortune bifore the 

The storj’ was written m ouir- 
beUiiin d3>s. 
befoul, V foul, 
befnend, v help, 
belnending, n favor 
befuddle. V confused, mystified, 
bew ildered 

Their plans were befuddled by hi$ 

He was eonfutid at their inquiry 
They were myrtnfed bv his an- 

She was bwldereJ by the qoes- 

beg, V." beseech, implore, ask 
They begged us to accompany 

He beroughi their help 
He tmflored their forgiveness 
They asked alms of the passers- 

Ant • claim, command, demand 
enforce, exact, insist, require 
beget. V. engender, generate; 
breed, get. procreate. 

Like things beitet like things 
His actions ensendered strife 
Fire generates heat 
Certain mo quitoes (Sregomyia) 
breed the malarial’ germ 
begetting a. breeding. 

The jniily was impo" erished 

Hi business is riiii cd 

Thev have txhaust^d their re- 

H 3 expenditures ii<rpo« his in- 

lle has gone beyond hiS means 
beggarly, a indigent destitute, 
despKvbe, pitiable, paltry 
\ /» , r/y income was allotted 
h m 

The family became indigent 
through carelessness 
They were distiMe of means 
His attitude is despuable 
A paltry sum was given him 
beggary, n mendn-aney. indi- 
gence, penury, want, pauperism, 
begging, a mendicant 
begin. V commence, arise, orig< 
innate , . , 

The exercises began at 8 o’elocifc 
Begin, as an \ngto-Saxon word 
IS preferable to comnirnre 
A heated discussion arose as to 
the practicability of the plan. 
The plan eriiiiiafcrf with him. 

Ant See achieve, 
begin again resume. 

The clas'es will begin again this 

They have rcfiiwirrf tntir studies. 
be'^^Ilcr. ii novice, apprentice, 
" understudy tyro, neophyte, 
learner, novitiate, probationer, 
catechumen, recruit 
She was a beginner m the class 
beginning, n commencement, in- 
eeption, opening, outset, initia- 
tion. mehoation, incipience, nas- 
cency, incipiency, threshold, ty- 
ronism, novitiate, origin, source 
The have made a good beginning 


lie first eonnsencement of Har- 
vard was m 1742 

It was disco\'ered at its inception. 
The date o{ ofsmng will be an- 

At the outlet the plan seemed 

The intliation of the officers will 
take place to-night 
The origin of the story was easdj 

He was the source of their infor- 

Ant : close, completion, conclu- 
sion, consummation, end, termi- 

beginning again, resumption, re- 
begird, v belt 
be grieved at: lay to heart, 
begone, inter] avaunt, 
begrime, ' blacken, 
begrunmed, a . dirty, 
begrudge, v. grudge 
beguile, v mislead lure, deceive, 
insnare, cheat, while away. 

He was beguiled into accompany- 
ing them. 

beguilement, n.. imposition, de- 

behalf, n benefit, 
behave, v.- deport one's self, act, 

The children behaied well 
He has deported himself becom- 

They have acted w isely 
She has borne herself creditably, 
behave toward; use 
behavior, n,, conduct, bearing, 
breeding, carnage, actions, de- 
meanor, deportment, manner, 

His behavior was good 
^eir conduct ts deplorable. 

His actions were suspicious 
His demeanor was beyond criti- 

The child's deportment was good. 
Nota: Behavior vs o-ar erlitm in 

the presence of others; conduct 
includes also that which is 
(.jiawn only to ourselves and 
our Maker Comoge expresses 
simply the manner of holding 
the Ixjcly, especially m sitting or 
walking, as when it is said of a 
lady she has a fine carnage" 
Bearing refers to the 'uod l> ex- 
pression of feeling Of d sposl- 
tion, as, a haughty bearing, a 
noble bearing Demeanor is the 
bodil) expression, not only of 
feelings, but of moral states, 
as, a devout demeanor. Breed- 
ing, unless with some adverse 
limitation, denotes that manner 
and conduct which result from 
good birth and training De- 
portment IS behavior as related 
to a set of rules, as. the pupil's 
deportment was faultless. A 
person's manner may be that 
of a roment, or toward a sin- 
gle person, his manners are his 
habitual style of behavior to- 
ward or before others, especial- 
ly in matters of et»)uette and 
politness, as, good manners are 
alwa>s pleasing 

behead, \ decapitate, decollate, 

The prisoner was beheaded. 
beheading, ii . decapitation, decol- 
lation, execution, 
behest, n bidding, 
behindhand, a and adv.: in ar- 
rears, behind; dilatory, late, 
tardy, unpunctual. 

He was behindhand with bis 

They were in arrears with theif 

He IS behind in his studies. 

He was dilatory in his attendance. 
They were late in arriving. 

He was lardy with his report. 
They were unpunctual at their 

behind, adv.: behindhand. 


behInJ, prep.' at the Inek of. Ant non-ftmtcncc, iioiittitily. 
He w.n behind the others in llie be in need of, lack 
class be 111 unison; clilnic 

He ito'xj al the back of the clinr be Irresolute sliilly-glially. 
behold, V.: conlciii|ifatr, Rare, belabor. \ tKinirncI 

look, observe, rcgird, scan, see, belitcd, i beinj/litcd 

iiirvcy, view bclcli, v expel throw up, cruet, 

\Vc beheld them at i dislMiec crimite 

They (oiileinflnle going vliruid I he Unties behlied from the fur- 
We K'licd in riplurc .it the scene in e 
They looked .it the intHire tnii- I hr wells erf-rllid gises 
Cilty fhe V ill mo Ihrni ii/i lava 

He W IS cifirrrtei/ hy tinny sper- belching » eruililini 
taturg belihme. n fury 

They reearded the jwssblc out belfry n hell lower, eamninlle, 
come I lie lelfry was iiriirk by liglit* 

He iiflijo / the notes briefly iiinc; 

They that the erforl was use- belief. ■■ credence, peritiaslon, 
faiili, coiivution, Bisurimcc, 
rniihdriK r d>clrinei Intnillon; 
tenet, dogma freed, opinion, 
eiift view principle, inpergli* 
lion fiiMlicism 

Ills belief in tlieir Inleerlty Is 

Arsimi/itso Wosns crednbmi, 
nil rr<lnloiii irediility, credibit* 
ity meredibilily, gitll, gullible. 

He iiiriryfj llic groimd eireftilly 
He t lettvcf ibc work thoiighifiilly 
Ant ihsrcg.ird, fill to see. Ig- 
nore, inns, overlook 
beholden, v indeldcd bound 
He is beluildeu to no one 
He is indebted to ibem for help 
They were bound by a promnc 
beholder, n. spectator, witneg*. 


Ant doubt disbelief, gkrpllelsm, 
iKgivIns, incre'liillty, denial, 

cye*wilnc's niilonkcr 
One til the beholders reported the 

Wc were sfeelalors nt the gmic disini’. 

He W1S n td/nci/ to the fact believable, a credible 
He W1S an eye-wincss to the The iiory is not behefoble 
nlTair, A credible reimri was given them 

They were onlookers at the party believe, n mipiiose 

believe ' hive faith. 

He betieird their itifement 
They had foilh m his nWlify 
belittle. V Ileiry, disparage, un- 
slernlf dcprcciair 
They behlllr hii cfTorls 
iiie slatcnicMl was decried by ail 
«s false 

They disforased all inch doc- 

Ills talents have hern undrrraled. 
The properly lias depreciated in 
i'x'KT, value 

onto' bell, n campana, carillon, curfew, 
tociln, gong. 

they w 

beholding, a leeing 
behoof, II interelt. 
behoove, v.- stand In hand, 
be Immincnts threaten 
be in accord: synitialhire. 
be Inadequate: f.ill short 
being, n existence, entity. 

New life 
Its previo 

Man Ins an <->ifi/y Independent 
of ! Is eorpofc d exlstenec 
Assfii lATrn Womis oiitoloRy, 


Associate!! WoRcs: canpanoloo', 
campanolosist, peal, nng, knell, 
toll, chime 

bellicose, a pugnacious, belliger- 
ent, at war, warring 

He was of a bellicose disposition 

They were ptigtiacious towards 
each other 

The nations were helltRercni 

Our countr> was then c/ nar 

The tiAirr-iiig nations have signed 
the treatj 

Ast genial, gentle, good tem- 
pered. mild, peaceable, Lnwar- 

belligerent, a warring, millitant. 

bellicose, pugnacious 
bell-ringer, n sexton 
bell-tower, n helfrj 
belly, n. abdomen, paunch, re- 
cesses, /e>ir(ra/ia, depths 
belly-band, n girth surcingle, 
belittling, n deer al 
belladonna, n nightshade 
bellarmine, n jug. 
belligerenee, n fight 
bellow, V roar, 
bellowing, n roar, 
belonging, n appendage, acces- 
sary, attribute, appurtenance, 
adjunct concomitant 

Their belongtngs have been 

It was an appendage to the origi- 

All unneee‘5aTy accessartes were 

The attribute of kindness was 
alien to these people, 
belongings, n , pk. things, 
beloved, a precious, 
below, ad\ under, beneath, un- 

A shout was heard beloze. 
below, prep.: under, beneath, un- 
derneath, inferior to; unnortby 
of, unbefitting 

This is 6efoi-> the average. 

They placed it under the picture. 

It is beneath their notice 

This grade i^ n 'erjar Ip that, _ 
He IS un7ccrtliy of her attention 
The remark is tinle^lling her no- 

belt, M girdle, girth, surcingle, 
cincture, cestus, zone; bando- 

belt, » encircle, encompass, sur- 
round begird 

Thei lelied the tree with pairt. 
I he olficcrs enurcled the buildirg 
They were emompassed by dan- 

The. surrounded the grounds 
with guards 
be merciful, spare 
bemoan, s lament, bewail, de- 

He bemoaned his fate; 

He lamented hi« many failures. 
He bniviled his misfortune. 

He deplored the situation, 
bef oflle, n wrap, 
beneath, adx below 
bench, n form, workbeneh; seat. 
Tl.e bench has been painted. 

A form has been constructed 
Hjs ttork‘heneh lias been moted. 
bend. » deflect, crocik, flex, curse; 
direct, turn, apply, stoop, in- 
cline, yield, condescend 
The rod has been betif. 

It had been euned in this direc- 

She direeled her attention to 

They turned in our direction. 

He applied his energy towards 
helping them 
He stooped to pick it up 
She tneltned her head towards 

They yielded to his persuasion. 
They condescended to listen to 

AssoaATZD Words • bias, baw, de- 
viate, dnerge. influence, mold, 
persuade, submit, warp 

Note. In a few instances a line 


spoken of as ifjif 'Rhere the 
two parts make an ansle. but 
ord iiarily to l^cud is andersto^ 
to be to draw to or throusli a 
cur\e, as, to bend a bow To 
or jield IS to bend the 
mind humbly to another s 
wishes To ine/me or tndiicnie 
IS to bend another’s wishes to- 
ward our own, to tf'svade n 
to draw them quite over To 
Ti-ur^ IS to bend silently through 
the whole fiber, as a board in 
the sail To crook is to bend 
irregularly, as a crooked stick 
Df'/iCi, denote, and dnerge are 
said o{ any turning away, de* 
tsiiie commonly of a slight and 
gradual movement, d««rgf of a 
more sharp and decided one 
To biat IS to cut across the tci- 
ture, or incline to one side m 
figurative use always with an 
Unfavorable import Mold is a 
stronger word than bend w« 
imy bend by superior force tliai 
whicli still resists the con* 
straint; as, a bent bow. we 
Hold something plastic entirely 
to some desired form 
bend, n curve, deflection crootc. 
curvature, bight, coil, flexure, 

The bend of the road was their 

bendable, a flexible, supple, lithe, 
pliable, pliant 
The stick is not bendable 
This rod is flexible 
She IS subfile m her movements 
The child IS hi/te and gay 
The maternl is pliable 
Ant inflexible, unqielding, rigid, 
resolute, steadfast 
benedict, n husband, 
benediction, n . blessing 
benefaction, iw donation 
benefactor, n.. patrol 
beneFce, n • parsonage, living 
(Cecl)', sinecure 

beneficence, n bounty, 
beneficent, a benevolent char- 
itable pfiihnthropic, magnani- 
mous, binignant 
The act was beneHceiit 
They orgmized a benetolent so- 

The inooev was raised for ehoyi- 
tal U purposes 
lie IS fUtltulhropic 
She was >iiai,iia”iMOUS in her cnt- 

beneficia! a aihantageous profit- 
able useful, wholesome, good, 
helpful salutary 
IU\ ceaihiiigs arc benedctal 
The position is od^antageous 
The huMiiiss 1$ proHiabte 
This article is quite useful. 
kour idvicc !' lihoUsome 
His influence is good 
Ills '•Hggistions are helpful 
The lesson was a saluury one 
Ant detrimental, harmful, la- 
yunous. piejudictal 
beneficiary, n recipient 
benefit, ii avail profit behalf, 
advantage, service 
He denied great beneltt from the 

Their pleading was of no awif 
His proM was small 
lie spoke m their behalf 
it was of odinnioit to him 
They rendered valuable amice 
Ant calamity, danger, detriment, 
injury, loss, privation 
benefit, v help conduce, avail, 
advantage, be useful to, do 
good to 

He benefited by the change 
Your advice helped him 
They profiled by their experience 
He tmproied hiS metliods 
benevolence, n beneficence, 
bounty charity, benignity 
They spoke of her benet-olenee 
Her beneficence is well known 
Their boBiifj is unlimited 
She would receive no chanty 
Associated Words almsgiving. 


charity, generosity, good will, 
humanity, kind - heartedness, 
kindliness kindness, liberality, 
mnnihcence, phiianthropj , sym- 

Note According to the etymol- 
osv and ougmat usage bencfi- 
rriicf IS the doing well /ern— o- 
Icnce the wishing or willing 
well to others, but hene-'otenfe 
has come to include ftewcAfenff, 
and to displace it We should 
not now speak of hcnnwience 
which did not help unless 
•where there was no power to 
help, eien then we should 
rather sa> ^ooi mil or n»«/>a- 
tfey Chorif\, which ongmallj 
meant the purest lore lor God 
and man (as m 1 Cor xin), ts 
now almost universalij applied 
to some form of ahnsgnnnc. 
and IS touch more limned in 
meaning than bcnci < irn(e Be- 
nigiiiti suj^ests some occult 

f ewer of blessing, such as was 
ormerlj ascribed to the stars, 
we sav a good man has an air 
of bcKigiiiU Kindness and ten- 
derness are personal, leneto- 
knee and chartt\ arc general 
Kindness extends to all sentient 
beings whether men or animals, 
in prospentj or in distress 
Tenderness cspenalh goes ont 
toward the jourg feeble and 
need}', or even to the dead 
Humaniii/ IS so much htndness 
and tenderness townrd man or 
beast as it would he inhninan 
not to have we saj of snme act 
of care or kindness “eonmon 
humanity requires it" Crner- 
IS self-forgetful htndness 
in disposition or action it in- 
cludes much besides giimg: as, 
the generorifv of forgiveness 
Bounty applies to ample giving, 
which on a larger scale is ex- 
pressed ty muni^ccnce Ltber- 

eltty indicates broad, genial, 
kindly views, whether mani- 
fested in gifts or otherwise. 
We speak of the bounty of a 
generous host, the liberality or 
tnuKi£rmte of the founder of 
a college or of the liberality of 
a theologian toward the hold- 
ers of conflicting beliefs Phi- 
lanthiofy applies to wide 
schemes for human welfare, 
often, but not alwavs. involving 
large expenditures m chanty or 
bene: aknee 

Ant barbann. brutalitj. churl- 
ishness, greediness harshness, 
illiberahtj in will inhumanity, 
malevolence nalignitj. mB- 
gardlincss selfishness, stingi- 
ness unkmdness 

bea 'olent, a benefieent benign, 
bountiful, charitable, philan- 

bmighted, a unenlightened. 

The people were hentti^He^ 

They lived in an unenhs^lened 

benign, a gracious, 
benignant, a Vnnd 
benignity, a good nature, 
benison, n blessing 
bent, a crooked, determined. 

The rod is bent 
The stick is crooked 
He is detet nvned to pufush the 

bent, n leaning tendency, pre- 
disposition. b as, proclivity, 

His hcvt is towards a profession 
benumb, i stupefy, blunt, hebe- 

Continued exposure benumbed 
his feelings 

The drug stupefied kim 
Abuse had blut ted his finer 

benumber. a.' unfeeling, stupefied 
His feelings were benumbed 
be obeisant: bow. 
be of i-nportanoe: matter. 

be on the outlook: v^atch. 
be profitable: pay. 
be prolific: team 
be proportionate: match, 
bequeath, % will, devise, trans* 
mit, hand down. 

He bequeathed his fortune to 

He u tiled them his books 
bequest, n . legacj 
This was his bequest to the fam- 

His legaey is a large once 
berate, s upbraid, reprimanded, 
censure, rate 
He berated them publicly 
bereavement, n. mourning, 
be released; get ofi 
be reluctant: hang back, 
berm, n • path. 

ben ben, n paralysis oedema 
berry, n • kernel, fruit, pericarp, 

Associated Woids baccate bac* 
cated baccworous bacciferous, 
coceiferous, bacciforci 
berth, n bed 
be ruled by: obey, 
beryl, n. store 

beseech, entreat, supplicate, 
implore, adjure 
beseeching, a • appealing, 
beseem, seem 

beset, V. besiege, obsess, be- 
leaguer, environ, encompass, 
perplex, harass 
He was beset by many fears 
The fort was besieged 
He was obsessed with the idea 
The enemy eiicompassed them 
The situation perplexed them 
They were harassed by bis prcs- 

besides, adv.- moreover, further- 
more, further, too. 
besiege, v . beset 
besiegement, n • siege, 
besmear, v daub 
besmeared, v.- dirty, 
besmirch, v blacken 
be EoLcitous: worry. 

u broom, 
be sorry for: regret, 
besot, V stupefy 
besotted, a drunk, 
bespangle, v star, 
bespangled, a starry, 
bespeckled, a spoiled 
besprinkle, v sprinkle 
best, a xuprerae consummate, 
superlative crowning, incom- 
parable utmost 
This I® the best plan. 

He mide a supreme sacrifice 
He was a (ousummaie artist 
Superhii e happiness was now 
his experience 
It was hi< rrouiiiiig effort 
it 1$ of tneomparable value 
He has the utmost conndence m 

bestial, a brutal 
bestiality, n debauchery 
bestir, V stir 
bestow \ crant 
bestowal, n giving, 
bestrew, v strew 

bestnde, v mount 
bestud, V adorn 
bet, n wager, suke 
bet, V wager stake 
betake, v get 
bete noire bugbear 
bethel, n chapel 
bethlehem. n insane asylum 
bettde, v befall 

betoken, V foreshadow, portend, 
presage, foreshow, indicate, 
augur bode 

The signs betoken a change 
The results w-ere foreshadowed 
This event portends troub e 
The facts presage his success 
This indteates his inrocence 
The facts augur well lor his suc- 

His actions bode evil 
betray, v beguile, seduce mis- 
lead delude, inveigle, reveal, 
disclose give up treacherously, 
give over to the enemy, act tne 
traitor, be faUe to 


lie has betroied his trust. 

A" . cherjsli, conceal, cover, 
aid, loster, pieseive, piotcct, 

betrr^al, n treason, treachery, 
r*rfidy, revelation, exposure, 

I’e is responsible for their t<- 

He has committed treason 
Ills treachery had not been sus- 

Ihs peHidy cost us dear 
It was a rnelaiion of the truth 
The exposure of the crune was a 

betr..yer, n : traitor, seducer. Ju- 

betroth, V.: aRlancc 

T! e couple became betrothed his friends were a/Haneed 
betrothal, n. alTiance. betroth- 

better, n.* upperhand, advantage, 
control, domination, superior- 
ity, improvement 
better, V. ameliorate, improve, 
emend, promote, reform, meli- 
orate, amend 

They have bettered their condi- 

Hj has iinproted the opportunity 
They are promoting their 

He has reformed his policy 
bettarment, n. improvement, pro- 
motion, amendment reforma- 
tion, amelioration 
It IS for the betterment of the 

An improzement has been made 
They_ sought the promotion of 
their plans 

A reformation has been started 
betty, n.* bar 
betty, n flask, 
between, n : prep : betwixt 
This is betueen you and me 
between, adv. during interval, at 
intervals in intervening space 
He vs vieskveg haii, and stodyms 


bevel, n . edge.^ 
beverase, n. diink. 
bev'y, n flock, covey, herd, group, 
A bety of girls entered the room. 
A dock of geese flew overhead 
He aimed at a eozey of birds. 

The hunters located a herd of 

A group of children were play- 

bewail, V bemoan, 
bevnldsr, \ confuse, perplex, 
nonplus, confound, mystify, em- 
barrass, obfuscate. 

The sounds beztilierei them. 
They were confused over the re- 

His actions perplexed them. 

He nonplussed the judge. 

He confounded his hearers 
They were mystified by hii proph- 

He was emborrassei by tbttf 

bewildering a : confusing, perplex- 
ing, puaalmg, mystifying, 
bewilderment, n perple'city, coo- 
fusion, mystification 
They showed their bnilierment 
m their faces 

bewitch, v.' charm, fascinate, cap- 
tivate, enamor 
Her smiles bewitched him 
They were charmed by her mat^ 

The picture fascinated us 
Tlrey were eapitivled by his 

He was enamored with her 

Aijt.: disillusioniae, repel, dis- 

bewitchery, n • fascination, 
bewitching, a.' enchanting, capti- 
vating, charming, irresistible. 
Her smile is bezcitching 
bewitchment, n ■ fascination, 
bey, n ruler, 
bezonian, n ‘ scoundrel 

-a c haki-ytaTly. 

bias, n bent, proneness, predis' 
position, prejudice 
There was a bias in his favor 
His bent is towards music 
Proneiiess to neglect his duty 
caused his discharge 
He had a predispostUon to pro- 

He could not overcome his early 
biased, a. partial 
Bible, n the Scriptures, the Word 
of God; (CotAo/ie) Douay Bi- 
ble, Vulgate, (AJoJiommedM) 

Associated Words canonics, 
canon, canonical, anagogics, 
anagoge, exegesis, tHblica), bib- 
licist, bibliolater, biblioUlry 
bibliology, biblist bibhomancy 
Hagiographa, hagiogr a p h e r 
hagiologirt, hagiologs commen 
tator, Heptateuch, Htxapla 
Octapla, Apocrypha. Ilexa 
teuch, apologetics concordance 
synoptist, iincanonieal. Homo 
logoumena, Antilegomena 
bibliolatry, ti book worship 
l^bliology, n book lore, 
bibliophile, n book-lover 
bibliopole, n bookseller 
bibliopolist, n bookseller 
bibulous, a absorbent. cup-Iov- 
ing, intemperate, bibaaous 
bicephalous, a two-headed 
bicipital, a double-headed 
bicipitous, a double headed 
bicker, v dispute 
bickering, n altercation conten- 
tion, 'parring, wrangling, dis- 
sen'ion, quarrel 

There wis constant biekenng 
among them 
bicuspids, n , pi teeth 
bid, V.’ proiTer, offer, direct, en- 
join, order, command , ask, in- 
vite; salute, i\i<h, greet 
He bade them good-night 
bid, n proposal. 

He made a bid on the new bnild- 

His proposal was not accepted 
bidding, n order, behest, com- 
mand, dictation, offer, bid 
They hastened to do his bidding 
bide, V inhabit, reside, abide, en- 
dure, suffer, wait for 
He bided his time 
biennial, n thing existing for two 
years held once m two years 
The onion is a biennial 
The biennial was a great success 
bier, n frame, support, coffin, 

bifacial, a tivo faced 
bifold, a double 
bifurcate, a two forked 
bifnreated, a forked 
bifarcatwn, n branching 
big, a large bulky, massive, huge, 
voluminous, capacity, immense, 
gross, extensive, pregnant; 
magisterial, arroganf, overbear- 
ing, lordly, pompous, bombas- 
tic, grandiloquent, grandiose) 
highllown. sesquipedalian, la- 
flafed, turgtd 

bigamy, n polygamy, polygyny, 
bigness, n sice, bulk, magnitude, 
dimensions, volume, amplitude, 
largeness mass 

The bigness of his task impressed 

biget, fl fanatic aealot, dogmat- 

A man cm be a bigot in what he 
disbelieves as m what he be- 

The man is a farustie 

He IS a sealot on the aubj'ect. 

The dosii'olist IS given over to 
magisterial opinions 
bigoted, a dogmatic, narrow- 

minded, intolerant, illiberal 
He IS bigoted in his opinions 
bigotry, n narrow-mindedness, 


Ills bifotry was offensive 
btjou. n trinket 
bijouteria, n jewelry 
bilateraf, a iwosided 
bile, n fluid, secretion. 

AssoaATCD Words: acholia, acho> 
lous, biliation, bilifcrous, chole- 
cystis, bilious, choheoffuc, chol- 
eric, choledo!og>, fellintc, hy- 
percholia, biliary, biliOi cholcic 
bile, n.: choler, bitterness, anger, 
rancor, spleen, acrimony 
bill, n.: circular, dodger, poster, 
placard, broadside, bulletin, in- 
voice, statement, beak, mandi- 
ble, mb. 
billet, n- note 
billet, n.. stick 
billet d'amour. love-letter 
billet doux: love-letter. 

Billiken, n idol, god of happiness 
billingsgate, n tirade, invective, 
vituperation, ribaldry, abuse 
bill o! fare, menu, carte 

He read oter the bill of fare. 
The menu was tempting 
The service was a U carle 
billow, n wave. 

Billy goat, n. goat. 

VuTutnous, a two-handed, 
bln, n crib, receptaele, bunker. 
A hi» was built for the coal 
The gram was placed in the ertb. 
A large receptacle is needed. 

The bunkers were filled. 

Binary, a. two-fold 
bind, v.. better, shackle, tie, fasten, 
secure, confine, restrict, re- 
strain; bandage, swathe; obli- 
gate, lay under obligation; con- 
firm, sanction, ratify, appren- 

Note’ Binding is primarily by 
something flexible, as a cord or 
bandage drawn closely around 
an object or group of objects, 
as when wc bind up a wounded 
limb. We bind a sheaf of wheat 
with a cord; we tie the cord in 
a knot; we fasten by any means 
that will make things hold to- 
gether, as a board by nails, or 
a door by a lock. The verbs 
Ue and fasten are scarcely used 
in the figurative sense, thou^ 

using the noun, we speak of the 
ttes of affection. Bind has an 
extensive figurative use One 
IS bound by conscience or hon- 
or. he is obliged by some im- 
perious necessity, engaged by 
Ins own promise, compelled by 
physical force or its moral 

Akt free, loose, set free, un- 
bind, unfasten, unloose, untie, 
binding, n bandage, obligation, 
restriction, ligature, ligation, 
astriction, construction, re- 
straint, galloon, swaddling 

The binding has been tom off the 

binding, a astringent, astrictive; 
obligatory, valid. 

Aut optional, electivt 
binacle, n box, case, 
binate, a double, 
binacular, n field glass, opera 
glass, bmocle. 

binomial, a binominal, two* 

The binomial system of nomeo* 
clature is now used exclusively 
biogen, n. unit, protoplasm; 

(bypothetieal, od, soul-stuff); 
biogenesis, n. life-generation, bio* 

Associated Words : oogenesis, 
oology, cmbryolo^. 

OlTOSED Word* abiogenesii 
biography, n : life, 
biology, n.: life-science, life-lore, 
biontology, n.; physiology, trans- 

biped, a : two-legged, 
bioplasm, n,; germinal matter, 
bioplast, n.; formative germ, 
biplane, n.; flying machine, 
bird, n.: animal, vertebrate, san- 
rapsidan, Avis, (young) fledg- 
ling, nestling (one year old); 
annotine; squab; rara avis 
(rare bird), 
bird-catcher, n ; fowler, 
bird-catching, n : fosvlmg, birding. 
bird of Jove: eagle. 

bird of Juno: peacock. crumb; in.te, ace, scintilla, par- 

birds, n , pi • Aves; Avifauna ticlc, whit, iota, tittle, gram. 

Associated Words . ornithology, atom, jot, molecule, speck, mote, 
ornithologist, ornithlogical, or- bit by bit. piecemeal 
nilhotomy, orniUiography, or- bite, v cliew, champ, nibble; 
nithotd, ornitholite, ornithon, sting, tingle, _ smart, take hold 
ornithophilous, game, ornithic, 
aviary, avicular, aviculture, 
covey, neossology, paleomithol- 
ogy, taxidermy, taxidermist, 
preen, rookery, cote, hutch, 
coop, cage, avian, poult, auspice, 
ariel, mute, blallophaga 
birr, n whirring 
The birr of the machine was 
plainly heard. 

_Its uhirring unnerved her. 
birth, n ‘ origin, beginning, nativ- 

it), extraction, lineage, nascen- set 

cy, genesis; (new birth) regen- His hopes were cwrlerf 
eration, renaissance, palingene- bite, n mouthful; vvhelp, wheaL 
SIS. regencsis biting, a. stinging, sharp, sarcas* 

They celebrated the day of his tic, caustic, catting, scathing, 

birth. biirer, pungent, piquant, latir* 

Associates Words : natal, native, seal, nipping, blasting, corro- 

prenatal, post-natal, ante-natal, siv^ acrid, erosive, mordant^ 

abortion, congenital, connate, bitter, a acid, sour, acerb, in- 
connascent. connascence, hero- tense, poignant; 

of, adhere, blight, nip, blast. 

He btl the apgle in two pieces. 
She chened the end oi her penciL 
The horse champed his bit 
The bird nibbled at the leaf 
She was stung b) the bee. 

Her fingers tingled with cold. 

Her arm smarts with pam 
He takes hold of the work readily. 
He adheres closely to his work. 
His ambition was blighted 
They nxpped hw plans at the ool- 

scope, genial, genethliac, ge- 
nethlialogy, genethliacs. sooter- 
kin, uniparous, biparous. plun- 
parous, viable, viability, primi- 
parous, natality 
birthmark, n.: nasvus, 
birthright, n.‘ inheritance. 

Freedom was his birthright. 

He had a large inheruance. 
bisect, V.: cut 
bisecting, n : halving 
bisexual, a.: hermaphrodite, 
bishop, n : prelate, diocesan, coad- 
jutor, metropolitan, suffragan 
A new bishop has been appointed 
Associated Words episcopal, 
episcopacy, bishopdom, eptsco- 
picide, crosier, chimere, episct^ 
pate, rochet, gremial. 
bishopric, n diocese, see. 
bisque, n soup, 
bissextile, n leap-year, 
bit, n.: mor°eI, fragment, scrap, 


acrimoniousT distressing, viru- 
lent , implacable, bitmg. caustie, 
euumg, harsh, pungent, sharft 
stinging, tart, vinegarish, acrid, 

Note rirtil. sour, and bitter 
agree m being contrasted with 
meet, but the two former are 
sharply distinguished from the 
latter rind or «»r is the taste 
of vinegar or lemon-juice, bit- 
ter that ol quassia, qmmn or 
strychnin Acrid is nearly allied 
to bitter Pungent suggests the 
effect of pepper or snuff on the 
organs of taste or smell, as, a 
Pungent odor Couilir indicates 
the corroding effect of some 
strong chemical, as nitrate ot 
silver In a figurative sense, as 
applied to language or charac- 
ter. these words are very closely 

allied. We say a sour face, black and blue spot: ccehjnoiii 

sharp wordj, bitter complaints, suggillation. 

caustic wit, CHlting irony, Siting black art: necromancy, magic. 

sarcasm, a rtiHfiiHg taunt, harsh sorcery, conjuration. 

j’udgment, a tart reply Harsh blacken, v. darken; besnurcii 

carries the idea of inrcntiona] tarnish, discolor, defame, ma 

and severe unkindness, Litter of lign 

a severity that arises from real His shoes were blackened. 

or supposed ill treatment The They daikened the room. 

bitter speech springs from the llis face was besmirched 

sore heart Tart and sharp ul- The brass is tarnished 

terances may not proceed from The goods became discolored 

an intention to wound, but He wa$ defamed by h.s enemy. 

merely from a wit recklessly He was greatly maligned. 

keen; cutting, stinging, and bit- blackguard, n scoundrel, Mllian, 

ing speech indicates more or ruiTian, rascal 

less of hostile intent, the latter The man it a blackguard. 

being the more deeply malicious He proved to be a scoundrel 

The caustic utterance is meant He is not a tillain 

to burn, perhaps wholesomely, He is a rvfTan as well as a 

as in the satire of Juvenal or rascal 

Ccnantes. blackguard, a vicious, opprobri- 

ous, foul, scurrilous 

A?tT ouleet, honeyed, luscious, blackguardism, n rufTianisn 'as 
nectared, saccharine, sweet cahiy, scoundr<*li m, iej*r hty, 

bitterness, n acridity, acerbity, billingsgate 

wormwood, gall, poignancy, blaekhearted, a villai.iou*. a' an 
severity, intensity, rancor, im- doned, bare, depraved 
plaeableness, mahce, malignity His schemes arc tiltamous 
The bitterness of the herb does A blackhearted villain, he s*** 
not afTect its medicinal proper- moved by her tears 
ties, She Ltcame an abandoned C'fa* 

The bitterness of his attack was ture. 
resented by his hearers. His motive was base. 

bitumen, n pitch IIis nature is depraved 

bituminous coal: soft coal. blackness, n black, ni,' ' ide, 

bivouac, n. camp. atrocity, htinousne's, den'ivvty 

bizarre, a fantastic, whimsical, blade, n. leaf (of a jihntl. ^pirc 
gTOtesque. (ofgra's) , buck, gallant, dandy. 

The decorations were bizarre. blamable, a culpable, cen* raMe. 
^e story is fantastic. reprehensible 

His ideas are uhimsical. He is not llamable for the cri-ie. 

The figure is grotesque. The child is not eulpoUe. 

blab, V.: tell tattle. Their plans arc eensurable 

black, a • ebon, inky, sable, Cim- The error is reprehensible. 
mcrian, Stygian, lowering, blame, v : censure, reproach 
murky; negro Ethiopian. He was blamed for the trouble 

black, n.: smorch, stain, Ethio- He should not be censured 
pi^n, iregro. They reproached him harshly, 

blackamoor, n.. negro. Asr.: See acquit 

black and blue: livid, ecchymosed. blame, n.. censure, reproach, strl*- 


tude, animadversion, rondemna* 
tion, reproof, fault, culpability, 
reprchensibility, dement, wrong- 

No blame was attached to dieir 

blameless, a ■ guiltless, faultless, 
unimpeachable, irreproachable, 
irreprehcnsiblc, inculpable 
blamelessness, n.: innocence 
blameworthy, a,, censurable, blam- 

The min is f'/diiirttortAy 
The deed is not censurable 
He IS blamoble for the crime 
blanch, v.: whiten, make lustrous, 
remove covering 
Ills face blanched at the sight 
She blanched the almonds 
blanched, a * pale 
blanching, a bleaching 
bland, a affable, complaisant, 
suave, molhfving, soothing, as- 
suisive, emollient, demuhiiit 
blandiloquence, n blandishment 
blandiloquent. a flattering 
blandish, v Hatter, circss cnjiile 
Vlaiitshed by his flatterers, he fell 
into evil ways 

He was greatly (laiiereJ by the 

They carnsed the child 
Sire was ea<iU aijoled into com- 
plying with tlicir wishes 
blandislier, n flatterer 
blandishment, n cajolery. 
\ hcedlmg, caresses blandilo- 

blank, a \nid emptj. unfilled; 
expressionless, vacant con- 
founded nonpUived astonished, 
unmilia'aied absolute, down- 

bhre, \ bellow, trumpet 
blare, n raeUrt 

blarney, n (Colloql hlandilo- 
(jucncc palaver blandistinicnt 
cajoKrj, llattcrj 

blarney, v llatlcr. cajole, palaver, 
vvlicvd'c. Wandi'li 

llasc, a s irfeited (with pleas- 

ure), palled, sated 
He was worn-out and blase 
lie wis siirftiled with pleasure 
Satiety soon falls ihe senses 
Ills appetite was soon sated 
blaspheme, v swear 
blasphemous, a profane 
blasphemy, n sacrilege, profan- 
ity calumny 

blast, II gust squall, clang. 

Wirt explosion, di'Charge 
blast V blight, smite clestroy; 
frustrate, ruin, explode, rend 


blasting II blighting, smiting, 
carmiiiiuialion , frustration, 

blat. V Meal 

blatant a clamorous, brawling, 
bawling obstreperous, braying 
Ills voice was blatant 
A ilameiraus throng crowded 
aroimtl him 

Tlie bra 1 lui/f mob hurried cn. 
The haying of the animal an* 
nojed him 
blaxe, n Dame 

biasing a flaming, ablaze, 

Thi biasing logs soon cheered the 
tired travelers 
Ant imoMertng 
blazon, v emlilazon, display, ex- 
liibit publish 

bleaih V whiten blanch, etiolate 

Note To K'/iitrii IS to iiinAr nhite 
in general, but commonly it 
means to overspread with white 
coloring m liter Dtcieli and 
Wall A both signify to ti/iitrn bj 
depriving of color, the former 
pcriinncnll), as linen, the latter 
either permanently (as, to 
WiinrA celery) or temporarily 
fax to tiaiuh the cheek with 

Ant blacken color, darken, dye. 
soil stain 

bleaching, n blanching, whiten- 
ing, etiolation 

Weak, a cheerless, ra\/. penelrat- 
ing, desolate, drear, windswept. 
A bleak wind was Wowinff 
The rooms were cheerless. 

The air is razv 
The wind is /■fitc/rotin,!; 

The country was desolate. 

The di) 15 dreary 
The z.t’ids'i‘i'1'1 moors were most 
inviting in iheir freshness. 

Ant . See baliriy. 
blear, a dm, obscure, haay. In* 

bleared, a rheumy, purblinded. 

dimined, short-sighted 
bleanness, n short-'ichtedness, 
myopia, glama, lippitude. epi- 

bleed, v. crude 
The wound bled freely 
Pinc'trccs exude pitcii 
bleeding, n hemorrhage; phle* 
bolomy. bloodletting senesec* 
tlon; disfigurement, blot, eye* 

bletnls^ V • deface, mar. disfigure, 
stain, tarnish: defame, disgrace, 
injure, impair 

blemish, n defect, fault imper- 
fection, blot, di‘grace, dishonor 
Her character was without Wm- 

Ko defect could be found 
They found fault with his wort 
Its imferfections could not be 

A blot was found on the paper 
His (fiifirocc was widely pub- 

He suffered no dishonor, 
AssoaATm Words blur, brand, 
crack, daub, defacement, de- 
formity, disfigurement, flaw, in- 
jury, reproach, smirch, speck, 
spot, stain. »t!gma, taint 

Note* hates er mars the beauty 
or completene's of an object is 
a blemish, whether original, as 
squinting eyes, or the result of 
accident or disease, etc., as the 

pits of smallpox A blemish is 
superficial, a flazi’ or toinl is in 
structure or substance. In the 
moral sense, t.c speak of a blot 
(r slain upon reputation, a daui 
or taint in character “Blemish 
respects tile exterior of an ob- 
ject, difeit consists in the want 
of some sjjccific propriety in an 
object, f~i<ll conveys the idea, 
not only < f something wrong, 
but also r { its relation to the 
author An accident 

may cau^e a bUmish in a fine 
painting, the course of nature 
may occasion a defect in a per- 
son's speech , but the careless- 
ness of the Viiorkman is evinced 
by the faults m his workman- 
snip" Figuratively, a blevtish 
comes from one's own ill-doing; 
a froiii or x/igms is inflicted by 
others, as, the brand of infamy. 

blench. V. flinch, recoil, shrink 

He blenched before his accuser. 
The operation was a severe one^ 
but he did not fltnek 
They reeoitrd from the attack. 

He shrank from our view 
blend. V. intermingle, merge, 
combine, mix, assimilate. 

Tire colors blended beautifully. 
The guests i«tenniiig/e<f with one 

The two compin'es have wergrtf- 
They combined against him 
The chemicals would not mix. 
The food was fully assimitated 
blend, n ■ mixture, fusion, assimi- 
lation, merging, synthesis 
blessing, n • benediction 
blight, V.: blast: ruin, thwart, frus- 

blind, a • unseeing, sightless, pur- 
blind; obvious, inconsMerate, 
tindiscriminaiing, unmindful; 
anintelligihic. illegible; intricate, 
Involved, obscure 

blind, n.: shade, screen, curtain; 

blinker, blinder, subierfu^, 
stratagem, pretext, ruse, prc* 
tense, feint, sophistry 
blinding, a obscuring 

Her eyes were filled with blinding 

An obscuring darkness hid the 

blindness, n sightlessness, pur- 
blindness, anopsia, amaurosis 
blink, \ wink disregard over- 
look, connive at, connive with 
His eyes btin/ ed rapidh 
He uinkcd at them 
lie disregarded their slothfulness 
They ozerlooked his failings 
He connived at the wrong doing 
He connived vjith the prisoner 
bliss, n rapture, happiness ccs- 

Their bhss vvas unbounded 
bliss, n rapture, beautitude felic- 
ity, happiness, ecstasy, transport 
blissful, a ecstatic, felicitous, 
beatific, rapturous 

blister, n vesicle, bleb, vesication, 
pustule, pustulation 
blister, V vesicate, hurt gall 
The skin was badly blistered 
blistenng, a vesicatory epispas- 
tic, puaiulant, galling, hurting 
blithe, a gay 
bloat, V mfiated. distended 
His eyes are bloated 
He IS mdaud with pndc 
Each inhalation distends the lungs 
block, V. obstruct, hinder vhut, 
dug, embarrass, impede retard, 
thwart, stop, stay 
Ant See accelerate 
block, n obstruction hirnef 
hindrance, dog, impediment, 

The block of prejudice held her 

There were many obstructions lO 
his path 

He has overcome all barriers 
blockade, v obstruct 
blockade, n ; obstruction, 
blackhead, n numskull, dolt. 

dunce, simpleton, ninny 

The seeming blockhead may be a 
sleeping genius 
blockish, a dull 
blond, a fair 

blood, 11 lifeblood, gore, vitality, 
temficramcnt, mood passion 

His blood has been tested 

Associated U obds hematology, 
hemorrhage hemal hematic, 
plethora, an-emia, sanguification, 
stnguify dot. corpuscle, styptic, 
hematosis sanguiferous heira- 
tin, sanguine, sanguineous, san- 
giiinivofous, hematophobia, by- 

blood n blade 'park 
bloodhound, n sleuthhound 
bloodless, a anaemic, exsanguine- 
ous, exsanguious 

bloodletting, n bleeding, vere- 
section, phlebotomy 
blood of the gods ichor, 
blood poisoning, septicaemia, tox> 

bloodshed, n massacre, slaughter, 

Their tjiiarrel ended in bloodshed. 

They .irc the victims of the nice- 

They planned live slaughter ol the 

They have returned from the 
war’s eariiogt 

bloodshed, n massacre slaugh- 
ter, carnage, bloodsheddmg 
bloodsucker, n leech, sanguisuge, 

bloodthirsty, a ferocious, cruel, 
sanguinary, truculent 

The) were bloodthirsty m their 

Feroiwus beasts inhabited the 

The natives were cruel 
blood-vessel, n artery, vein, capil- 

Blood-. cssels are simply carriers 
of nutritive fluids 

Associated t\ ords angiology, 
argiegraphy, angiotomy, jntra- 


fusion, ewbolism, embolus, 
t'lrombosis, thrombolism, rcte, 
hillus, endothelium, cpitbcltum 
bloody, a sanpuinary, Rory 
blood-stained, cxsanRuined 
bloom, n blossom, blow, MRor, 
pimie, flush, heyday, fuit, 
bloom, V. 

blossom, n flower, inflorescence, 
florescence, efllorescenct, blow, 
bloom, anthesis 

blossom, V bloom, blow , prosper 
Ihrnc, flourish 

blot, n slam, blemish, smooch, 
smutch, reproach, obliteration, 

blot. V stain, spot, sullj blur, 
blemish, dis^aee, tarnish, dis- 
honor, efTacc, cra«c. obhtcraie. 
expunge, cfeieie, obscure eclipse 
blotch, n erupiion jiustule bleb. 

blain, bulla, smutch, blot, <plotch 
blew, n blossom, bloom, tlnsack. 
whack, knock, rap, thump, 
stroke, assault, lufTet, ealatnit}. 
reverse, misfortune, disaster, 
concussion, eufl, cut, lash, shock, 

Non. A bloiv is a sudden im- 
pact, as of a fist or a club, a 
stroke 1 $ a sweeping movenTent, 
as, the strol f of a sword, or an 
oar, of the arm in swimming A 
shack IS tlie sudden encounter 
with some heavy body, as, col- 
liding raiU'.aj trams meet with 
a shod . the shock of battle A 
aJa/i M guen with the open hand, 
a hsh w iih a w hip, thong, or the 
hkc, we speak also of the evt 
of a whip A hufTct or cuff is 
guen Only with the hand, a 
L!ow cither with hand o' 
weapon A cuff is a somewhat 
sidelong llov.. generally with 
the open hand . as, a cuff or box 
on the car. A slnfie is the ef- 
fect or mark of a stroke. In 
the mctapJiorjcaJ sense, blosv ts 


used for sudden, stunning, stag- 
gering calamity or sorrow; 
stroke for sweeping disaster, 
and also for sweeping achieve- 
ment and success We say a 
stroke of paralysis, or a stroke 
of genius We 'peak of the 
bull, Is of adicrse fortune. 
^hi,L IS used of that which is 
II once sudden, Molent, and 
pro-trating. we speak of a 
sho.t of electricity, the s/iart 
of an amputation, a shock of 

blow, 1 (Colloq ) boast, brag. 

blow out, \ extinguish 
The light was floa-n out. 
blue, a arurc, cerulean 
bine, a {CoMnq ) metaneboly. 
down-hearied, depressed, de- 
spondent, gloomy, dismal 
blues, n (Coiloq) melancholy, 
des.oonJent, sapors, depressioi, 
llue-desils, hypochondria 

bluff, a unceremonious, frank, 
p'am poken , open, rough, ofli- 
ha-i I 

He was Huff and fearless 
They were ratlicr titifcrimflmiKr 
Be perfectly frai k and open about 


Note Dluff IS a word of good 
meaning, as are frank and of'cn 
The Huff man talks and laughs 
loudly and freely, says and does 
less good nature, and with no 
wbateser he pleases with fear- 
thought tf annoiing or giunc 
pain to others The Hunt man 
says things which he is perfectly 
aware are disagreeable, either 
from a dchant indifference to 
others’ frcltnns, or from the 
plcasu'c cf lomien'ing 
Ant courteous, genial, polished; 
polte. resened. gracious, 
courtly, cul’ureJ, elegant ur- 

bluff, a • sheer, steep. 

The coast is bluff 
The hills rise sheer and sleep. 
bluff, V (Colloq). frighten, de- 
ter, intimidate 

bluff, n cliff, hill, headland 
bluffness, n • abruptness, open- 
ness, roughness 
His bluff ness is not unpleasing 
blunder, \ botch, bungle, jumble, 

Why blunder so? 

blunder, n error, mistake, tm- 
propriety, slip 

A blunder has been made there 
He made an error in his report 
His mistake v,as overlooki^ 

He has committed an tmproprtely 
It n as a slip of the tongue 
blundering, a awkward stupid, 

He made a blundering attempt at 

The situation was attkward 
His reply was stupid 
He made a few floundering re- 

blunt, a abrupt, uncivil, ungra- 
cious, discourteous 
He IS quite blunt with his friends 
He IS abrupt in his manner 
He was unrunf to Ins guests 
Her reply was ungroctont 
She was discourteous to him 
Ant cremonious, polisbjd, 

blunt, a dull 
The point is blunt 
Ant keen, pointed, sharp acute 
blunt, V deaden, stupefy assu- 

His mental faculties were blunted 
His senses are deadened 
He IS sluptfied by the drug 
The pain was assuaged 
bluntly, adv plain 
bluntness n abruptness, incivil- 
it>, discourteousness 
Such blunliiess is unnecessary 
Ant courtcousnes', urbanity, 

bluntness, n dullness 
The btuntness of this tool makes 
It useless 

blur, \ dim, obscure, blemish. 

Her sight wa» blurred 
blur, II indistinct figure, blemish, 
smear, slam, blot, daub 
That picture is a mere blur 
blurred, a indistinct, obscure 

The impression was blurred 
Ihe uriCing is indistinct 
The Sight was obscure 
1he light IS dun 
blurt, V ejaculate 

He blurted out the news 
blush. V redden, become rosy 

Roses tnaj blush unseen 
Her face reddened noticeably 
I he sks become rosy with the 

Ills face flushed with indignatioa 
blush, n rosiness redness, flush 
blushing, n erudescence, flush- 
ing. reddening 
Blushing becomes you 
bluster v swagger, stormed, 
rage fume 

He blustered out a threat 
Ant cringe, creep, whimper, 

bluster, n storm, swaggering, 
basting, disturbance, commo- 

blustering, a stormy windy, 
tempoluous, boisterous 
The winds are btuslerins 
\nt cilm, quiet, peaceful, still 
tranquil undisturbed 
blustering, a swaggcrinff, boast 
ful boisterous excited 
His blustering manner is unpleas- 

Ant quiet cool, collected, com- 
pose I, serene, unrufiled 
board, v enclose (with boards) 
He boarded up the \rindow 
board ' enter 

He boarded the tram 
board, n officers. 


The board of directors met to-day. 
board, n council table; slab, 
board, n. keeping;, 
boards, n, pi.' stage, platform, 
rostrum, arena, 
boast, '. brag, vaunt, 
lie boasted of his success 
He bragged about his family 
He vaunted their failure before 
the public 

Ant.: belittle, decry, depreciate, 
underestimate, underrate, 
boast, n brag, source of pride 
Our parks are the boast of the 

boasting, n display, ostentation, 
parade, vaunting 
His boasting amused them 
boat, n canoe, launch, rowboat, 
jacht, janl, scull, gondola, 
punt, coracle, pontoon, bateau, 
wherry, pinnace, scow, cruiser, 
galley, dory, transport, ship, 
barge, brig, bark, skiff, schoon- 
er, cockleshell, vessel, tug. 
towboat, tow, cog. ferryboat, 
dinghey, argosy, lunk, cutter, 
frigate, longboat, catboat, raft, 
catamaran, sampan, lifeboat, 
carat el, argo. 

bode, V. betoken, portend, pres- 

His manner boded little good, 
bodiless, a without body, hence 
disembodied, incorporeal, wn- 
malcnal, discarnate. 

If seemed bodiless 
The disembodied spirit soars aloft 
Uow tneor^orraf, how iBitnolmal, 
is the spiritual mnl 
Do we become disearnate and 
exist when the physical body 

bodily, a.: physical, corporal, cor- 

He received bodily injuries 
His physical condition is good 
They believe in corporal punish- 

His corporeal rights were not in- 
terfered with. 

Ant.; See bodiless, 
bodily, adv collectively, com- 
pletely, in toto, wholly; ca 

They were ejected bodily 
The people were addressed eoU 

The work was completely finished 
The report was given in toto 
They were uliolly unprepared. 
They assembled en masse. 

Am apart, partially, separately, 

boding, a ominous, portentous. 

A bodiiis sign warred them, 
body, \ embody, make appreci- 

Body that forth clearly 
body, n form, frame, carcass, 
clay, corpse, dust, remains, 

Non: Dody denotes the entire 
physical structure, considered as 
a whole, of man or animal; 
(onn looks upon it as a thing 
of shape and euthne, perhaps 
of beauty, frame regards it as 
supporic'l by its bony frame- 
work, system views it as an as- 
scmllage of many related and 
harmonious organs Body, form, 
frame, and system may be either 
dead or living; elay and dust 
arc sometimes so used in re- 
ligious or poetic style, though 
ordinarily these words are used 
only of the dead Corpse and 
rewDirts are used only of the 
dead Corpse is the plain tech- 
nical word for a dead body still 
retaining its unity, remains may 
be used after any lapse of 
time, the latter is also the 
more refined and less ghastly 
term; as. friends^ are invited 
to view the remains Corcess 
applies only to the body of an 
animal, or of a human being 
regarded with contempt and 


Ant.: intellect, intelligence, mind, 
soul, spirit 
body, n chief part 
That IS the body of the church 
bog, n.: marsh, morass, 
boggle, V • hesitate, falter, bungle. 
He boggled at the difficult task 
He bungled the business badly 
bogus, a. (CoUoq 'i counterfeit, 
fictitious, sham, fraudulent, 
forged, false, mock, 
bogy, n specter, bogle, bugbear, 

Bohemian, n gypsy 
boib V simmer, cfferversce 
The water has boiled 
boilmg, a seething, simmering, 

He has poured out the boilmg 
_ water. 

boisterous, a * noisy, tumultous, 
turbulent, unrestrained, rude 
The children are boisterous 
Ant hushed, noiseless, quiet, 

bt^sterous, a ' inclement 
The botsltrous wind tired us 
boisterousness, n stormtness 
bold, a daring, intrepid, brave, 
enterprising; forward, immod* 
est, saucy, insolent, conspicu- 

They were bold in their theft 
He IS cvtamly enterprising 
The remark is immodest 
They stood in a conjpirKOiM place 
Am : modest, bashful, diffident, 
shy, timid, retiring, reserved, 
afraid, cringing, pusillanimous, 

bold-faced, a ‘ impudent, insolent. 

He is bold-faced in his scheming 
boldness, n : impudence, pre- 
sumption, impertinence, nerve, 
assurance, effrontery 
His boldness surprised them 
He was scolded for his impud- 

His presumption was resented 
Such impertinence cannot be 

He had wonderful nrrt-^. 

Hts assurance never failed him. 
His effrontery surprised them 
Aht shyness, timidity, distrust 
diffidence, modesty, humility 
bokter, V prop up, support 
She was bolstered up m the bed 
bolster, n cushion, support, pad 
The holster has not been covered 
bolt V fastened, sift 
He boiled the door 
bolt V leave suddenly. 

He bolted from the room 
bolt, V gulp 
Me bolted his food 
bolted, a fine 
bolung, n sifting 
bomb, n shell 
A bomb was thrown 
bombard, v assail, question 
They bombarded the town 
Foes assailed them 
He questioned them persistently 
bombardment, n attack 
bombast n grandiloquence, rant 
fustian, bombastry 
Bombast is merely inflated diction 
bombastic, a high-sounding, in- 

Their manner was bombastic. 
bona fide, in good faith, real, ac- 

The transaction was bona Me 
bonbon, n candy 
bond, n band, tie, fetters, con- 

The social bond is enjoyable 
There is a hand of mutual inter- 

Fetters gall the souL 
They fell a certain conilroint 
bond, a captive, enslaved 
bondage, n servitudn, slavery, 
captivity, servitude, serfdom, 

They were held in bondage 
Akt freedom, emancipation, in- 
dependence, deliverance, liberty 
bondman, n serf, 
bond-servant, n.* slave 
bond-service, n bondage 


bonny, a : comely, pretty, merry, 
cheerful; plump, blithe 
She IS a bonny child. 

Her face >s comely 
They showed us a pretty picture 
We had a merry time 
The room was cheerful 
The child’s arms were plump 
Her spirit is blithe 
bon mots: witty sayings, 
bon ton: upper ten 
bonus, n premium, compensa- 
tion, allowance 

A bonus was given the employees 
bon vivant: good fellow 
booh, n.. volume, UbreUG, record, 
book. V register 
'The play has been booked for the 

booked, a (Colloq.) on the way. 

Hejs booked for this point 
bookish, a studious, formal 
He is a bookish man 
booklet, n pamphlet tract 
The boofcirl has been published 
beeVlover, n. bibliophile 
He is a bookhter 
boom, V.. roar, sound m deep 

The clock boomed the hour 
boom, V (Cellofl.) promote. 

He will boom those stocks 
boom, n (U S,) enthusiasm (ar- 

There is a boom in real estate. 

boom, n : reverberating sound. 
The boom of the cannon terrified 


boon, a generous, bountiful, bc- 
ngn; jolly, gay, sportive, con- 

They were boon companions 
He IS generous with his money. 
He gave us a bountiful supply 
His expression was benign. 

They were a jolly croAd 
He IS sporltie in his manner. 
They became too comiiial 
boon. n. blessing, advantage; fa- 
vor, gift 

The addition to his salary proved 
a boon 

He was given adiontagf of the 

The favor was denied him 
She received a beautiful gift 
Ant earnings, guerdon, com- 
pensation, remuneration, wages 
boor, n ill-bred fellow, coarse, 

boonsh, a uncultured, unrefined, 
rude, awkward, rustic 
His manner is boorish 
Her mind is uncultured 
She IS tinrehned 
Do not be rude 

She IS azi-L-u-ard in her move- 

They were indeed rustic in iheir 

Ant elegant, poh'hed, polite, 
urbatre, refined, cultured 
boost, V lift, rai>e. 

He boosted him into the tree 
boost, n (Colloq ) lift 
boot. V.. benefit, advantage, prof- 

It boots me not to waste time 
boot, n covering for foot of leg. 
booth, n stand 
bootless, a useless, unavailing, 
futile, ineffectuaL 
One should refrain from bootless 

Ant effective, potent, efiicient, 

booty, n. plunder, spoil. 

The booty v/as divided 
border, n edge, brim, brink; 
verge, margin; boundary, out- 
skirt, frontier, bounds 
lie stood on the border of the 


Avt center, interior, area en- 

border, vv border on, be adja- 

cent, adjoin 

The walk bordered 




bordering, n. strip 
The bordering for it is here 
bordering on adjacent, adjoin- 

The land bordering on his was 

bore, n tiresome person 
He was a bore 
bore, n perforation 
That IS a three-in^ bore 
bore, V. bother, pester, plague, 
annoy, tire, trouble, wear vex, 

The gossips bored him 
Ant rest, soothe, interest 
bore, V perforate 
He bored through the wall 
boreal, a northern, northerly re- 
gions, Nearctic 
The boreal winds chilled him 
Boreas, n. north wind 
boredom, n ennui 
From such boredom there was no 

bonsh, a tiresome dull 
His bonsh manners tire me 
bom, a. innate, natural inherent, 

She IS a bom musician 
Ant. acquired, learned, unnat- 
ural, transient 
borough, n village 
borrow, v obtain, acquire ap- 
propriate, copy, adopt 
borrower, n plagiarist 
bosh, n (Colloq ) nonsense, 
prating, trash 
bosom, n breast 
bosom, n close relation 
He rested in the bosom of his 

bosom, n. breast, seat of affec- 

Her bosom heaved with emo- 

bosom, n deep place, support- 
ing surface 

The gems are in the bosom of the 

bosom, a close, confidential, in- 
timate. cherished 

She IS her bosom friend 
boss, n knob protuberance. 

He touched the boss of the shield, 
boss, n (Colloq ) superintendent, 
director, employer, foreman 
boss, V (Colloq ) direct, superin- 
tend domineer, dominate, dic- 

bossy, a (Colloq ) domineering, 
imperious, masterful, authorita- 
tive, arbitrary 

botch. V blunder mar, spoil, 
bungle, jumble 

both, a two. twain, two together. 

Note Both refers to two objects 
previously mentioned, or had in 
mind, viewed or acting tn con- 
noction, as, both men fired at 
once, 'tuo men fired’ might 
mean anv two, out of any num- 
ber, ana without reference to 
any previous thought or men- 
tion Tuoi’i IS a nearly obso- 
lete fotm of tao The taio, ot 
the luoin, is practically equiia- 
lent to both, both, however, ex- 
presws a closer unity We 
would say both men rushed 
against the enemy the two 
men flew at each other 

Ant each, either, every, neither, 
none, no one. not anv 
bother, v trouble, annoy, in- 
commode, inconvenience, wor- 
ry molest, bore, vex 

He was bothtred constantly 

They were troubled over the re- 

He was annoyed by their ques- 

H«s coming incommoded them 

He was mcomemenced by the de- 


They were wornei. over the re- 

The children molested him 

The quiet bored him 

The report te*ed them 

Akt lielp, rest, satisfy, soothe- 


bother, n petty trouble, annoy- 
ance, inconvenience. 

Movins IS a bother 
bothersome, a troublesome, per- 
plexing, annoying, vexations 
bottom, V. to get at, provide bot- 

bottom, n base, root. 

Pride is at the bottom of it alt 
bottom, n. under surface 
bottom, n low-land, meadow 
bottom, n. staying power, en- 
durance, stamina, grit 
bottom, a fundamental 
He endeavored to get at the 
bottom principle 

bottomless, a abysmal, unfath- 

The pit seemed boltomleit 
bouillon, n soup 
bouleva^ n. road, 
bouleversement n. overthrow 
bounce, v spring, bound, recoil, 

bowce, n bound, leap, spring. 
Toe baby gave a bounce in Tier 

bourice, n, (Colloq) discharge. 

bouncing, a lusty, plump, strap- 
ping; excessive, big. whopping 
She IS a bouncing baby, 
bound, V leap, spring, caper, 
dance, frisk, hop, vault, jump 
How high It bounds 
bound. V limit, inclose, circum- 
scribe, terminate. 

The river bounds the land on the 

His privileges arc limited 
The property is inclosed 
The grounds were cireumseribed 
by a fence 

The wall terminated the view 
Ant extend. Ping wide, leave 
open, open 

bound, V. restrain, repress, ap- 
prentice. indenture 
His privileges were bound 
They were restrained from lear- 

His activities were repressed 

He js apprenticed to the gun- 

They came indentured for their 
passage money. 

Ant dilate, distend, free, 
bound. V (Colloq.) determined, 

boundary, n bounds, limits, con- 
fines, edge, barrier, border. 

This IS the eastern boundary 

Do not go bejond the bounds 

We have just passed the limits. 

He must remain within the eon- 

There is the edge 

The Great Wall of China is a 
barrier as well 

Associatep WoBBS • boum.boume, 
enclosure, frontier, landmark, 
line, marches, marge, margin, 
terms, termination, verge 

Note’ The boundry was original- 
ly the landmark, that which 
marked cfl one piece of terri- 
tory from another. The bound 
IS the limit, marked or un- 
marked Now, however, the 
difference between the two 
words has come to be simply 
one of usage As regards ter- 
ritory, we speak of the bound- 
aries of a nation or of an es- 
tate; the bounds of a college, a 
ball-ground, eta Bounds may 
bo used for all within thc _/im- 
its, boundary for the limiting 
line only. Boundary looks to 
that which is without; bound 
only to that which is within. 
Hence we speak of the bounds, 
not the boundaries, of a sub- 
ject of the universe, eta A 
barrier is something that bars 
ingress or egress A barrier 
may be a boundary, as was the 
Great Wall of China Bourn 
or bourne, is a poetical expres- 
sion for bound or boundary A 
border is a strip of land along 


the boundary Edge is a sharp 
terminal line, as where river or 
ocean meets the land Ltmtl 
IS now used almost wholly in 
the figurative sense, as, the 
limit of discussion, of time, of 
jurisdiction Ltne is a military 
term, as, within the lines, or 
through the lines of any army 
Ant center, citadel, estate, in- 
side, interior, land, region, ter- 

Ant estate, interior, area, ter- 
ritory, region, land 
bounden, a obliged, beholden; 
binding, obligatory 
It IS his bounden duty to go 
He IS obliged to accept 
He IS not beholden to them 
His promise is fiindwig 
The service is obligatory 
boundless, a illimitable, un- 
bounded, vast, immense. 

His love IS boundless 
Its capacity is tllimilable 
His privileges are unbounded 
The undertaking is vast 
The distance is immense 
bounds, n, pi * limits, confines 

These are the bounds 
bounteous, a generous, liberal, 
beneficient, giving bounty 
His was a bounteous spirit 
Ant • parsimonious, niggardly, 

bounteously, adv freely 
bountiful, a free, generous, 
ample, abundant, full of bounty 
This IS a bountiful harvest 
Ant • deficient, inadequate, insuf- 

bountifulness, n • generosity 
bounty, n generosity, liberality; 
reward, grant 
His bounty was unlimited 
bouquet, ti nosegay; boutonniere 
She received a large bouquet 
bourdon, n staff baton 
He carrivd his bourdon 

bourgeois, a • middle class, com- 

They were bourgeois 
Ant noble, gentle, rustic, peas- 
ant, proletarian 

bouregots, a uncultivated, unre- 
fined common 
His manner is bourgeois 
They are quite uncultivated 
He IS unrefined in his nature 
They are of common origin 
Ant gentle noble, cultivated, 


bourgeois, n tradesman, towns- 
men. middle class 
A bourgeois is always accommo- 

Ant nobility, peasant, prole- 


bourgeoisie, n (Collective) com- 
monalty, commercial class 
They were of the bourgeoisie 
bourgeon, n sprout, bud 
“That tender bourgeon” 
bouregeon, v grow 
bourne, n destination, goal. 

He has reached his bourne. 

His destination is unknown 
He has attained his goal. 
bourne, bourn, n stream, bound- 

The bourne carried it swiftly on 
bourse, n market, exchange 

The bourse is crowded 
bout, n round, turn, contest, con- 
flict battle 

He has won the boxing bout. 

They fought but one round 
They played two turns 
The contest is undecided 
A fierce conflict was waged 
The battle is ended 
boutonniere, n bouquet, 
bovine, a stupid 
bow, T incline, nod prostrate, 
submit, yield, stoop 
We bow to the stronger will 
Ajit be erect, resist 
bow. V curve, bend. 

The bow IS bowed 


A^T bcconc straight, unbend 
bow, n nod, obeisance; curtsy. 

We returned the bow 

She gave him a nod. 

She paid her obtesanee to the 

She made a eurtsy as she 'entered 
bower, n cottage, 
bowie.knife: knife, 
bowing, a., nodding, 
bowl, n.' dish, mortar. 

The bowl was broken 
boi, n.: receptacle, cheat, ca»e 
box, n.. stroke, slap 

She gate him a cox on his ear. 
box, V. slap, cuff, spar, buffet. 

He boxed scientifically 
boyhood, n youth minority 
boyish, a jutende, immature. 

childish, youthful 
brace, v prop support, fortify. 

He braced up the wall, 
brace, v. stimulate, mtigorate, 

Fresh air will brace you up 

AbT : weaken, undermine 

tual, ntelligcnt, reasoniVf, 

branch, n bough, limb; division, 
department, bureau; tributary. 

This IS a branch of the main of- 

This IS a branch of the Hodsca 
branch, v diverge, fork, 
branch out, v extend, enlarge, 
amplify, augment, widen, dt- 

. . , 

They branched out in other Ims^ 

Ant curtail, cut down, retrench, 

brand, v stigmatize, mark, point 

He was branded as a coward, 
brand, n firebrand, kind, Quality, 
grade, stigma. 

He snatched the brand fre-n her 
hand . 

The brand is indelibly stamped 

The brace was easily adju<ted 
bracer, n tonic. 

He drank a bracer before start- 

bracing, a • invigorating, strength- 
ening, «timulating 
The braewQ air invigorated 

upon It. 

brand, n kind, quality, Rfide. 

That IS the brand we ordered, 
brash, a. (Colloq): quickjleio* 
pared, brittle, crisp, fragile, 
brassy, a brazen 
The kettle is brasty . 

Ills instrument was braaen w 
color. . 

brassy, a (Colloq ): brazen, bold, 
impudent, forward; cheap, de* 

The tnviyoraling walk stimu- threat. . 

latcd her He displayed a spirit of brcc^oJ. 

The slrenglheninj tonic restored His boashni; was tiresome 
her. They ignored his blujlertng 

The itirtulaltng medicine aroused IIis threat was unheeded. 

her. brave, a.’ intrepid, courageous, 

Ast : weakening, exhausting, valiant, daring, bold, fbiva 'ou , 
wearying, fatiguing fearless, adveiturous, daj't- 

brag, V.: boast, vaunt- less, heroic, undaunted, 

He bragged of his prov/ess. unafraid, pluck, intrepid, doug 

braid, n. plait. ty, gallant, venturesome- 

braid, V. plait, entwine, interlace. 

The strands were braided. More: The adventurous man goe 

brainless a . silly, idiotic, imbe- m quest of danger; the r-i 
cile; without brain, man stands out and faces 

Ant.: bran/, brilliant, intcTlec- ger or censure; the Uave ra- 


combines confidence with reso- 
lution m presence of danger, 
the chivalrous man puts him 
self in peril for others’ protec- 
tion The dartng step out to 
defy danger, the dauntless will 
not flinch before anything that 
may come to them, the dougk~ 
ty will give and take liaiilless 
hard knocks The adt'enlurous 
find something romantic m dan- 
gerous enterprises , the »e»i- 
turesome may he simply heed- 
less, reckless, or ignorant All 
great explorers have been ad- 
zenturous children, fools, and 
criminals are zenluresome The 
fearless and intrepid possess 
unshaken nerves in any place 
of danger Courageous is more 
than fcfijpe, adding a moral cle- 
ment, the courageous man 
steadily encounters penis to 
s hich he may be keenly sensi- 
tive, at the call of duty, the 
sallanl are brave in a dashing, 
showy, and splendid way, the 
laliant not only dare great dan- 
gers, but achieve great results, 
the herotc are nobly daring and 
dauntless, truly chivalrous, sub- 
limely courageous 
A^T craven, timorous, coward- 
ly, afraid, cringing, fearful, 
pusillanimous, timid, shrinking 

brave, v defy, dare, beard 
He brazed the storm to assist her 
bravery, n courage, heroism, val- 
or, hardihood, mettle, pluct 
fearlessness, boldness 
Such bravery should be appre- 

Ant coward’ce, timidity, fear, 

bravo, n bandit, villain, hired as- 

The bravos laid hands upon them 
bravo, n sound, acclamation 
Their bravos resounded through 
the hail 

bravo (bra\a Iravi;, mterj ex- 
cellent sublime 
- They cried, Bravo.” 
brawl, n quarrel dispute, uproar, 

brawling, a clamorous, noisy, 

brawn, n muscle, flesh 
His bravm won it for him. 
brawny, a stalwart muscular, 
sinewy, athletic, able-bodied 
He bared his braumy arm. 
bray, v make a jarrmg sound 
The brasses brayed 
bray, n loud jarring sound. 

The bray of the horn was heard 
braaen, a immodest, impudent, 
shameless, forward, insolent, 

Such brasen effrontery disgusts 

brazen, a made of brass, 
brazen, v make bold 
He will brasen it out 
breach, v break through 
breadth, n width, latitude; liber* 
afity, (oferance 

The breadth is half the length 
He measured the width 
The lalilude is unknown 
His liberality is appreciated 
He had no tolerance for such 

break, v fracture, sever, rend, 
smash, shatter, splinter, burst, 
rupture, crack, crash, demolish, 
destroy, shiver, split 
break, v violate, disobey, trans- 
gress, trespass 
He broke the command, 
break, v communicate, disclose, 
divulge, tell, impart, communi- 

Break the irews gently 
breaks v discipline, tame 

NolJiing will break his proud 

break, v bankrupt, impoverish, 

The bank will break 


AhT.: attach, bind, fasten, rrend, 
secure, unite, join, weld 
break, n. interruption; opening, 

There is a break m the line of 

break, n a starting or breaking 

He made a break for liberty 
breakdown, n do\’.nfa!l, collapse, 

He suffered a nervous break- 

breakers, n wases 

The breakers appalled them 
breaking, n act of interrupting. 

Breaking the continuity is unde* 

breaking out, n eruption, parox* 

breath, n rumor, suspicion. 

f»o breath of suspicion had ever 
touched him. 

breathe, \ respire, inhale, ex- 
hale, sigh, pant, gasp, en't 

Breathe freely of tlie fresh air. 
breathing, n single breath, 

"List to the breathings of the 

breathing, n aspiration, inspira- 

That IS the inmost breathing of 
the devout heart, 
breathless, a panting. 

He A as breathless from the exer* 


The breaking out «as not sertous. 

The eruflion came suddenly 

Parosrysms of laughter greeted 
the announcement, 
breakup, n disruption, disorgan- 

The breakup of the boom was 
anxiously awaited 

Their disruption was unexpected. 

The company’s disorgantsanon 
caused great loss. 

breast, v stem, struggle with, 
withstand, resist, buftet 

He breasted the attack manfully 
breast, n. mind, heart, scat of 

There was no love in his breast 
for his fcllovz-man, 
breast, n. front of chest, or cov- 

"The^ breast of the smock s$ 

bcMst. n. like a breast. 

Tl« column wound down the 
breast of the mountain 

n.i brcathinc. respiration. 

He took long breaths of air • 
breath, n. exhalation, gentle 

“To breathe the breath of cow- 


beget, multiply, rear. 

Each animal breeds its like, 
breed, v originate, develop. 

The "malarial' gem hrteit w 
certain mos<]uitoes 
breed, n variety, family, lineage, 
pedigree, class, sort kind. 

The animals were of the lame 

This ianely is now extinct. 

They are of different famihet. 

His Jineogt is easily traced. 

The dog's pedigree is unknown. 

Their (last is easily distinguished. 

They arc of the same sort. 

This kind IS quite common, 
breeding, n, generating, produc- 
ing, nurturing. 

breeding, n behavior, manners. 

He lacks breeding 
breeze, n zephyr. 

A cool breese eaire in the win- 

breeze, n (Colloq.): disturbance. 

quarrel, tumult 
breezy, a : airy, windy. 

The land is hreesy. 

Oreezy, a. (Colloq): lively, spir- 
ited, animated, brisk, 
breviate. breviat, n,: abridgement 



A short breiviie o£ the contents 
\vas sent out 

brevity, n brief time, briefness 
They criticized the brevity of the 

brew, \ concoct hatch, plot 
The brewed the tea 
He concocted a pleasant dtmk. 
They concocted a scheme 
The plan was hatched at the last 

They plotted to overthrow him 
bribe, n hush-money 
They offeresl him a bribe 
bribe, v corrupt with money 
He tried to bribe the juror 
bric-a-brac, n knick-knacks, an- 

She had a passion for bru-obrac 
bridal, a nuptial, conjugal 
The brtdal party has arrived 
A nuptuil breakfast was served 
Their conjugal happiness was 
bridge. « span 
They bridged the interval 
bndle, n restrnmt, curb cheek 
That will serve as a bridle 
bridle, s restrain, curb, check, 

He bridled his temper 
Hu appetite was restrained 
They eufbed his enthusiasm 
She checked her activities 
She controlled her emotions 
brief, a* short Ii'cd, transient. 
She made a brief visit 
Hu interest was short-Sned 
She had a transient gleam of 

Ant : long, extensive, vast 
brief, a terse, concise, curtailed 

He gave out a brief statement 
Am • Copious, full, diffuse, bulky 
brief, n summary: writ 
He has submitted hu brief 
A fMHiHiory of the case was given 
A tint of summons has been is- 

briefness, n brevitj. conciseness. 
The briefness of the letter sur- 
prised him. 

bright, a luminous gleaming, 
radiant, resplendent glutening, 
beaming, shimmering, dizzJing, 
glowing glittering fl,ishing, 
sparkling effulgent bn'liant, 
vmd, glos5>, glaring intelli- 
gent precocious, apt acute, dis- 
cerning clever smart, knovr- 
ing luspicious, illustrious, 

A bright star was shining 
Some planets are luminous 
A gleainmg light showed through 
the window 

Her face was roduiii with smiles. 
Its beautj IS resplendent 
We gazed at the ghstenm^ water. 
She turned a beaming face to- 
wards them 

A shimmering light shone on the 

Jts brightness was dasslnig 
The fire is g/o.tiiig 
They admired the glittering gems. 
The dashmu jewel caught his 

They drank the sparkling tvafcr, 

The sun is effulgent 

Her eves ire brilliant 

The color is tatid 

The surface u glossy 

The light 1 $ glaring 

She IS an inteffigent woman. 

The child IS precocious 
He IS apt in his studies 
He IS an ariite reisoner 
He has great durenimg power. 
She IS a deter artist 
He IS a rniort child 
He gave her a bnouuig look. 

The signs are auspicious 
He IS ail illustrious author 
She has made a glorious career 
Ant dull, lackluster, obscure, 
dun, dingy, tarnished 
brighten, v cheer, illurainate. cu- 
hven, add luster to, make iHus- 


irou , become brighter, polish, 

Ihi name brisktens the pege* of 

'brightness, n • brilliancy, splen* 
dor, luster, radiance, glow; apt* 
ness, precocitj, acuteness, 
sharpness, discernment, vivac- 
ity. animation, liveliness 
Its brishlness cannot be hidden 
The diamond shone in its bnl- 

Its stleiidor was admired 
We were attracted by its luster 
Its radiance shone forth 
TTiey watdied the glota of the 

They spohe of his aptness 
They quickly discerned hti pre- 

They admired his aruteness 
His sharpness of intellect held 
their attention 
Her discernment is keen. 

Her ttrocify could not be re- 

He spoke with animation 
Her htrhnrrs brightened the 

Art : dullness, obscurity, dim- 
ness, diflgtness 

brilliancy, n. brightness, re- 
splendence, refulgence, bril- 

brilliant, a sparkling, glittering, 
scintillating, dazzling, gleam- 
ing, glistening, flashing, splen- 
did, glorious, signal, eminent, 

brim, r . nm, border, margin, 
edge, brink, ban!., marge 

brine, n • salt water, sea water, 
ocean; tears 

bring, v • fetch carry, convey, 
conduct: lead, persuade, infln- 
ence, cause to pass, cause to 
accrue, bring increase; yield, 
produce, be bearer, be cause 
of; exchange for, sell for; 
draw forth, cause to appear. 

bring back, \ return, reslori. re- 
place, revive, resuscitate, bring 


bring forth, V • bear. 

The scene brings forth pleasant 

The branches bring forth leaves 
bring forward, v.. introduce. 

He brougJil forvard the proposi- 

bring to, V.: resuscitate. 

They finally brongki him to. 
bring on. v incur 

Ilia anger breughs on a fresh at- 

bring to pass, v.. accomplish, ef- 

They brought to pass many re- 

bring up, v nurse, rear, nurture, 

She was brought up in a convent 
broach, v . mention, open or t>P 
They broached the subyvt 
He broached a new keg 
brink, n • border, edge, v*rge.^ 
briny, a.- salty, saline, brackiia. 
brisk, a lively, spirited, sprightly, 
spry, apile, rapid. 

A bnsk wind is blowing 
A Inely conversation ensued. 
Tlie horse is spirited. 

The man is ogilt. 

He IS a rapid accountant 
Ant* slow, dull, inanimate, life- 
less, slugm'h, stupid, inactive, 
briskness, n livchness. activity, 
sprighlliness, animation 
bristle, n hair; coarse hair, 
bristly, a • hairy. 

Briticism, n • Englishism, 

British, n English 
Briton, n.: Englishman 
brittle, a • cri'p friable, frigue. 
The candy is brittle. 

"The bacon is frifp. 

The friable earth caved in- 
Thc mirror is fragile 
Ant : tough, unyielding, teni- 


brittlir.css, n.: crispness, frangi- 

Its britiUness made tt hard to 

Avt tenacity, tougliness 
broad, a wide, extensive, ex- 
tended, widc-rcacbing, com- 
prehensive, liberal, tolerant, 
indelicate, gross, question- 

This IS a broad view of the sub- 

IAnt . narrow, limited cramped, 
circumscribed, bounded, re- 

broaden, v . enlarge, amplify, ex- 
pand, extend, ennoble 

Always attempt to broaden your 

broad-minded, a catholic, gen- 
eral, tolerant 

He u extremely broad-minded 
broadside, n volley (of guns), 
volley (of abuse) , placard, pos- 

The ship's broadside deafened 

She repaid their kindness with a 
volley of abuse 

Placards were placed m each 

They have printed several fosters. 
broadsword, n sword, 
brochure, n pamphlet, booklet, 
brief, treatise 

This brochure treats tipon the 

bro^an, n. shoe, 
broil, v grill 

broil, n • quarrel, disturbance, tur- 
moil, brawl, discord 
broken, a. fractured, splintered, 
shattered; disconnected, discon- 
tinuous, interrupted, impaired; 
subdued, humbled, trained; cot- 
tnte, penitent, crushed, subju- 
gated , violated, transgressed, 
disobeyed; weakened, made in- 
firm; ruined, bankrupted; in- 
complete, interrupted, incoher- 
ent, rough, uneven 

broken-hearted, a disconsolate, 
inconsolable, comfortless 
The child IS broken-hearted 
He IS disconsolate over the news. 
Ele IS inconsolable 
He IS left comfortless 
broker n agent, factor, middle- 

broncho. n horse, mustang, In- 
dian po } 

broitaeti, a sunburnt tanned, 
browned, covered with bronze 
brooch, n breast pin, jewel trin- 

brood, n flock offspring, prog- 
eny race, species, kind 
brood V incubate sit 
Ihe hen broids her chickens 
The hen is siltinz on the nest, 
brood over, v revolve, ponder, 
become morose about 
brook, n rimlet, creek, stream- 
let run ^ , 

brook, V tolerate, suffer, endure, 

broth, n soup . , , 

brotherhood, n fraternity, fel- 
lowship . , 

They taught the doctrine of 

He has joined the fraternity 
They were in feltowshif with one 

brotherhness, n fraternity, a fraternal, 
brew, n forehead 
browbeat, v bully, cow, overawe, 
subdue, crush 

brown, a dusky, dawny. swarthy, 
brovm study, n abstraction, rev- 
ery, musing. preoccupaOon. 
browse, V nibble off. feed upon, 

brows" n crop, growing shoots, 
bruin, n bear, 
bruise, v deface, disBgurfc 
His arm has been 6r«i«iJ 
The building was defaced. 
features were disfigured 
bruise, n contusion 
bruit, n report, town talk ni- 


aor, hearjay. 

bruit, T,- report, tell, circnlate, 
none abroad 
brunette, a . dark-hued. 
brunt, n.. shock, stress, onslaught 
brush, n. brushwood, thicket 
brusque, a. gruff, blunt, offhand, 
discourteous, rough, rude 
His manner was bnaque. 

Ant : gracious, urbane, deferen- 
tial, imooth 

brutal, a,- cruel, ruthless, unfeel- 
ing; beastly, bruush 
His attitude was brutal 
Ant.: humane, kind, noble, re- 
fined, elevated 

bruUlize, \ harden, make 
or in.human 

Extreme cruelty had brutalued 

brutish, a animal, brutal, carnal, 
bestial, beastly 
His manner is brutith 
Associatxd Wobos base, brute. 
Ignorant, insensible 
Aotes a intltsh man simply fol- 
lows his animal instincts, with- 
wt special inclination to do 
harm, the Lruiat ha>c alwa}s 
a spirit of malice and cruelty. 
Brute has no special character, 
encept as indicating what a 
brute might possess, much the 
same is true of animal, ex- 
c^t that animal leans more to 
the side of sensuality, brute lo 
that of force, as appears in 
the familiar phrase, "brote 
fo'ce” Hunger is an animal 
appetite It is a brute impulse 
that inclines one to strike a 
blow n anger Bestial, in mod- 
em usage implies an intensi- 
fied and degrading animalism. 
Any supremacy of the animal 
or brute instincts over the ro- 
tellectual and spiritual in man 
is base and vile. Beastly re- 
fers largely to the outward and 
Msible consequences of excess; 
as beastly drunkenness. 

Anr.: humane, re'ined, noble, in- 
tellectual, great, enlightened, 
exalted, elevated, grand, intel- 

bubble, n globule, vesicle; cheat, 
delusion, fictitious scheme, 
fraud, cheat. 

bubbling, a.: sparkling, efferves- 
cent; warbling. 

buccaneer, n • pirate, free-booier. 
buccaneering, n.: robbery, pillage, 

The buccaKeering of the politi- 
cians was deplorable. 

It was highway robbery. 

They gave themselves op to 

Tkimry was the order of the 

buck, n,: male deer, goat, hire; 
male Indian or negro; gay fel* 

bucket, n.' pail, receptacle; pi** 
gin, vessel, scoop 
buckler, n. shield; shutter, 
bucolic, a. pastoral, rural, coun- 

Ills tastes are bueolie. 
bud, V, craft, propagate, put 
forth; begin to grow; develop 
bod. n gemma, gcmuie. unde- 
veloped branch, leaf, flower 
The buds will soon appear 
budding, n.; grafting, developing, 
sprouting; beginning 
The budding of his genius mani- 
fested itself early, 
budge, V.' move slightly, change, 
stir; give way, go, move. 

You can not budge him from his 

budget, n.: financial government- 
al estimates or plans ; sack, 
bag, pounch, wallet. 

The annual budget was finally 

buffet, V,: struggle against, blow, 
beat, thump 

The ship was buffeted by the 


The wind blew incessantlj 
The storm heat upon iheir faces 
The robbers thumped him unmer- 

buffet, n blow, cuff, box, thump, 

buffet, n sideboard, cupboard, 

buffoon, n clow n mimic, harle- 
quin, jester, waj, joker 
buffoonery, n low drollery, 
coarse jokes, waggerj 
bugbear, n bugaboo, frightful 
object, vain terror 
He dreamed of the bugbear 
Exerci«e is her bugbear 
bugle, n horn, hunting horn, 

buhl, n inlaying, mosaic, articles 

build, % erect, construct, raise, 
renew, strengthen 
He has biull a new house 
They have erected a monument 
The ship IS being touslrueted 
They raised a flag in his honor 
Renew your strength 
This will strengthen >ou 
Ant • break, demolished, destroy, 

builder, n architect carpenter 
They have engaged the builders 
building, n edifice stroetore, 
erection, construction 
They have put up a new building 
The building of the theatre taxed 
their resources 

bulge, V swell out, protuberate 
The satchel bulged with packages 
bulging, a. protuberant, convex 
They examined its bulging sur- 

bulk, n • magnitude, mass,^ vol- 
ume, size; mam body, majonty 
The elephant’s bulk astounds Ofiw 
The of the population de- 

mands it 

bulk, n • space, cargo, body, car- 

WTiat IS the vessel’s buli^ 

The frail bridge shook under n» 


bnDaness, n largeness, unwieldi- 
ness, poniferonsness. 

bnll^, a massive, ponderous, on- 

bull, n male of ruminants, boast- 

bull, n document edict, decree; 
absurd expression 
The papal bull was promulgated. 
The Irishman’s bull is amusing 

bullet, n shot, projectile, sinker, 

bulletin, n placard writing, an- 
nouncement, official summary, 
statement , periodical publica- 

The bulletin was duly posted 
bullion, n mass ingot bar, plate, 
(of gold or silver) , solid worth. 
The bullion was exported 
buQ’s-eye. n center (of target); 
circular opening, lantern, lens 
He hit the bulls-eyt 
bully, n blusterer, rowdy, 
bully. ' intimidate, bronbeat, 

bulwark, n barrier, rampart; 
fortification, defense 
This served as a bulwark 
The barrier has been overthrown. 
They have built a rampart 
'Their forlificotions were torn 
down . . , , 

They put up a feeble defense. 
bump. V jolt, thump 
bump, n protuberance, swelling, 

bum'p«f n fill'd '’‘PI 

health » tt 

bumptious a (Colloq): self- 
ceited. obstrusive 

bunch, n cluster, knot, lot, col- 
lection. group assortment, set. 
buncombe, n bunkum, balder- 
dash bombast 

bundle, n parcel, package, bale, 
pack, budget packet 
He earned a bundle of clothing 
The parcel was carefully wrapped. 
The package is not large 


He has sold i bait of cotton 
He carried a pack on his back. 
T^e packet had been hidden, 
bun^e, V. hind, tie, roll, dis 
mss, send away uncerctnoni 
ously. dispose of stanmanl> , 
pack up and depart hamedly 
bungalow, n house, cottaK* 

bnn^e, n muddle, botch, back- 
ward performance, 
bungle, » botch, execute cloma* 
ily: act awW/ardly. 
bungling, a clumsy, inexpert, 
inept, unskillful 

bunk, n bed, recess, shelf, email 

bunk, V sleep m bunk, deep, 
booy, n float, gujde. 
bnoyancy, n cheerfolneet, etaa* 
ticity (o! eptnts), chccrfalnett. 
animation; upward pressure. 
Hu buoyaKcy under serere trvsl 
was remarkable. 

buoyant, a cheerful, lively, am- 
mated^ floating, keeping afloat. 
Her spinti were buoyMt 
bcrdes, n load cargo encum* 
berance, incubus, t\ eight, im- 
pediment, trial, oppression , 
chorus, refrain 

burden, s encumber, load, op- 
press, impede 
He was heavily burdcKed. 

He was encumbered with cares 
He was loaded with responsiWitj. 
He was oppressed by their criti- 

Unpreparedness impeded the 

burdensome, a : oppressive, weari- 
some, grievous, heavy to bear, 

burglar, n cracksman, house- 
breaker, robber, felon, 
burglary, n • breaking in; theft. 

robbery, looting, felony, 
burial, n • sepulture, process of 

burlesque, n.: travesty, farce, cari- 

It was a burlesque on their acting 

The paintmg was a Irasesty oo 


This play is a iarce 

The cartoon is a cancotufe of 
the original picture, 
burly, a large (of body), stout. 
Iu«{y. tig and strong 

He IS a burly ind vidual 
bum, V scorch, scald, singe, con- 
tume; cremate 

Tie burnt the incriminating evi- 

Associated Words blare, b'and, 
cautcrire, char, kindle, flame, 
fash. Ignite, incinerate, set fire 
to, set on fire. 

Nots One brands with a hot 
iron, but cauterises with tome 
corro'irc substance, as silver 
nitrate. Cremate is now used 
tpeafically for (OHSumtng * 
dead body by intense heat. To 
infinrrotp is to reduce to asness 
the sense differs little from that 
of cremate, but it JS m less 
popular tue To kindle is to 
set on Hre, as if with a candle; 
igmfe is the more leanred and 
scientific word for the same 
thing, extending even to the 
heating of metals to a state of 
incandescence without burning 
To scorch and to singe 
superficial, and to ebar usuiUy 
eo Both kindle and turn rn't 
an extensive figurative o'c 
to kindle strife; to burn intb 
wratii, love, devotion, cum^ity 

Akt; extinguish, put out, sm-^'h* 
er, put out, stifle, cooL 
burnable, a.: oombuslfble, in'ii'^* 

Asbestof Is not burnable. 

Gases are eomhislible 

The material Is inHamrrable^ 
burning, n.' combustion, cinrri- 
tion, incinerition, cautenration- 
cauterv; pyrography; arsoo' 
loeendiarism: smoldering. 


buniiflg, n.: cremation, taereniA* 

AssociArro Wcaoa . crematoft 
crematory, crematorium 
burnish, V. smooth, polish, make 
lustrous, fix into, grow slee!^ 

Tlicy burnished the metal 
bwrroH’, n hole, excuiaiion 

The hiirroto was hidden 
burrowing, a rooting 
bursar, n treasurer, cashier 

The iiirjar ga\e his receipt 
burst, V rend, hruk disrupt, 
break forth, Cxlubil activity 

They burst their ciiains 
bursting, n explosion 
bury, n inter, mlnime entc 
sepulcher, hide secrete conceal, 

They buried their dead 

Ant disinter, exhume 
burTwg.ground, n cemetery 
bush, It. shrub, thicket, jungle, 
underwood, boscage 
business, n ' vocation, calling, 
pursuit, trade occupation, 
profession, tra/Sc, coranierce, 
enterprise, industry, duty, 
work, place, affair, concern, 

AssoctATEO WocDS aft. avoca- 
tion, barter, craft, employment, 
handicraft, job, trading, trans- 

Note A btisin/js is what one 
follows regularly , an cceufO’ 
tioH IS what he happens at any 
time to be engaged m; trout- 
fishing may be one s oceul’alion 
lor a time, as a relief from 
business, business Is ordinarily 
for profit, while the oecupation 
■nay be a matter of learning, 
philanthropy, or religion A 
profession implies schofarshipf 
as, the learned professions, 
Ptrrsvit is an occtipafton which 
one follows with ardor An 
otvcefion is what calls one away 

from other work; a localioii 
or ioUirg that to which one is 
called b> some special fitness or 
sense o) (Jiif> , ilius, we speak 
of the gi spci ministry as a 
voeiilw I nr lalling, rather than 
a Trade or trading 
is III ijcmril the exchanging 
of * t <t mg for another, m 
the il sense a trade is 
an < ' Il n miolving mmual 

Irimij, iiul sUillcd labor as, 
the II t Jews held th u t very 
boy 'll <iil 1 Icarii i trad A 

whttiier in busiiuss, diplomacy, 
or oUurwi'C uffcir his a sim- 
ilar, lut Imliter meanim; as, 
this little adair an impnrtant 
tronfailion The plural odatrs 
has a distinctive meaniig in- 
cluding ill activities where men 
deal with one another on my 
considerable scale, as a man of 
adoi't A )ob IS a piece of 
work vicived as a single un- 
dertiking and ordinarily paid 
for as such rroa'e anti eof«- 
inerie may be Used as equiva- 
lents but trade is capable of 
a more limited application we 
speak of the trade of a village, 
the eommtret of a mtioa 
Barter is the direct exclnnge 
of commodities; business, trade, 
and eoMimeTet are chiefly tnns- 
acted by means of money, bills 
of exchange, etc. Business, oe- 
enpation, etc , may be what one 
does independently; employ- 
ment may be in the service of 
another ff'eri is any applica- 
tion of energy to secure i re- 
sult or the result thus sec red: 
thus, we speak of the woi’ of 
Art m the indu ml 
sense is a system of rule' j;«l 
accepted methods for th- ic- 
complishment of some pr: t cal 
result, as, the art of prm.irg; 
collectively, the arts A trafJ 

line oi, through, according toj 
in possession of, with 

Associated Words, by dint of, 
by means of, through, with. 

Note- By refers to the agent; 
through, to the means, cause or 
condition, to the instm- 

nrent By commonly refers to 
persons, ttit/i, to things, 
through may refer to either 
The road having become im- 
passable through long disuse, a 
way i\as opened by pioneers 
tvtth axes By ma> however, 
be applied to any object whidi 
IS viewed as partaking action 
and agency, as, the metal was 
corroded by the acid skill is 
gained by practice We speak 
of communicating ti iih a person 
by letter. Through implies a 
more distant connection than by 
or tilth, and more intervening 
elerirents Material objects are 
perceived by the mmd through 
the senses 

by degrees: gradually 

They finished it by dtgries 

Their Interest graawlly lessened 
bystander, n spectator, onlooker, 

Several bystanders testified in his 


by turns: alternately, in succes- 

They carried water by turns 

The tide arises and falb ottsr- 

They iol'ov/ed tn ntetssion 

cab, n • carnage, conveyance, ve- 
hicle; shelter 

Tlie cab was called at once 
cabal, V • conspire, intrigue. 

The terrorists were busily cobaf- 

cabal, n * conclave, secret session, 

Cabals were the order of the day 

Associated Words combination, 
confederacy, crew, gang, fac- 
tion, junto 

Note A conspiracy is a eombtncu 
tion of person for an evil pur- 
pose, or the act of so combining, 
Causpiraiy is a distinct crime 
under common, and generally 
under statutory law A faction 
IS more extensive than a eon- 
sptra<y, Jess formal in organisa- 
tion, less definite in plan Fac- 
tion and Its adjective, factious, 
have always an unfavorable 
sense Cabal commonly denotes 
a conspiracy of leaders A gang 
IS a company of workmen all 
doing the same work under one 
leader, the word is used figura- 
tively only of combinations 
whi^ It IS meant to stigmatire 
as rude and mercenary, cretv 
1$ used in a closely similar 
sense A cenelate is secret, but 
of larger numbers, ordinarily, 
than a cabal, and may have hon- 
orable use, as, the conclave of 

cabalistic, a mystie, mysterious. 

That IS a rabaiuric interpretatioa 
cabaret, n wine shop, tavern, inn. 

They left the cabaret 
cabbage, n colewort, Brussels 

cabin, n hut, hovel, sliant” cot- 

cabinet, n council ministry, de- 
liberate committee, receptacle 
He IS a member of tlie cabinet 
A meeting of the council was 

He has joined the niMisfry 
cabinet, n whatnot receptacle. 

The cabinet was built in the wall 
cable, n rope, cordage, hawser 
eow, submarine telegraph Ime 
The rable held the buoy, 
cablegram, n message, a tele- 
graph message 


caboo'c, ti car, fiallcj, kttcbcn, 
jail, cdl 

Tlie caboose was crowded 
cachinnauen, n. bojilerousnMS 

The cai hvKKiiion could be heard 
from af-r 

cackle, n ‘OLnd. lauehter, chat- 
tering. giggling 
Tlicir cackle annojed him 
cacUe, V ^ound, laiigh, chatter, 
giggle, gihh'c, bilble 
The woman n. I Ird tn her glee 
cadaverous, a corpsc-hke, '>alc 


Ills countenance is cadattfcvt 
cadence, n modulation, rhythm, 
measured flow, measure, beat 
The cadriire of her voice was mo- 
«ic in his ears 

cadet, n student (nasal or mtli- 
tar>), joungcr son 
The ffljet won Inrh honors 
cafe, n restaurant, cofTee-house. 
The cafi has been re-opened. 
catre, n • enclosure 
'ilie bird was placed in the cage 
cage, s. confine, coop up. 

'Ihe animal has been caged 
He was conilned tn the prison. 
Tliey were coo fed uf m one 

A’fT ; emincipate, free, liberate 
caged, a ; imprisonciJ. confined. 
The caged bird pined for its free- 

caique, n.: skilT, row ing boat, boat, 
caisson, n • ammunition wagon, 
chest, box; tight box, casing 
The foirropj was rushed to the 

calUS, catif. a.: despicable, cow- 
ardly. Mle 

He pardoned the «fiif wretch 
cajole, \ • beguile, wheedle, flat- 

He was cajoled out of his money. 
They beguiled him into toining 

He was xiheedled into accepting 

their terms 

lie was easily flattered 
cajolery, n. beguilement, wheed- 

He was deceived by their cajolery 

He withstood their hegui/emeHf 

His etheedhng overcame their re- 

cake, V harden, form in rni's; 

become solid, or massed, 
calaboose, n jail, lockup 
calamitous, .a disastrous, deplor- 
able. untoward, dire. 

TInir fiilurc is colamxlovt. 

1 he loss IS dxsastreut, 

I lie conditions are deflorahle. 

He -poke of the untoward cir- 

They made dire threats agauul 

cdlaru*y, n disaster, misfortune, 

He spoke of the recent ealaimty 
calculable, a estimable, reckon- 

calc^ate, V.' compute, reckon. 

estimate! /oreea‘L 
calculate, T, (Colloq I expect, in- 
tend, contemplate, plan 
calculating, a scheming, crafty, 
cautious, wary 

He was a cold calcuhling man. 
5he was crafty and teheeing 
He g3\e them a raufiout Took, 
calculation, n • computation: ex- 
pectition, anticipation; fore- 
thought. caution 
Their eo/nilafion/ were wrong 
calculous, a.: stony, gritty. 

That is a cateuloue deposiL 
calendar, n almanac, li«t. sched- 
ule, register, catalogue, docket. 
The new calendar has been 

cahbre, n ability, capacity, force, 
strength: diameter. 

Hii mental calibre is good 
They base tC'ted his obihfy 
Ills eofacily for Imowiedge is lim- 


He is a man of force 
He has great ilrength of mmd 
caLco, n print 

The price of calico has been 

caliph, n • ruler, ealif 
The cahph abdicated Ins throne 
calistheiucs, n , pi exercise, 
training, drill, gymnastics 
Calisthenics strengtlien one 
call, V. summon, bid, invite as 
semble, muster, convene, name 
designate, dub, invoke, petition 
The teacher called him to her 
He was summoned to appear be- 
fore the president 
They lode him accompiny them 
He was tiui/cd to attend 
The delegates have assembled 
The troops have been mustered 
The association ceu<,ened last 

He was iiai.rd as delegate 
The) designated him as the lead- 

He was dulbed a good-fellow 
The) moled his blessing upon 

They pthltoi ed him for help 
Associateo Words bawl, bellow, 
clamor, er> (out), ejaculate, 
eaclaim, roar, scream, shout, 
shriek, vociferate, yell 

Note To call Is to send out the 
aoice in order to attract an- 
other's attention, either by word 
or by inarticulate utterance 
Animals call tlicir mates, or 
their young: a nun calls 
^ dog, his horse, etc 
^e sense is extended to in- 
clude summons by bell, or any 
signal To shout is to call or 
exclaim with the fullest volume 
of sustained voice, to scream 
IS to utter a shriller cry, to 
shriek or to yell refers to that 
which IS louder and wilder still 
'Ve shout words, in screaming, 
shnekiiig, or idling there is 

often no attempt at artieuliiioa 
To tail IS to utier senseless, 
noi>y tries, as of a child in pain 
or anger Hell ti and roar arc 
applied to the uttiranccs of am 
tnals and only contemptuously 
to those of persons To clamor 
IS 10 iitier with noisy iteration. 
It applies ilso to the confused 
cries of a multitude To tonfer- 
ttl- IS conimonh applied to loud 
and evtilid speech where there 
IS little besides the exertion of 
voice In errlmmnig, the utter- 
ance may not be strikingly, Iho 
somewhat, above tlie ordinary 
tone and pitch wemayrrcliiim 
by mere interjections or by con- 
nected words but always by 
some articulate utterance To 
eiaculalc is to throw out brief, 
disconnected but coherent ut- 
terances of jov regret, and es- 
pecially of appeal, petition, 
prayer, the use of such devo- 
tional has received 
the special n ime of ejaculatory 
prayer To lO out is to give 
forth a louder and more excited 
utiera'ice than in exclaiming or 
colling, one often exclaims with 
sudden jay as well as sorrow, 
if he cries out, it is oftener in 
grief or agony In the most 
common colloquial usage, to fry 
IS to express grief or pain by 
weeping or sobbing One may 
cTClam. frj out of tjacvhie 
with no thought of others’ pres- 
ence, when line mils, it is to at- 
tract another s attention. 

Ant hush, list, hstei, be silent, 
be still hark, hearken 
call, n interview, summons, voca- 
tion. invitation, signal, require- 
ment, demand, requisition 
They made several calls 
calligraphy, n writing (elegant, 
beautiful), penmanship 
The caUxgrapfiy surpasses any lost 
I have seen 

calling, n.' occupation, business, 
trade, euiploj-r.ert. 

His calling is that of teaching 
He has no cccuf-otton 
His businesj is thriving 
He has learned a trade 
He IS in their cmfloitnent 
callous, a. unfeeling, insensible, 
hardened, uniropressible. 

He IS callous to rebuke 
Her reply was unfeeling 
She was jnxenjihle for several 

He has become hardened by ad- 

She is not uni»i^r«ji6/e 
callow, a unfledged, unfealbered 
inmature, green, inexperienced 
call to account, v impeach, ac 

He was called to account for the 

ealiB, n lull, (juiet. tranquilit). 
placidity, calmness 
There was a calm on the waters 
AVT • commotion, excitement, ag- 
itation, discomposure 
calm, > lull allay, hush, still, 
compose, quiet, appease, paafy, 
assuage, moderate, ^leviate, 
conciliate, abate, console 
He was calmed by her presence 
Akt.: intensify, aggraNate, height, 
en, rouse. 

calm, a.: still, serene, motionless, 
undisturbed, unruffled, placid, 
tranquil, sedate, collected, un> 
perturbable, unmoved, cool, 
composed, dispassionate. 

The night was aid/. 

The riser was calm 

Her countenance was serene. 

Her hands were motionless 
Her slumber was undisturbed. 
Her temper was unruffled. 

His temper was placid. 

They gazed on the iranguil Kcae. 
Her manner was sedate 
Her thoughts were collected 
He remained imperturbable 
throughout the in'eniew 

He was tnmozed by criticism. 

Her rtplj was coot 

Her soice was composed 
The judge rendered a dispassioif 

ate serdict. 

AssoaATtD Words peaceful, 
quiet, self-possessed, smooth 

Note We speak of a calm sea, 
a placid lake, a serene sky, a 
sUU night, a quiet home. We 
speak, also, of ‘still waters." 
'smooth sailing which are dif- 
ferent modes of expressing free- 
dom from snasiih'S agiiatiOT. 
Of menial conditions, one is 
calm who triumphs over a tend- 
ency to excite’"ent cool if he 
scarcely feels the tendency One 
mav be calm by the very reac- 
tion from excitement or by the 
oppression of oserpowermg 
emotion, as we speak of tbe 
calmness of despair One is 
composed who has subdued ex- 
cited feelirg, he is collected 
when he has every thought, 
feeling, or preeeption awake and 
at command Tranqnl refers 
to a present *late, placid to a 
prevsihng tendency We speak 
of a tranquil mind, a phctd dis- 
position The serene spirit 
dwTlls as if in the clear upper 
air, above all storm and shadow. 

Avt.* excited, stormy, agitated, 
ruffled, boisterous, perturbed, 
discomposed, disturbei fierce, 
frantic, frenzied, furious, heat- 
ed. passionate, raging, turbu- 
lent. violent, wild, wrathfuL 
caloric, n : heal 

caloticity, n temperature-main- 

All animals possess caloricity 
calory, calorie, n measure, unit 
(of heat) 

A daily ration furnishes the re- 
quired number of cahn'es 


calumniate, v.: slander, accuse 
maliciously, attack, asperse 
Thev feared to eahimmate him 
calumnious, a : slanderous, de- 
famatory, aspersive 
The fj/umiiiouj article destroyed 
him politically 

calumny, n aspersion, defama- 
tion, slander, accusation 
Such ca/«mny was uncalled for 
calyx, n cup, cavity whorl 
The calyces are high colored 
camaraderie n comradeship, 
good fellowship, loyalty 
Camaraderie rales here 
camarilla, n group, clique, cham- 
ber, cell 

The camarilla secretly advised 
him of it 

camera, n kodak, device 
w^ole, n. jacket, wrapper 
She embroidered the camisole 
Whp, n • encampment, canton* 
.ment, quarters 
^e camp was deserted 
We attended the soldiers’ /•»* 

Many cantonments were built 
Their were undesirable 

cajM, s. encamp 
They_ camp here every summer 
campaign, n : military operations, 

The campaign was a successful 

canaille, n mob, rabble, vulgar 

They feared the eanaitle 
canal, n channel. 

They have built a canal 
The channel is not deep 
cancel, v • mark out, mark off, 
stamp across ; nullify, oblit- 
erate; annul, revoke, set aside, 
render null and void 
Assocated Words abolish, blot 
out, cross olT or out, efface, 
erase, expunge, make void, 
quash, remove repeal, rescind, 
revoke, rub off or out, scratch 
out, vacate 

Note Cancel, efface, erase, ex- 
fange, and obliterate have as 
their first meaning the removal 
of written characters or others 
of record To cancel is, liter- 
alls, to make a lattice by cross- 
lines, exactly our English cross 
out to efface is to rub off, 
smooth away the face, as of an 
inscription to erase is to 
scratch out commonly for the 
purpose of writing something 
else in the same space , to ex- 
punge IS to punch out with 
some sharp instrument, so as to 
show that the words are no 
longer part of the wri'ing, to 
obliterate is to cover oser or 
remove as a letter as was done 
by reversing the Roman stylus, 
and rubbing out with the round- 
ed end what had been written 
with the point on the waxen 
tablet What has been canceled, 
erased, expunged, may perhaps 
still be traced, what is obliter- 
ated IS gone forever, as if it had 
never been Tire figurative use 
of the words keep^i close to this 
primary sense Compare syno* 
nyms for abolish 

ANr confirm, approve, enforce, 
maintain contract, enact, estab- 
lish. perpetuate, record, reenact, 
sustain, uphold, write 
cancellation, n annulment abro- 
gation, rescission, nul'ificalion, 

The cancellation of the checks 
made them valueless 
cancellate, a reticulated, lattice- 
hkc. cross-barred 

That part of the bone is cancellate 
cancellation, n reticulation 
cancer, n growth, (malignant), 
sice evil, spreading corruption 

The cancer spread rapidly 
cancerous, a cancroid virulent, 

The evil was cancerous 


candslabmn, n. (pi. candelabra), 
ca dicstick, Impstand, orna. 

The <a idthbra were adTiired. 
cande-t, a white-hot, incandes*. 
cent, candescent 
It pves out a ca’-deni glow 
candescence, n incandescence, 
glow I"? 

The icndeseenft startled them, 
candid, a impartial, unbiased, 
fair, frank, ingenuous, unrC' 
s''r\ed, straightforward 
Tie ."*-ked for iheir raiidid opinion. 
Hi-, jt dgment was imfartial 
Tlis f'erHun is wiibiarrd 
He i» fnir in his criticisms 
Her “fpK was frank 
Her inofUMow remark amused 

He* mmnef i$ unrfsrnrd 
He is tiraxshifcrwrd in his deal, 

As Mato NVonns aboveboard, 
arilesj, frank, guileless, honest, 
innocent, nane, open, simple 
‘metre, transparent, truthful, 
unprejudiced, unsophisticated 

JCoTO A candid statement 
meant to be true to the real 
facts and just to all parties; 3 
(atr statement is really so F atr 
is applied to the conduct, ran. 
did IS not, as, /jir treatment, 
'a fair field, and no favor** 
Ore who is framC has a fearlesj 
and unconstrai-ed truthfulness 
Honest and tnzenuous unite 
esprc'sing contempt for deceit. 
On the other hand, artlrsf, 
Cnilflfjs, none, simfle, and hn* 
sofhisiuatrd express the good- 
ness which co'nes from want of 
th* knowledge or thought of 
evil As truth is not alwajj 
acreeable or t me’y. tandtd and 
/rant have often an objectioij- 
alle^ienie; "to be eandtJ wctli 
vcn." "to be perfectly franh^ 
a*e re.-nrded as sure preludes 

to <oTC£’tng tiisjgrecable. 

Ofen and unreser.ed may im- 
ply unstudic-l truthfulness or 
defiant recklessress , as, ofen 
admiration, ef'en robbery There 
may be rrjHjpflrcfi* integrity or 
transforent fraud Stneere ap- 
plies to the feelings, as being all 
that one’s words would imply 
Ant artful, deceitful, sl^. 
tricky, reserved, subtle, adroit, 
crafty, cunning, designing, dip- 
lomatic, foxy, insincere, mtrigu- 
ing. knowing, maneuvenng, 
sharp, shrewd, wily 
candidate, n nominee, office- 
seeker, contestant 
He IS a candidate for election 
He was the successful nominee 
The man is an office-seeker 
She IS a contestant for the pnie 
candidly, adv frankly, openly, 
unreservedly, boreitljr, fairly, 

Candidly, 1 question that state 

candied, a sugared, crysulltaed 
She ate the candied fruib 
candle n. light, luminary, 
candor, n impartiality; frank- 
iresi, openness 

They were impressed by ker can- 

cannon, n weapon, gw, ord- 

The cannon was recovered, 
canny, a cunning, crafty, shrewd, 
cautious, prudent; magical 
Her discernment is canny. 

Her waji are cunning. 

She is a crafty woman 
lie made a shrrzi'd estimate 
Her T^'y was cautious. 

The eftect was magical 
canon, n law, rule, regulation; 
criterion, decree. 

Tlie canon hvs been pubtvOied 
eanontred, a sainted 
They revered the cononieei hero- 


^I^n2facturlng is the indtts- 

This is its cardinal virtue. 

Their foremost thoughts were oi 

capital, n chief city, rnctropolis, 
seat of government. 

They met at the Slate capital 
This iS the chief city 
The convention was held m the 

This IS the seat of the gotem- 

Non:- The siif!ro;ef»i « the chief 
citj' in the commercial, the capt- 
tal, in the political sense The 
capital of an American State is 
rarely its metropoUi 
capital, n money, stock 
Thei' lacked suffiaent capital 
capitalistic, a moneyed, wealthy. 

lliere is a cepnaluiic class, 
capitalue, v put a \alue on. 

The mine was capitalised. 
capitulate, v surrender, 
fhey capitulated before a shot 
«as fired. 

capitulation, n. surrender, capita* 

The f(j/>iliiIa’ion was unexpected 
vaprice, n farcy, whim, notion, 
freak, fickleness, whimsy. 

She acted from caprice 
The SLgces’ion took His fancy. 
This IS her Litest tthim 
She has (joeer iiotionj about it 
That va.*. i fceofe. 

His f.clUneis IS to be deplored, 
capricious, a fanciful, whimsical, 
nconnant, fickle. 

His ti'te was capnaOuj. 

A'.t : con'tant, nnwaverng, 
l•ead^a«t. resolute, 
capnciousness, n inconstancy, 
ficVlcr.e*', unsteadiress, whra- 
! -C'S 

Her eaprteiousnets wearies one. 
capijie, i. upset, oscrturn, keel 

The beat has caPtized- 

captain, n.: leader, commander; 

He was appointed captain. 

He 18 leader of the band 
TTiey obeyed their commander. 

He IS foreman of the shops 
capiion, n heading, (legal) head- 
ing. seirurc 

\\c found It under the correct 

ca^t.vau.%., a c.c.tvcs.l, c.isp'.o.^, ceo.- 
soriouf, fault-finding 
She IS a capliouj woman 
captiousnesa, a fault-finding, 

His eaptiousness is irritating 
captivate, s enchant, subdue, be- 
witch. (ascioate. infatuate. 

He was capliialed by her charms, 
captivating, a bewitching, fas- 
onaimg, enchanting 
Her manner is capiiitatins 
Her smile is bnntchins 
The idea is a fosnnaling one 
She js an enclianling creature 
Ast unattractive, repellent, re- 

captive, a imprisoned, held; fas- 

The copuie birds were set free, 
cap^ve, n. prisoner, 
captivity, n bondage, slavery, 
servitude, bond servioe 
They were led into capUvMy. 
capture, v. apprehend, arrest, 
seize, take; gain, win 
The men were captured. 

c. KtfeX’t.%, 

*eizing; winning, gaming. 
Their capture was effected, 
car, n.. cart, vehicle, conveyance, 

cardinal, a fundamental, chief, 
principal; red, vermilion. 

That is a cardinal virtue, 
care, n : concern, anxiety, worry; 
oversight, charge, management, 
custody; ward, protege, respon- 
sibility, attention, caution, re- 
gard, carcfulnc's 
Great care should be taheo. 


He showed concern over the re- 

She expressed anxtely over the 

l^orry was the cause of her ill- 

She had the otersight of the af- 

She has been placed in charge. 

fie was given complete manage- 

The child was placed in her cus- 

The boy is his uard 

She IS the protigt of a noted 

They have assumed the responss- 

Strict oitenhon should be given to 
the matter 

Caution must he exercised 

He has little regard (or her feel- 

Associated Words circumspec- 
tion, concern, direction, fore- 
thought, heed, precaution, pru- 
dence, solicitude, trouble, wan- 
ness, watchfulness, worry 

Notej Care concerns what we 
possess; anxiety, often, what we 
do not; riches bring many 
tares; poverty brings many 
anxieties Care also signifies 
watchful attention, in view of 
possible harm, as, “This side 
up with cart," "Take care of 
yourself,” or, as a sharp warn- 
ing, "Take caret'’ Caution has 
a sense of possible harm and 
risk only to be escaped, if at 
all, by careful deliberation and 
observation Cart inclines to 
the positive, caution to the neg- 
ative; care is shown in doing, 
caution largely in not doing 
Precaution is allied with care, 
prudence with caution; a man 
rides a dangerous horse with 
care, caution will keep him 
from mounting the horse, pre- 

caution looks to the saddle- 
girths, bit and bridle, and all 
that may make the rider secure 
Circumspection is watchful ob- 
servation and calculation, but 
without the timidity implied in 
caution Concern denotes a se- 
rious interest milder than anx- 
iety, as, concern for the safety 
of a ship at sea Heed implies 
attention without disquret, it 
IS now largely displaced by at- 
tention and care Solicitude in- 
volves especially the element of 
desire not expressed in anx- 
iety, and of hopefulness, not im- 
plied in care A parent feels 
constant solicitude for his chil- 
drens welfare, anxiety as to 
dauigers that threaten it, with 
core to guard against them 
Watchfulness recognizes the 
possibility of danger, wanness 
the probability A man who is 
not influenced by caution to 
keep out of danger may display 
great uonness in the midst of 
It Cere has also the sense of 
responsibility, with possible con- 
trol. as expressed in charge, 
monogement, oversight, as, 
these children are under my 
care, tend the money to me in 
cart of the firm 

Ant carelessness, heedicssness, 
recklessness, indifference, inat- 
tention, neglect 
careen, v list, lean over, tip 
The vessel careens in the wind 
The ship hsls with its heavy 

career, n line of achievement, 
public life, course 
His career was successful 
He ranks high m this Imt of 


He 15 active in public life 
lie has determined on his course 
Associates Words race, flight, 
charge, ru'h 

Non; A career was orSginaH/ 
the ground for a race, or, espe- 
ciaMy, for a kniRhi’s charge in 
tonma-mcnt or battle; whence 
career was early applied to the 
charge Itself If >ou will use 
the lance, take ground for your 
career The four horse- 

men met in full career Scott 
Quentine Durward ch 14, p 
194 (D r i. Co > In It* 
figurative use career signifres 
some continuous and conspicu- 

carelessness, n • unconcern, Indif- 
ference, negligence, noncha- 
lance, improvidence, inattention, 

The loss was due to carelecsnett. 
caress, v court, embrace, coddle, 
flatter, pet, kiss 
They caretted the child 
He courted her for many years. 
He embraced h's diughter 
She coddled the rhilil 
She was greatly flattered by his 

ous work, usually a life-work, 
and most frenuenily one of 
honorable achievement. Com- 
pare t/usi-ess 

careful, a cautious, vjaichful, 
provident, attentiie, consider- 
ate. heedful prudent, discreet, 
wary ramd'ui, choice, sparing, 

She IS cartful n her expendi- 

Her remark was raiiiioHr 
She has a watchful eye 
She ts a frondent houieVeeper 
He IS rAfenUie to duly 
She M censtderate of others 
He ts heediut of advice 
His sctim was frudenl 
She IS ditereel n her manner. 
She sae e’tre'rel/ ticry 
She 11 1 of her ifuty. 

She ii'es choice language, 
ile is r/jn;i- in his criuci-m. 

She was ohteri'ant of every detail 
Am Sec careless, 
caiefalness, a care, caution, 
watchfulness, p-udence, discre- 
tion, svari-eis 

careless, a negligent, unron- 
cerred, ndifTe-cnt, heedhess, in- 
aiJen*ne, re,,ird’ess, lax, n- 
cau'ious, remiss, in-onsidc'ate. 
no-chala"‘. nr-g'ectful, unwary, 
srrt.rui'.en*. in livcreet, improvi- 
sW*. recxleis, desultory, per- 

Art : Sec careful. 

She petted the child inces^mtly. 

'VsaOriATED Uoai>» fondle, pam- 

NoTx To caress is less t' an to 
embroee, more dignifi- 1 and 
less familiar than to fondle. A 
visitor caresses a friend's child; 
a mother fanlles her faahc 
rondltng I, alaiyt b touch; 
earestini; may be Iso by words, 
or other tender and at- 

^•^T affront arnoy, in»ult. 
caress, n embrace, btamluhmcnt. 
cargo, n frei/bt load, lurden. 

The forgo has teen unlo-ided. 
caricature, n. burlesm*'', travesty, 
extravagann, parody 

Tb- caricature s "s hog'^abt- 

A«*oriATro V/oaas cx.aggcration, 
tm tation, m micrj, take-o'f 

Mote* a earteaiiire is a gro- 
lei'jue exoggeralton of s’rkmg 
features or peculiaritier, gener- 
ally of a p-rTm, a burlesque 
trents any subj-ct m an aVurd 
or i-'cons'ruojs manner A bur. 
lesque is writ’en or acted; a 
rcrifiirMre is more commonly in 
•Vetch nr pictt'rc A pzrody 
changes tb^ subject, fxit keem 
the I'jle a faiesty keeps the 
•ab;e't. but ebarr-s the style: 
a burlesque di-.ei not hold if*elf 
to either subject or style; Ixit 
is content with a general rc- 


tftril'Uticf to wlnt it nur imj. 

iJtc A (kiMxituri*. Of 

tr\nfst\ j»(t»t liuc an original, 
a nn\ I'o »u iiuk(«fiii{- 

cut ci>miv<ilu'u At\ a^wniwt 
«’f a 'vlioolNnV (iiurtrt after 
the emcrat iinmicr o( ttomcr * 
lliul winilj tc » butlcvjHf the 
fell $tor\ of llic Itiikl iivjil III 
hcw'i'n'cf »l)l« \'omM be * 
Ml cjf\. An Ci/rotM* «i a 
kiitaMic cvMiti'O'tiion. mutual 
itrAtitUfo. or iiarrainc Mini 
li 'h it jcriou* : wiwii.Yx h either 
iiiteiitu'tully or mmitcutu'uanjr 

carlout. a ' earicil ilrva\cd 
The Kvie hail betoiitc mit»j 
cifklns. » luntthu* worrvmu 
ilitirettine. \e\8tioiit 
carnal. a.‘ bojih. »ciit«»l. time 

jilt iletiret arc rirHi/ 

He ‘ulTrrck! (oiMv ^liwmfv'tt 
I is j'oems were 
lilt nature l« u<irei.*f'«'r 'f/ 
earcutal. « • Jo\UI. Iciti. |.»u.juef 
revclr) j earoute, ilel amh. orK\ 
satiifiiilu. retel. »prre. vtnttjtl 
The tiiroiin/ wn a UKvravc 
earoutj, % Orink, ilrmk trcel). 
tlrink elrtpl,! 

carousel, n ■ titerr>*KO rouiul. 
lounuinent. ti1(iii^*'m«liU. pts* 

The iMrohsef attrav.(c>l the clul- 

tari’, \ ceiiMirc. vatil 
carpenter, n l•ul^lcr. arthilcct 
The ttrftfiUn lute lotmol a 
tin! n 

carplnp. a eai tioiit critual. 

carriage, n earnmr iraitti'orta 
tun. teiriMv. Mimor. •lei. it- 
„ tnent. air. nn.n, tie neaimr 
The nr«t ujt i.rc<tU ett'-^cr- 
atcil in the i.irn i 
The (.[ tlic |’avkti.c tireJ 


Tlie Mitr^of/jfi » 

s tvvtr 

Her i« iliinmevl 

I hr Aiililteirt hr/>.i(t r wai ad 

Ihrir «as giuvl. 

He hi« ilie ii» of an antliut-'i 
1)ir> ilntiril hit itlin >Nir*< 

I III I mil I el hrr 
carnage, u >ai irliJr 

Ihr larriril Ihein out if 

cartiri n nie«»rni,rr hearer 

Hr « «» the .iimrr on our tmire 
I he Irllel wat *rnl hv a Hflii't 

He It ilie /(Mif' of 1.00 I newt 
Ihe I maliis lute iorititvl a 

van> ' loiivet iiantport. t rar. 
nail laii) out rt'iiipletr ef- 
Ir.itiale tontinninalr scxt'in 


He m.if Ihe ilnl! in hit arint 
He •"cei.J Ihe in itaj.T to her 
tl. koinli hate leen 0 fn* 'He f 
Hr I the hra\i litiam man 

Miimi nat eoifMf o i the lire r 
Ihrt ■ '•«el ‘'"t hit in.i.e»lun 
Ihr latk hat teen i '»i''k<ef 
He hit .‘V I- ilnl a .elilement 
Iheir I taut air , 'traini'i It ./ 

Ihc work lit' I'cen i. 

earl « 
He . 

, rhi, Ir li n K 
ill! nitiUil 

carte. « i u I I 'll i i or "leim 
aartc I'laluhr hlmk l'a|'rt. 

I riuii* 1 >' ni'hi 1 ill 

J>he na- fci'vn i oh f ''' f*e 

carte lie M'tie n ii'iiini. larii. 
pli. ii' I 'p’l 

Hellthii OK h Mjif 
carteL n aiiinniiil ihallenge, 
itehiiue , 

TiiP . .1.1 nat lull twneil 

Cairl-niakcr. u itit\iiis.lit. 

cartoon n .lu'ainie. piaiire, 

iKii tl iIiaiMiiit 

The iJ'f.' '• " ’» clIcMive. 

cartoonist, n." caricaturist, artist, 

The tartoonisl amused them for 

carve, v scuiplure, chisel, en- 
grave, fashion, mould. 

The image was carved in siood. 

He has sculptured the statue 
The stone has been chiselled 
His name was ergraied on the 

It was fashioned out of day 
carving, n sculpture 
The caning is very dtihculL 
case, n sheath, covering, exent, 
happening, mstanct. arcnciTn- 
starees, condition, affair, plight, 
predicament, dilemma, contin- 

The jewel was m its case 
He placed the sword n its sheath 
The eoienng was tom 
The etent wiU never be forgotten. 
It was a curious happening 
He spoVe of that instance. 

Under no circumstances wilf he 

The eendittons are the same. 

The affair should not be dis- 

He was in a sad pUght 
His predicament was serious 
The dilemma has been straight- 
ened out 

They were prepared for such a 

case-hardened, a.: seared, obdu- 

casement, n.: window, sash; case, 
covering, encasement 
She threw the casement open, 
cash, n • coin, specie, currency. 
He demanded the cash. 

He was given a gold coin. 

A great amount of specie was 

He IS counting the currency 
cashier, n.* treasurer. 

He IS cashier of the bank, 
cask, n.: barrel, vessel, hogshead. 
The cask was filled with wme- 

cast, x'.‘ fling, burl, throw, impel, 
pitch, sling, direct, torn, drop, 
deposit, place, shed, molt, dis- 
card, shed, reflect, throw; com- 
pute, reckon, add, enumerate 
He cast the book aside 
He flung his bat in the chair. 

He hurled the stone at them. 
They threzv the ball 
The wind impelled the boat 
He Pitched the ball to me 
He slung a stone at the dog. 

He directed their attention to his 

They turned tbetr eyes in this di- 

He dropped a com m the box 
The money has been deposited. 
They placed the jewelry in the 

The chickens hare shed their 

The birds art ntohmg 
She discorded her wrap. 

He shed some light on the *ub- 

His image was reflected 
He threw a glance in her direc- 

They have computed the interest 
The expense has rot been reck- 

They added the amounts. 

Various amounts were enumrr- 

castaway, n : outcast, reprobate, 
castigate, v • chastise, beat, 
castigation, n chastisement 
His eastigotion was severe. 
catUron, a unyielding, indomit- 
able, hardy 

castle, n • fortress, stronghold; 

He lives in a castle. 

They have built a fortress. 

Their stronghold was attacked. 
The mansion has been completed 
cast-off, a : discarded, rej'ected 
They picked up the cast'Off cloth- 

casual, a • chance, accidental, for- 

It was only a casual remarlc 
They met a chance acquaintance 
Their meeting was occidental 
The happening was forluilous 
Ant • planned, intended, or- 
dained. purposed 

casualty, n.: accident, disaster, 
disablenrent. death , mishap, 
mischance, pi, losses 
casuistry, n subtletry, sophistry 
His casuistry was unconvincing 
catachrestic, a. far-fetched, ex- 
treme, faulty, mixed 
The metaphor iscalachrestic 
cataclysm, n . See catastrophe 
cataclysmic, a torrential, delug- 
ing, overwhelming 
It was a cataclysmic flood 
caUlogue, n list, enumeration 
The catalogue is finally completed 
catastrophe, n. cataclysm disas- 
ter, misfortune, sequel 
He witnessed the catastrophe 
Ant • benefit, blessing, boon, com- 
fort, favor, help, pleasure, privi- 
prosperity, success 

Note ^ A cataclysm or catastro- 
pke IS some great convulsion or 
momentous event that may or 
may not be a cause of misery 
to man In calamity, or dtsos- 
ter, the thought of human suf- 
fering IS always present It has 
been held by many geologists 
that numerous catastrophes or 
cataclysms antedated the exist- 
ence of man In literature, the 
final event of a drama is the 
catastrophe, or denouement 
Misfortune ordinarily suggests 
less of suddenness and violence 
than rafatnijy or disaster, and 
IS especially applied to that 
which is lingering or enduring 
in Its effects In history, the 
event of every great war or the 
fall of a nation is a catastrophe, 
though it may not be a calamity 


Yet such an event, if not a cj- 
lamiiy to the race will always 
involve much individual disaster 
and misfortune Pestilence is a 
calamity a defeat m battle, a 
shipwreck or a failure m busi- 
ness IS a disaster sickness or 
loss of property is a misfortune, 
failure to meet a friend is a 
mischance, the breaking of a 
teacup IS a mishap 
catch, V lake seize come upon, 
take captne, capture, snare 
trap entrap, ensnare surprise, 
detect unexpectedlj , grasp, 
grasp and retain clasp, clutch, 
grip attract and hold, engage, 
captivate apprehend, perceive 
clearly, incur contract, become 
affected with, entangle, lay 
hold of, seize momentarily, 
come to 

We will catch t later train 

Assooatep Words comprehend 
discover, gripe, overtake, se- 
cure snatch, take hold of 

Note To catch is to come up 
with or take possession of 
something departing, fugitive, 
or illusive We catch a run- 
away horse, a flying ball, a 
mouse in a trap We eliileh 
with a swift tenacious move- 
mem of the fingers . we grasp 
with a firm but moderate clo- 
sure of the whole hand, we 
grip or gripe with the strong- 
est muscular closure of the 
whole hand possible to exert. 
We clasp in the arms We 
snatch with a quick, sudden, 
and usually a surprising motion. 
In the figurative sense, catch i« 
used of any act that brings a 
person or thing into our power 
or possession, as, to catch a 
criminal in the act , to catch an 
idea, m the sense of apprehend 
or comprehend Compare ar- 

Awt • miss, let go, throw away, Cancasian. a.- Arjan. Indo-Euro- 
fait of. pcan, Semitic, white, fair, xan- 

catch, n . hook, haul; hold, S”P, thochroic, mclanochroic. 

catching, grasping, sciting, de- The Caucasian races rule the 
Mcc, trick, impediment, break. world 

The catch was a strong one caucus, n private assembly, 
catching, a contagious, commu- meeting 

nicalle It was decided in the caucus 

catechise, v. instruct, examine, cauldron, n kettle, boiler, cop* 
intCTTogate. per 

She was duly catechised causal, a causative, creative, 

categorical, a absolute, uncondi* A causal conjunction implies a 
tional, dogmatic cause 

That IS a eoteeorical propositioiL cause, n actor, agent, author, 
category, n class, state, condi- antecedent, origin, source, mo- 
tion, division, predicament tive causation, causality 

It is in the category of events They inquired the cause of the 

They are in a separate riari trouble. 

It is a peculiar state of affairs Its origin is unknown 

The conrfitionr are simitar They are seeking the source of 

A diiuion has been made mischief 

She was placed in a strange fre- His wetitr was good 
dteemeni Associatcp Woms condition, 

cater, V provide, supply, furnish creator, designer, former, foun- 

He has raterrd to their wishes. tain, occasion, origin, origins- 

caterer, n .purveyor, provider. 1®^* power, precedent, reason, 

He is an excellent caterer. spring 

catholic, a universal, general, 
world-wide; liberal, tolerant, 
unsectarian, broad-minded. 

Hu views ere ealhoUe. 

Tlic belief IS unnersal 

The idea is general among them 

Its influence is uorJd-uide. 

He IS liberal in his views 
He IS tolerant ol other's opinions. 
His doctrine is unxeefanan 
He is a Iroad-nundrd man. 

Ant • uncathohe, local, narrow, 

catholicity, n, universality, liber- 

His ejl/ioheily freed him frem 
the narrow scctariani-ni of Ins 

cat’s-paw, n : dupe, tool 
They used hin as a rat's fau'. 

He was a dufe for tl e boys 
He was Lheir tool m planning 

N'ote The effieient eouse. that 
which makes anything to be or 
to be done, is the common 
metnirg of the word, as in the 
saying ‘ There is no effect with- 
out a foinr ’ Every man in- 
stmctiielv rccognucs himself 
actiig through will as the 
cause of Ins own actions The 
Creator is the Great First 
CflKxr of all things A eondi- 
tiOK IS something that ntces- 
sanlj precedes a result, but 
does not produce it An ante- 
rrJfitl s mf-ly precedes a result, 
with fir wi'hout any agency in 
jiroducng it, as tfonday is the 
tnvarrUc onlcfcdcnt of Tues- 
day, but rot th“ eauie of it. 
The d rcct an'cioyrn of cause is 
effect, whde that of antecedent 
IS fonrr7ur«r An occaiton is 
some event which brings a 


came into action at a particu- 
lar morrrent; gravitation and 
heat are the ca^sti of an ava- 
lanche, the steep incline of the 
Diountam-side is a necessary 
condition, and the shout of the 
traveler may be the occasion of 
Its fall Casialtly is the doc- 
trine or principle, causation the 
action of working of causes 

Ant • effect, consequence, issue 
outgrowth, result, creation, de- 
velopment, end, event, fruit 

Ouse, T.: occasion, induce, effect, 

He caused them to withhold judg- 

caustic, a sarcastic, cutting, sa 
tincal, biting, revere, burning 
He replj was caustic 
He made a sarcastic reply to the 

They ignored his cutting remark 
His smile was satirical 

causticity, n acrimony, acridity, 
sarcasm, corrosiveness 
His camticity elicited the truth 

cauteruing, a searing, making 
callous or insensible, burning, 

The medication is a eauttrisme 

caution, n circumspection, pru 
dence, wariness, care, careful- 
ness, concern, watchfulness, ad- 

caution, v„ forewarn, admonish, 
warn, counsel, advise 
He was cautioned against trouble 
He was fore'^arned of the plot 
He was admonished to accept 
They teamed him of the attack 
They counselled with him on the 

He was adoistd to ignore the 

cautious, a prudent, warv 
His reply was fawfioHf. 

Ants incautious, unwarj 

cavalcade, n train, procession, 

cavalier, a free and easy, off- 
hand, abrupt haughty. 

His manner was too catalier 
He has a free and easy disposi- 

The repl) was offhand 
His manner is abrupt 
She has a haughli disposition, 
cavalier, n horseman, knight; 

gallant, beau attendant 
cavalry, n troops mounted sol- 
diers, horsemen 

The «a airy dished to the front 
cave, n cavern den, cavity, re- 
cess chamber cellar 
cavernous, a hollow, sunken, 
deep set, cave like 
cavil, V criticize 

They cavilled unnecessarily 
cavil, n objection, criticism. 
They tired of his cavil 
The) Ignored his objecitan 
His eriiutsm was unfounded, 
cease, v discontinue, slop, de- 
sist, refrain 

He has eeased to annoy them 
He has discontinued his atten- 
tions to her 

They refrained from criticizing 

ceaseless, a incessant, unceasing, 
constant, uninterrupted, con- 

There was ceaseless motion 
The knocking was iiirerjaiif 
His attention Is ii«'C>r'«g . 
The article is m conjfour demand. 
The proceedings were Knmrcr- 

There was a continual demand 
upon his resources 
cede ' surrender, relinquish, 
grant, give up, yield up, aban- 

He »hem his share of prop- 

They^ surrendered to the enemy 
They relinquished their claims to 
the land 


He was granted the use of tBe 

celebrate, v commemorate, sol- 
emnue, observe, keep 

Hcte To cctebroi* any event Of 
occasion ts to make some «!e*P* 
onstration of respect or rejoic- 
ing because of or iti cn'cmory of 
:t, or to perform such p^Iic 
rites or ceremonies as it prop- 
erly demands We eelibratt ^e 
Linh, foHimcHiorote the death 
of one beloved or honored. \Vc 
celebrate a national anniversary 
with music and song, with fir- 
ing of guns and ringing of 
bells, we eommefnorott by any 
solemn and thoughtful service, 
or by a monument or other 
endunng memorial We keep 
the Sabbath. roJetnnire a mar- 
riage, observe an anniversary, 
we eeUbrate or observe the 
Lord s Supper in which believ- 
ers eommemorate the sufferings 
and death of Christ 
Ant despise, disregard, ignor*. 
neglect, overlook, forget, con- 
demn, dishonor, profane 

celebrated, a. famous, illustrious, 
noted, renowned, eminent, far- 

He IS a celebrated artist 
Kis paintings have become fa- 

His name is illustrious. 

He is a noted singer. 

He is renoumed for his philan- 

He is an eminent statesman. 

His reputation is far-famed, 

Avt : obscure, inglorious, tinre- 

celebration, n,; commemoration, 

A eelehration was planned for 
that day. 

celebrity, n • fame, renown, emi- 
nence, distinction; renowned 

His eelehrity has become world- 

Acts of bravery hate brought him 

His renOevn was only local 

He has reached a great eminence. 
celerity, n rapidity, swiftness, 
dispatch, »peed, quickness 

He finish^ the task with celerity. 
celestial, a heavenly, divine 

celestial phenomena were dis- 
cr^itcd at first 

celibate, n bachelor, celibatory. 
cell, n room, catity, structural 
unit, protoplasm 

The cell is a structural unit 
cellar, n basement, vault. 

The cellar was damp 

The basement has been completed 

The tault is securely locked 
Ccluc, Keltic, 3 Gadhelie, Irish. 
Erse, Manx. Cimnc, Welsh, 
Cornish, Gallic. 

Y»a ibow >eut Csliv: anttstry 
cement, n. adhesive, glue, tnor« 
tar. coating, filling, lining, 
cement, v. jom, glue, cohere, 
censor, n inspector, critic; r«* 

The eensors rejected the film. 

He is the inspector for the com- 

He 1 $ a well-known art m/if. 

He IS a rmeurr of ancient litera- 

censorious, a. carping, fault-find- 
ing, caviling, captious. 

She was too censorious by far. 
censurable, a culpable, blama- 
We, reproachable 

Such actions are censurable. 
censure, v.: reprove, rebuke, up- 

He was severely censured for tbe 

censure, n : reproof, blame, repri- 

Their censure was unbearaWe. 

He was refrovei by his father. 

They openly rebuked him. 

He was upbraided by his oppo- 

censuring, a • rcnroachful, reprov- 
ing, condemnatory. 

His eensunng remarks were over- 

He cast a reproachful glance at 

His reproving look restrained her 
A condemnatory silence followed 
centenary, a • hundredth 
The centenary celebration was a 

centennial, n hundredth anniver- 
versary, centenary 
She lived to sec the ctnlemtal 
center, n middle, midst, nucleus 

Note: Wc speak of the center 
of a circle, the middle of a 
room, the middle of the street, 
the midst of a forest The cen- 
ter is equally distant from ev- 
ery point of the circumference 
of a circle, or from the oppo- 
site boundaries on each axis of 
a parallelogram, etc , the wid- 
die is more general and less 
definite The center is a point, 
the middle may lie a line or a 
space We say at the eenier. 
»» the middle Midtt common- 
ly implies a group or multitude 
of surrounding otjects 

Ant : circumference, perimeter, 
nm, boundary. 

**'5;fral, a : middle, centric 
4.h«y gathered at a central point 
lilt middle aisle is blockaded 
centrifugal, a.: flying off, radiat- 

Centrifugal forces propelled it 
Ant ; centripetal 

century, n • centennmm, hundred, 

He rode a century awheel 
Cerberus, n : watch-dog, surly; 

cerebral, a • cerebrie, brainal. 
cerebration, n.: brain-action. 

Exerercise promotes cerebration. 
cerements, n, pi gra\c-cIothes, 

ceremonious, a formal, precise, 

He made a ceremonious bow to 
the visitor 

She received a formal invitation. 
She IS precise in her manner 
He IS puiiclilious in performing 
his duty 

Ant informal, free-and-easy 
ceremony, n nte form, solem- 
nity, formality 

certain, a assured confident, 
convinced s'liisfied undoubt- 
mg undeniable irrefutable, m- 
diiliitaUle iiiLuntestable, sure, 
inesitible unavoidable, unfail- 
ing, infallible, fixed, stated, 

Ills going >s certain 
She was assured of his safety 
He IS confident of her return 
lie IS comnneti of the truth 
She IS saus^ed with the results. 

An undoubimg belief sustained 

The facts are undeniable 
The charge is irrefutable 
The remark was indubitable 
Mis rights are incontestable 
He IS sure of victory 
The task is unavoidable 
He IS tinfaiUne m his promptness. 
Ills statement is infallible 
A iSred price was decided upon 
He has paid the staled amount 
A specified time was set 
Ant indefinite, uncertain, Uoubt- 

certainty, n siireness, conlidence, 
assurance, fact, truth 
There « no certainty of his going 
The surcncss of his aim never 
failed him , , . 

They had no confidence m his 

He replied with assurance 
The (act of the matter was ex- 


There was no frulh in his state- 

Ant uncertainty, 
certificate, n testimonial, cre- 
dential, voucher 

He received a Cerlifieate of 

eertificauon, n proof, attesta- 
tion, aiscrvation , notificatiort 
This a (ertifi(ation of fact, 
certify, s assure attest, testify 
to, vouch for 

The cheek has been ctriihed 
They assured him of the facts 
They attested to his honor 
The> tesiiAtd to their part in the 

They louehed for his borresty 
certitude, n certainty , assurance, 

He could not answer with any 

cessation, n.* discontinuation, dis- 
continuance, leavin? oT. halt, 
loll, stay, pause, rest, respite 
Let us nave a tessauon from 

cession, n.: grant, surrender, 
yielding up 

The eesssan of the terntery was 

chafe, chafing, n * restlessness, ir- 
ritation, annoyance, vexation 
The (ha/ing increased, 
chafe, V,' rub, irritate; fret, fume, 

The collar chafed his neck 
The crowd ruhhcd agamst one 

Hu answer trnlaled her. 

He fretted o>cr his loss 
They fumed oser his misfortune. 
He raged over the loss 
chaff, r.’ enselopc, hosk, glume, 
straw; refuse 

The elaH was blown away, 
chaff, n.' banter, jestin? 

Hii conversation was full of chaff. 
Their light banter was entertan- 


He is fond of Jesting. 
chaff, V, (Collofi). banter, ridi- 
cule, jest. 

chagnn, n : mortification, abash- 
ment, vexation, confusion, hu- 

He expressed chagrtn over the af- 

Associatto Woxds confusion, 
disappointment, discomposure, 
dismay, humiliation, mortifica- 
tion, shame, vexation 

Not* Chagrtn unites disappoint^ 
ment with some degree of hu- 
miltalion A rainy day may 
bring disappointment, need'ess 
failure m some enterprise 
brings chagrin Shame nsolves 
the consciousness of fault, guilt, 
or impropriety, chagrin of fail- 
ure of judgrrent, or harm to 
reputation A consciousness 
that one has displayed his owm 
Ignorance v ill cause hm morti* 
Heaiion, however worthy his in- 
tent. if there was a design to 
deceive, the exposure will cover 
him with shame 

A?JT delight, triumph, exulta- 
tion, glory. 

chagnn. v.: mortify, abash, vex, 
confuse, humiliite 

He was chagrined at the remark. 

A'-t : delight, exalt, glory, uplift, 
chain, n : senes, links; bond, 

They have established a chain of 

chain, v letter, restrain, enslave, 

The dog vas chined to the tree 

He was fettered by debts 

He was restrained from entering 

The pri!o~cr was enslazed. 

Hii arms had been shackled 
chair, n sett, professorship; 
eha rmn 

He was offered the chair of Sci- 

challeng*. v defy, dare, brave 
They chailensed his right to vote 
challenge, n defiance, exception, 

He accepted the challenge. 

They spoke m defiance of the 

They took exception to his re- 

They have offered no ebjeetiou 
champion, n defender, protector, 
vindicator; winner, hero, con- 

He was the champion of Ureir 

champion, v. defend, maintain, 
advocate, vindicate 
He championed the rights of the 

He successfully defended the pris- 

He mamlatned order on the 

He advocated justice for all 
They were vindicated of the 

chance, v. befall, risk, venture. 

It chanced that he saw them 
A great trouble has befallen them 
He fished his life m the en- 

They ventured to open a new 

chance, n fortune luck ac- 

cident, possibility, likelihood, 
contingency, opportunity, haz- 
ard, risk 

His chance for success was un- 

chance, a casual, accidental ran- 

He was a chance icqiiaintance 
Their visit was a casual one 
Their meeting was accidental 
He made a few random remarks 
change, n variation alienation, 
transition, conversion, innova- 
tion, reversion, reaction, substi- 
tution, variety, novelty 
Several changes have been made 
in the mmagvment 

There is no larialion in his plans. 
A little olterolioii was necessary 
He effected the conversion of 
water into ice by this process 
The transition from the old to 
new was hardly noticeable 
The program was a great iiinota- 

He suffered the reversion of ms 

A re I ti’ii will be sure to follow 
He refused my jii/>r/i/Hfii?>i for 
the girment 

He showed them mmy larielses 
The article was quite a novella 
Associatu> Words dnersity, 
mutation regeneration, renew- 
al. renewing, revolution, tnns- 
formation, transmutation, vicis- 

Mote A change is a passing 
from one state or form to an- 
other any act or process by 
which a thing becomes unlike 
what It was before or the un- 
likeness so produceil we sas a 
ehange wis taking place, or llie 
ehange that hacT taken phee 
was manifest Mutalton h a 
more formal word for ebonge. 
often suggesting repeated or 
continual rfmngr. S'* 
lions of fortime Noteltii is a 
change to what ts new or the 
newness of that to whicli 
change is made , as, lie was per- 
petually desirous of occtfy 
Revolution is specifically and 
most commonly a cliinge oi 
government yariation is a 
Mftnl change m form, qi'ahiies, 
Stc but especially m position or 
^pfiTOT as the larialioii of the 

™«.C mi'll' “ »' 

rttjmies f" an intermia""' 

dSnl “V’ ‘vul’ 

Ihouaht ol a, 

siiude IS sharp, sudden, or vio 
fint change, always thought ol 


as ^urprisinsr and often as dis- 
turLinff or distressing, as, the 
of politics Trflnn- 
tion IS change by passing from 
one place or state to another, es- 
pecially in a natural, regular or 
orderly way, as tJie transition 
from spring to summer, or 
from youth to manhood An 
tr.nDfohprv ts a change thal 
breaks in upon an established 
order or custom, as an »n»o- 
vatton in religion or politics 
For the distinctions between the 
other words compare the syno- 
nyms for change, r In the 
religious sense reccncratioB is 
the \ital rcne'H'xng of the son) 
by the pow er of the dmne 
Spirit, foiit’crjian is the con- 
scious and manifest change 
from evil to good, ot from a 
loTver to a higher spiritual 
state, as, in Luke xxti. 22. 
“when thou are comerted, 
strengthen thy bretlircn" In 
the popular use ronttrsion ts 
the most common word to ex- 
press the idea of regeneration, 

Akt • continuation, conservatism, 
pertoatience, monotony, perpet- 
uation, continuance, nniformity, 
unchangcableness, constancy, 
firmness, fixedness, fixity, iden- 
tity, iniariability, persistence, 

change, i alter, shift, rciersc, 
reform, lary, modify', conicrt, 
transform, transpose, transfer, 
exchange, substitute 
Their plans hase l>ecn thonged. 
Ant.: continue, persist, remain. 

changeable, a. variable, incon- 
stant. unstable, unsteadfast, re- 
vcr'ille, alterable, revocable; 
fickle, irresolute, capriaoas, 
laciHatmg, erratic, eccentnc 
Her disposition is changeahle. 
His flans are tartahle 
He IS mtonjlanl iij his affeaions 

The prices are unstahte. 

He IS unsteadfast in character. 
Their plans arc rcwmble. 

The dress is not alterable. 

The call is revocable 

His judgment is ‘fickle 

He IS too irresolute 

She IS eaf-nnous in her manner. 

Her affections are vacillating. 

Hts ideas are erratic 
He is an eccentnc old man. 
changeablettess, ti inconstancy, 
instability, itTCsolution, fickle- 
ness, capnejousness 
They were annoyed at her 

changeless, a permanent, immut- 
able, inexorable, invariable, tin- 
deviating, unalterable, unvary- 
ing, constant, monotonous 
Nature's bws are ehanpeless. 

Ani See ehanceablc. 
channel rt. canal, avenue, route. 
The ehonnel is quite deep 
The eenal has b«n completed. 
All avenues ot trade yiere closed 
He was taken over the entire 

chant, V. intone 
The cheur chanted softly during 
the service 

The priest intoned the service, 
chant, n . intonation, 
chaos, n confusion, disorder, dis- 

Cosmic order was evolved from 

They were in a great confusion 
The papers were in disorder. 

He was the cause of their dis- 

chaotic, a • unformed, disordered, 
disorganized, jumbled, con- 

Dreams are often chaotic. 

^ap, n. crack; jaw. 

She treated the chap on her 

chap, n. (Colloq): boy, lad. 


chaperon, n : attendant, {>rotector. 
Inc chaperon wat in attendance 

chaplet, n : wreath, garland, neck* 

chapter, n.: divMion, category, 
leriej, branch, bod/ 

The iccond chapter is very inter- 

character, n. personality individ- 
uality, temperament, disposi- 
tion, nature, r^utiiion 
Her ehiiraclerti irreproachable 
Assoc'atid Wosijs consiiiution, 
genius, record, spirit, temper 

hore; Character is what one is, 
Tcputatton, what he is thought 
be; his record is the total 
of his known action or miction 
As a rule, a man's record will 
lubstantnlly express his char- 
flcler; hu reputatton may be 
higher or lower than hit ehar^ 
aeter ot record will joitify He- 
Pute IS a somewhat formal 
word, with the same general 
lense as rr^u/aiKin, Ones no- 
lure Includes all his original en- 
dowments or pfopcnsiiies, char- 
celff includes Uith natural and 
aeiiuifcj traits We speak of 
one s physical eonittlulion as 
strong or weak, etc, and figura 
tively, ilwiys v/ith the adjec- 
tive, of his mimial or moral 

characterlstie, n.' trait, peculiar- 
ity, feature, attribute, idiosyn- 
crasy, mirk, property, rjuality, 
sinpularily, sign 
Honesty is one of his choraclerts- 

Asvxiatcd Wovns' character, 
dislin'-tion. Indication, trace 

I'Cnz' A eharaeteristtc J^Iongs 
to the nature or character of 
the person, thing, or chss, and 
serves to identify an object, as. 
a copper-colorcd iVin, high 
eheeW-bonvs, and straight, blick 


hair are charaeterultej of the 
American Indian A tmn is 
Bianifcit to an observer. 9 
mark or a charoelerttltc may be 
more ditricult to discover, an 
nseniill/- Ner*';n may show 
eiini of li(c v/ljilf somclimci 
only clo'c ex imin,iti ,i) will dis- 
close marki of viobncc I’al- 
k>r It ordin,iriI/ a mark of 
fear but in lumi brave natures 
It IS limply a thinclertHic ot 
intense Lirn'tnrss Hark it 
sometimes used in a go'jd, but 
often in a bad sense, we tpeak 
of the choracierulu of a gen- 
tleman, the mark of a villain 

characienre, v distinguish 
Their meeting was charactemed 
by friendliness 

characteristic, a distinguishing, 
enarVing eharacierinng 
The expression is characlerutK 
of him 

charge, n accu'ition, complaint, 
arraignment, trust, ward, cus- 
tody. care, rcsp'jnsibility, over* 
sight, obligation, eomminion, 
manigement, attack, asssult 
The cl^trges were signed by the 

They preferred an oecuiattan 
against him 

A complaint was filed witli the 

Tlic judges arroi jnment of the 
prisoner was scathing 
He IS hold ng ilic property in 
trust for Jus son 

She IS the uard of the manager, 
flic goods arc held m custody 
Ife was given the core of the 

All responiihility was placed on 
him , , 

lie had CTymplctc otmig/if of the 

Ifp was placed under oLUpation 
to them 

He has been given a commmion. 

He has unclerta’-^cn the manese- 
tncn of the business 
An attack was made on the en* 

He was tried for assault 
charge, v impose, load, en- 
cumber , exhort, enjoin, in- 
struct, commit, intrust debit, 
accuse, indict, tax, arraign, at- 
tack, assault 

He was charged with the crime 
chatgeable, a imputable, aitnba- 

The bill IS chargeohle to his ac- 

His failure was imputable to bck 
of energy 

His success was attnbwtaWe to 
his untiring efforts 
chantable, a betieiolent, benicn 
beneficent, magnanitnons, 
eral, tolerant lenient 
They are ckamable m their criti- 

Akt uncharitable illiberal, in- 
lolerart, implacable, revergefol, 
relentless, unforgiving 
charity, n benevolence, good 
will, love, philanthropj', benefi- 
eence, bounty, liberality, toler- 
ance, alms 

The) sought to interest her m 
their chanties. 

Her benei-olence is well known 
They 'ought his good uill 
Her great loze prompted the sac- 

He IS interested in philanthropy 
His hcncdcence was gratefully te- 

They gave of their bounty to help 
the poor. 

They counted on his Iif>froMy. 
Thrv 'Ought his tolerance of 
their errors 

Tbeit fllmj were accepted, 
charlatan, n pretender, impostor, 
quack, fraud, cheat. 

The fJioTlolau made pretcnsious 

charm, n 'pell, fasemaj on, 
glamour, attraction, illusion 

They exerted a peculiar charm 
over her 

The spell was not easily broken. 

He could not explain her fasana- 
tiow for him 

A glamour was thrown over the 
entire situation 

The place offered but little ol- 

The) had no illusions as to the 

charm, v enchant, fascinate, in- 
fjlua^c ew'dp'uTe, bewitclv, cap- 
tivate II i\, soothe, subdue. 

Tht) were d armed by her pres- 

chancing, a bewitching, capii- 
nting enchaitirg enrapturinR 
otranc ng fascitvating, win- 
I np, i lightful, winsome, rav- 
ishing ‘ediirtive 

She received then in a tJiermiiig 

Her smtlc is bettitching. 

Sbe 'pole n a man- 

The song which she rendered was 

He gave a fasciroUrg account of 
his trip 

She gave then a rfinniur snile 

The program was dehphtfyl 

She is 3 cjnijome little maiden. 

Her beajtv is ratir^iiTig. 

He emplojed seductite means to 
*cc'_te the position. 

\on: That is cfcarwiHg or be- 
•aitcfi ng which »s adapted to 
win others as by a magic 'ptlL 
Enchant ng, enrapturing en- 
tronriBj lep-t'cnt the influence 
as rot orlv si-pernatural. but ir- 
resistible and delightful That 
which is fasciitatiiig may win 
wi’hout d-iighting, drawing by 
•o*ne unseen pOA-er, as a ser- 
jent Its prey, we can sp^ak of 
homUe fcsanatian Charmtnt 

applies only to what is external 
to orv'scH, deiighl/uf may ap 
ply 10 personal experiences or 
emotions as watll, we speak of 
a charvnug manner a charming 
dress, but of delishlful anticipa- 

Ant charmless unattractive, re- 
pellent repulsive 
chart, n map 

He was eivcn a chart of the sur 
roundin;^ country 

chary, a frugal, careful savins 
cauliciua, circumspect, pru 
dent, wary 

She was cliar^ m her acceptance 
of the service 

A frugal repast was spread 
She IS tarefut in keeping down 

She IS a rotnig housewife 
Her reply was eatitiom 
He was circumy/ie, t in the man- 
sgemcnl of his Imsiness 
She IS a prudent manager 
Sic was twry of strangers 
Charybdis, n ravening woman, 

Jupiter transformed Charybdis 
into a whirlpool 

chase, v track, hunt pursue 
scatter, expel drive, disper'c. 

He eltiscd after pleasures 
chase, n hunting field sport, 
hunt, pursuit 

The chase was the principal form 
of amusement 

He was intercsceil in hunting 
Many held sports were iniroducrj 
during the dry 
They enjoyed the hunt 
They arc in pursuit of the crimi- 

chasm, n abyss gap, opening, 
rent, deft, fissure void 
A deep chasm separated the two 

chaste, a virtuous iindefiled 
pure molest innocent, classic, 
refined, correct 

She IS a chaste woman 
The style of these decorations is 
chaste jet pleasing 
chasten, v discipline, correct, 
punish subdue, purify 
Ills soul was chastened by afflic- 

AssocivTtn Words afflict, casti- 
gate dnstise, humble, refine, 
soften try 

Note Castigate and chastise re- 
fer strictly to corporal punish- 
ment, though both are some- 
what archaic, correct and pun- 
ish are often used as euphem- 
isms in preference to cither 
Punish ts distmctlj retributive 
m sense ihastise partly retrib- 
utive, and partly corrective, 

I ha ten wholly corrective 
Chasten is used exclusively in 
the spiritual sense, and chiefly 
of the visitation of God 
chastening, n chastiseromt, chas- 
tisement. discipline, correction 
He endured the ehasleiiuie with 
a contrite spirit 

chastise, v punish, whip correct 
tie was chastised for the act 
lire bny has been punished for 

Neither side was whipped in the 

He must be corrected for his 

chastisement, n punishment, 

Proper (hasUsemeiit was giiren 
the dclitKjuents 
The bojs deserve punishment 
Tliej were given a severe uhip- 

The pnuishmeiit was more than 
he could bear 

chastity n purity, continence, 

Cl.asMs IS the supreme virtue 
chrt, n talk, conversation 
cs-areiu. n castle, manor-house, 


The cl.atca^ ts a hiitotie land- 

chatelalrie, n chain, guard, mis- 
tress, keeper 

She 13 a faithful chatelaine. 
chattering, a garrulous, jabbcr- 
irg, jibbermg, gabbling, shak- 

The chattering starlings amused 

chauffeur, n. dm er. 
cheap, a intxpenai%e, lovi-priced, 
inferior, mean, mediocre, of 
small value 

The furnishings of the apartment 
were cheap 

The dresS is tnerpentiie. 

The article is s-ery tov.--pneeJ 
The cloth is of inferior quality 
The tntan surroundings were re- 
volting to his esthetic taste. 

His talents are mediocre 
The stone ts of small t-alue 
cheapen, > depreciate, behtlle, 

The trimming cheapened its ap- 

The house has depreciated in 

He belittled the seriousness of the 

They tracred the price of the 

cheat, n , fraud, trick, finesse, im- 
position, swindle, deception, 
ittatagtm; imposter, deceiver, 
sxirdler; mockery, counterfeit, 

cheat, V.. swindle, defraud, over- 
reach. trick, l«guile 
They were cheated in the value 
of the goods 

The men v ere sziindled out of 
thrir r-oney. 

He was defrauded of his estate. 
He o'.erreaehed hii privileges m 
the matter 

They were tncfeed into making 
the deal 

He was beguiled by his friends 

check, n . obstacle, restrain, curb, 
bridle, damper, barrier, restric- 
tion, rebuff, repulse, delay, in- 

The ercni> s progrCiS received a 

Every obstacle was removed from 
his path 

A restraint was placed upon his 

They put a curb on his activities 

A bridle was placed on the horse 

They pat a damper on his enthu- 

.^11 the barriers were broken 

They placed a restriction on the 
pupil 5 privileges 

All their overtures were rebuffed. 

His advances were repulsed 

There was a delay m the delivery 
of the goods 

The class received n interrupltan 
m Its lesson 

check, 11 order 

The ehteks have all been depos- 

check, V restrain, impede, curb, 
repress, bridle 

They eheeked the etrem/s ad- 

The men were restrained by the 

Their progress has been impeded 

His enthusiasm was curbed by 
the refusal 

He repressed a smile at the reply 

He was uiable to bndle his tem- 

checkered, a., diversified, varie- 
gated, p'aid. 

He has had a checkered career. 

Ills pleasures are diierr-ffed. 

The lawn was variegated with 

The dress was trl.mmed with 
ptaid ribbon. 

checking, a repressive, restrain- 
ing, curbing 

checkmate, v.: defeat, vanquish, 
conquer, baffle. 


The politician was chetkttaftd^j 
the council 

His opponent was dtftaied 
The enemy was zanguuhed Iqr 
cold and hunger 

He conquered his desire for such 

The enemy has been baffled 
cheek, n jowl 

She pressed her cheek against the 

cheer, V elate, exhilarate inspirit, 
encourage, console, revive, gbd- 
den, amuse , applaud, praise, 

They were cheered by the news 
He was elated oser his success 
The fresh air exhilarated him 
Success iKspirtted him 
They were encoura^ed to con- 
tinue the journey 
He was eomoled by his friends 
His spirits were quickly rctwed 
Their hearts were gladdened by 
her presence 

The audience loudly applauded 
the number. 

Am : depress, discourage, dis- 
hearten, decry, denounce, exe- 

cheerful, a cheery, buoyant, 
sunny, vivacious, optimistic, 
sanguine, elated, jubilant, liglit- 
some, airy, exhilarating, joc- 
und, chipper, cheering 
They spent a cheerful day in the 

He gave them a cheery greeting 
His buoyant spirits rose at the 

She has a sunny disposition 
She IS a tivaciouj little child 
His views are opiimulte 
He IS elated over the news 
They were jubilant over the re- 

Her tone is light and airy 
The air is exhilarating 
cheerfulness, n cheeriness, buoy- 
ancy, elation, alacrity, light- 
heartedness, optimism. 

His iheerfulness enlivened the 
entire party 

His greeting was filled with 

His buoyancy of temperament 
made his company desirable 
He expressed elation over the 

They responded with alacrity. 
Their light-heartedness was 

His optimism encouraged them 
cheering, n applause ovation 
The cheertiig lasted for several 

He was greeted with applause 
They gave the singer a great 

cheerless, a dismal, sombre, 
dreary gloomy, desolate, for- 
lorn, sad, hopeless, despairing, 

The house is cheerless 
The dog gave a dismal howl 
He IS leading a sombre life 
The day is cold and dreary. 

He takes a gloomy view of the 

He was alone m the desolate 

They found him in a forlorn eon- 

His countenance is sad 
The situation is not hopeless 
He IS despairing of obtaining re- 

His life IS joyless 
cheery, a cheerful, sunny, 
sprightly, gay, cheering, glad- 

We heard her cheery voice 
chef, n head cook 
chef-d'oeuvre, n (pi, chefs- 
d'oeuvre) masterpiece, art- 

The chefs-d ecuvre attracted great 

cherish, v treasure, value, hold 
dear, protect, nourish, nurture, 
harbor, foster, cling to 
They ehenshtd his memory. 


As'ioaAiEi; V.’oxns cheer, com- 
fo't, encourage, entertain, 
rurse, shelter 

Note To chernh is both to hold 
dear and to treat as dear Mere 
unexpressed esteem nould not 
be ckerisl in^ In the marnage 
vo/?, “to love, honor, and cher- 
uk," the world cheruh implies 
all that each can do by lore 
and tendernes., for the welfare 
and happiness of the other, as 
by support, protection, care in 
sickness, comfort in sorrow, 
sympat^, and help of every 
kmi To nurse is to tend the 
helpless or feeble, as infants, or 
the sick or wounded To nour- 
ish IS strictly to sustain and 
build up by food, to nurture 
includes careful menial and 
♦piritual training, with some- 
thing of lose and tenderness, 
to {osier IS simply to msi-uin 
and care for, to bring up. a 
foster-child will be nouruhed, 
but may not be as tenderly nur- 
tured or as lovingly ehenshed 
as if one's own In the figura- 
tive sense, the opinion one 
eherishes he holds, not with 
mere cold conviction, but with 
loving devotion Compare ca- 

A*.t,. Sec abandon, 
cherubic, a angelic, cherub-like. 

The baby's smile was therubu 
chest, n : box, case, repository, re- 
ceptacle; thorax. 

chevron, n.* badge, device, fret, 

fie pairci his ehevront. 
chew, V : masticate, munch, 

chic, n • cngmalfty, good taste, 
facility, cleverness fart) 

She dressed with real chie. 
chicanery, n. chicane, subterfuge 
evasion, sophistry 

He abhorred the petty subterfuges 
and chicanery of his col!c.igucs. 
chide, V atlmnnish, censure, up- 
braid. scold 

They chided him about the affair, 
A\t praise, approve, applaud, 
extol, laud. 

chiding, n censure, censuring, 
scolding, reproof, rebuff 
Her (hiding did no good, 
chief, n head, leader, commander, 
chieftain, captain 

chief, a leading, supreme, main, 
head, principal, paramount, 
prime, cardinal, major, fore- 

He IS the chief magistrate of the 

The leading citizens have called 
a mecung 
Ills will IS supreme 
They decorated the main street of 
the village 

The head teacher has been chos- 

The meeting was held in the frin- 
ctpai city 

His paromount aim was soon 
made known 

This IS one of his prime reasons 
for going 

Diligence is his terdinal virtue. 
The major part of the land is 

He IS the foremost man in the 

childhood, n infancy, minority, 

His childhood has been neglected. 
chJdssh, a. juvenile, infantile, im- 
mature, puerile, paltry, ^ty, 
trifling, trivial. 

His request was childish. 

Akt • mature, resolute, bold, 
manly, vigorous 

childishness, n immaturity, pue- 
rility, foo'ishness. 
llii childishness is inexcusable, 
childlike, a . artless, confiding, 
docile, trustfuL 


He was childlike in bis tnistfnl- 

children, n progeny, descend- 

The children are at school 
There were numerous progeny 
His descendants are occupying 
the estate 

chill, n chilliness, rigor 
A chill came over him at the 

chilly, a cool chill, raw, bleak 
The air is ckillv 
A cool breeze blew in the win- 

A chill ram was beating against 
the house 

A raw wind was blowing in our 

The day is i/rak and cold 

chime, v accord, agree, harmo- 
nize, to be in unison, nng 
(in harmony) 

The suggestion chimed with our 

His \rew8 accorded with mine 
They agreed to meet at a certain 

The instruments harmonised per- 

They are ni unison with each oth- 
er’s thoughts 

The bells chimed out their mes- 

chime, n unison, harmony, mel- 
ody, rhythm, carillon 
The chimes rang out the hour for 

chimera, n phantasm, absurd cre- 
ation, groundless fan^ 

That IS a mere chimera 

chimerical, a impracticable, Uto- 
pian, absurd, fanciful, whimsi- 
cal, visionary, unreal 
The plan is too clnmencal to con- 

chimney, n flue, vent, passage, 
glass tube 

Associated Words* cowl, flu^ 
hoveling, smoke jack, chimney- 
breast tewel 

chimney corner: ingle nook, ingle- 

chin, n mentum 
Associated Words genian, men- 
tal submental, gill wattle, 

China, n Celestial Empire, Ca- 
thay (Old name) 

Chinaman, n Chinese Celestial, 
Mongol mongolian, mandarin; 

china ware china, porcelain, 

Chinese, n mongoloid 
The Chinese are the mongoloid 

\ssoriATED Words sinology, sin- 
ologue, sinicism sinic, yamen, 
haikwan hong, canque sinolog- 
ical Taoism, Confusunism, 
■lanchu kotow, Ii, abacus, chi- 
noiserie, taotai 

Chmese idol jo»s 

chink, n crack cranny, crevice 
Fill up the chinks 

chink, n jtngl", metallic sound. 
(Colloq ) money, cash, coin 
The chink of the coins attracted 
his attention 

chip, n fragment, piece, flinder, 
remnant scrap 

chipper, a (Colloq) lively, viva- 
cious, cheerful, talkative, ac- 
tive, pert 

chirp. V cheep chirrup, twitter 
The birds chirped cheerfully in 
their cage 

chivalrous, a gallant knightly, 
magnanimous, valiant, brave, 

He IS a chitalrous gentlemen of 
the old school 

He performed a gallant service 
for them 

He IS knightly in his bearing 
They are iiiagnoniriiour m their 

The soldiers made a faluinl de- 

chivalry, n knighthood, gallan- 
try, knight-errantry 


He re> filed in Scott's tales of 

chlorophyl, n leaf-sreen, color- 
ing, pigment. 

aAorofh^i dcco’Tpojei carbon 

choice, 71 select on. election, >1- 
terratiie, option, preference. 
di'CTiramation, solition 
He made a choice between the 
two artictes 

His je'tction was a wise one 
The e/fitirn of a chairman i* 

TVett IS no ollrrnaiiii in the 

He has an oftion on the p'operty 
She has expressed her preferenfe 
He irakes no dtscrtiniraiton be- 
tween them 

This was done of hu own toll- 

Ant coercion, compulsion, n* 

choice, a carefully chosen, select, 
rare, careful, sparing 
She picked choice flowers from 
the gardn 

Ant. i"cI. crminate, proaisS' 
woes, common 

choke, V strangle, throttle, stifle, 
sc/Tocate, suppress 
Her Tc ee was choked with sobs 
chaler, n anger, irascfoility, ir* 
ntabil ty, pctulaacj, Inlioniness 
His choUr began to nse. 
choleric, a. irascible, irritable, 
pmuiant, testy, bilious, high- 

He has a choleric temper. 

She has an srasrible disposition. 
JJr is lery irritable 
The child is petulant. 

He is 2 letiy old man. 

“®®se, V * select, elect, prefer, 
P'ck out. 

He ehoje only one from the en- 
tre lot. 

Associated Woaas: cu’I, pmfer 
Note; Prefer ird cates a sute 

of desire and appros'al ; choott, 
an act of will. Prudence or 
gcnerositj may lead one to 
choose what he does not prefer. 
Select implies a careful consid- 
eration oJ the reasons for pref- 
erence and choice. Among ob- 
jects so rearl> alike that we 
base ro reason to prefer any 
one to arother we may simply 
choose the nearest, but we 
could not be said to select it. 
\,ide from theology, elect is 
popularly confined to the po- 
I tical sense , as, a free people 
elect their own rulers Cull, 
irom the Latin coUigere, com- 
monly means to collect, as well 
as to select In a garden we 
cull the cho cest flowers. 

Ast repudiate, throw aside, cast 
ZMi, reject, cast out, dedme, 
disdain*, dismiss, leave, refuse, 
chop, V hack, mince 
chortle, v. (Collog): chuehle, 

chosen, a * selected, choice, elect. 

They were a ehesen company of 

A selected few will represent the 

These are cAoiVe fruits. 

Wc are of the elect. 

Chnstmas, n Yule, Ynletide, 

Christmas njummer: Ruiser. 
chroiuc, a.’ habitual, lingering, 
mreterate, lorg-continuing, re- 

He 13 a chrome grumbler. 

He IS an kalntuol smoker. 

The disease has a lingering effect 
on him. 

He 15 an imeterale user of the 

This seems to be a recurring h- 

chronicle, n.: record, account, 
narrative, diary, histo'y. 

They kept a chronicle of their 


The records could not be found 

He gave us an account of tire 

She read a short narrahte to the 

She IS keeping a diary of her 

A history of the war has been 

chrysalis, n aurcha, cocoon, 

The imprisoned chrysalis awakes 
chum, n roommate, companion, 
intimate, associate, friend 

He IS her brother’s chum 
church, n temple, sanctuary, 
cathedral, chapel, tabernacle 

The church was decorated for the 

AssociATte Woaos ecclesiastical, 
eeclesiologj, eeelesiolatry. ec- 
clesiasticism, parish, hierarch, 
hierarchy, hierocricy, hierola* 
try, hicrology, hierarchism, 
irenic*, cure, evangelical, ver- 
ger, beadle, chancel, clearstory, 
nave, transept, vestry, presby- 
tery, prebend, prebendary lec- 
tern, apse, irenicon living, 
benehce, sinecure, glebe, see, 
prelacy, convocation, synod 
conference, conclave, consis- 
tory, crjpj, schism, orthodoxy, 
heterodoxy, unchurch, sacristan, 
sacristy, Dorcastry, Sarum use 
church dignitary: prelate, pri- 
mate, elder, deacon, dean, hier- 
arch, bishop 

churehly, a ecclesiastical 

He IS performing his charcMy 

churl, n rustic fellow, miser, 

He was a churl with h« riches 
churlish, a boorish, rude, ill- 

bred, stubborn, intractable, mo- 
rose, unamiable 

He IS churlish towards his asso- 

cicerone, n. guide, attendant 

d-devant, a former, 
cipher, n zero, naught, nothing; 
nonentity, nobody 
"Cipher' means literally “empty" 
He IS a mere cipher 
cipher, n code key, monogram, 

It was submitted m cipher 
cipher - writing cryptography, 
crytogriph, steganography, 

circle, n ring circumference; 
clique set Class 

He drew a < trcle around the num- 

circle, V encircle 
The birds circled in the air before 

circuitous, a roundabout, devi- 
ous, indirect 
The path was circuitous 
They drove a roundabout way to 
the depot 

Devious methods were used to se- 
cure the results 

He approached the subject in an 
indirect way 

circulate, v dissemimte, pro- 
mulgate diffuse 

The report was cireulattd 
throughout the building 
The new doctrine was rapidly dis. 

He promulgated the law to in- 
terested listeners. 

This knowledge is being widely 

circulation, n dissemination, dif- 
fusion, promulgation, propaga- 

The circulation of the paper has 
been greatly increased 
circumference, n periphery, cir- 
cumscription, girth 
circumlocution, n periphrasis 
Associates Words diffuseness, 
pleonasm, prolixity, redundance, 
r^undancy, surplusage, tautol- 
ogy, tcdiousness, verbiage, ver- 
bosity, wordiness 


The cjnihals clashed 
cla^ n. crash, collision, opposi- 
tion, interference, contrariety, 
cling, clangor 
There was a terrific elatk 
clasp, V grasp, grapple, clutch, 
seirc, embrace, hug 
She clasped his hands 
clasp, n. hasp, hook, fibula, 
morse, catch, embrace 
The clasp was a strong one 
class, n category, species, varie- 
ty, rank, order, grade, caste, 
coterie, circles fColloq) clique 
The laboring class claims certain 

Notl" a caste is hereditary, a 
class maj be independent of 
lineage or descent, member- 
ship in a caste is supposed to 
be for life, membership m a 
class may be sery transient, a 
religious and ceremonial sa- 
credtieis attaches to the easte, 
as not to the class The rich 
and the poor form separate 
classes; jet individuals are con- 
stantly passing from each to the 
other; the classes in a college 
remain the sarre, but theif 
membership changes every year. 
We speak of rank among hered- 
itary nobility or military offi- 
cers; of various orders of the 
priesthood; by accommodation, 
we may refer in a general way 
to lie higher ra«h/, the lower 
orders of any society. Crodt 
implies some regular scale ol 
valuation, and some inherent 
qualities for which a person or 
thing IS placed higher or lower 
in the scale; as, the coarser and 
finer grades of wool; a man of 
cn infenor grade. A coirnt is 
a_ small company of person* of 
timilar tastes, who meet fre- 
quently in an informal way, 
rather for toaal enjoyment 
than foi: aa^ tervuit p’ls^vjt 

17 *? 

Clique has always an unfavor- 
able meaning A clique is al- 
ways fractional, implying some 
greater gathering of which it is 
a part, the association breaks 
up into cliques. Persons unite 
tn a coterie through simple 
liking for one aiother, they 
wi±c rw into a clique largely 
through aversicm to outsiders 
A set, while exclusive, is more 
extensive than a clique, and 
chiefly of persons who are 
united by common social sta- 
tion, etc Circle is similar in 
meaning to set, but of wider ap- 
plication , we speak of scien- 
tific and religious as well as of 
social circles 

class, V classify, dispose, cate- 

How may we class these forms 
of life? 

classic, n. model of literary ex- 
cellence in ^jodem or Greek 
and Roman literature, standard 
m art 

This book IS a classic 
classic, a classical, pure, chaste, 
refined, clear-nit, standard, 
authoritative, exemplary. 

These arc classic authors, 
classicism, n : classic, idiom, clas- 
sic style. 

The cfjjxirirm of her early writ- 
ings IS not found in her later 

classics, n.* literature (Greek and 

The classics interest me greatly. 

One can learn much from the 
literature of the ancrents 
classiBcation, n : grouping, dispo- 
sition, taxonomy. 

Cfarxification should emphasite 

The arc made with re- 

lation to certain analogies 

What rfijpojvlvon will you make 
•sf th.’.*-’ 

Taiononti ‘reals of the laws of 
classify, V.' arrange 
clatter, n commotion, lattlins 
noise, racket, chatter, tattle, 
advance noisily, clam{^ tramp 
clause, n. article, stipulation, pro- 
viso, provision 

All hangs upon the opening 

A short article has appeared trpon 
the subject 

A stipulation was made to that 

A proitso was inserted to that 

Full proi-uion was made for the 

clavate, a club-shaped, 
clavier, n . keyboard, 
ctaviger.n . club-btarer, key-bear- 
er, custodian, warden 
elavis, n.* key, elue, aid, glossary, 
claw, n.‘ talon, dewclaw. 

Associatsd Words ungual, on- 
guKular, leiract, retractile, on- 
guiculace, pounced, ungoitorm. 
claw, V. scratch, limate, lacerate 
clay, n argillaceous earth, pug. 
argil, bole, marl, kaolin 

AssociAtED Words potter, pot- 
tery, ffgtilme, fictile, pog, pud- 

clayey, a • argillaceous, argillous, 
argilliferous, luteous, clayish, 

clean, a cleanly, neat, unsoiled, 
unsullied, immaculate, chaste, 
pure, virtuous, undefiled, in- 
corrupt. uncoritaminated, shape- 
ly, well proportioned, Imslier 

That IS rfron literature 
clean, adv. completely, wholly, 
perfectly, quite entirely, thor- 
oughly, unqualifiedly 

It was burnt up clean 
cleanly, a • neat 

cleanse, v • wash, purify, deterge, 
absterge, disinfect, fumigate; 

Note Cleanse implies a worse 
condition to start from, and 
more to do, than clean Her- 
cules cleaiired the Augean sta- 
bles Cleanse is especially ap- 
plied to purifying processes 
where liquid is used, as in the 
Hushing of a street etc We 
brush cScrtlung if dusty, sponge 
It or sponge it off, if soiled, 
or sponge off a spot Furni- 
ture, books, etc , are dusted; 
floors are mopped or scrubbed; 
metallic utensils are scoured, a 
room IS sziept, soiled gar- 
ments arc washed, foul air or 
water is purified Cleanse and 
purify arc used extensively in 
a moral sense, wash m that 
sense is archaic 

Ant besmear, besmirch, be- 
spatter befoul, contaminate, 
corrupt deprave, debase, defile, 
soil, spoil, vitiate 
elearance clearing 
cleanser, n abstergent, detergent, 
purifier, detersive 

cleansing, a detergent, abater* 

?ent, abstersive, detersive, pun- 

A new r/ra«jing process was 

cleansing, n purification, deter- 
sion. purgation, abstersion, lus- 
tration, expurgation 
The cleansing was carefully done, 
clear, a transparent, diaphanous, 
pellucid, limpid, relucent, crys- 
talline, clarified, lucid, crystal, 
aerene, cloudless, unclouded, 
undimmed, evident, obvious, 
tmatnbigious, distin^ exphat. 
manifest, palpable, patent, de- 
cipherable, express, compre- 
hensible, graphic. 

The water is clear and cook 
Your meaning is perfectly clear. 
Ant cloudy, turbid, roily, be- 
fogged, doubtful, unintelligible, 


clear, a. scro'c-', clarion, rcso- cleave, v. aaliere, c'li^, be loyal; 
n-ni, canorous, audible, picre- split, rive, separate 
inj, pure, unmtxed, unadnltcr- He cUates to the principles he 
ated, un3llo>ed. has just expressed 

The rnstrunent eii,es forth a cleft, a men, split, diMded 
clear, rcsorant tone The branch is cleft from the par- 

Ant dLll, inaudible, irresonant. ent stock 
voiceless, impure, adulterated, Rocks were men by the impact. 
, allojed. The bark \s as j,*;,/ 

clear, a passable unimpcocd. They n ere dinied j no factions 
unobstructed, open unemba-- -j./, _ 

rassed, iineiicumhercd, anbur- „ i t x 

dened. cxtmps. 

The v.ay \ 's ro* clear 
Avt mp-'sab e, impeded, ob- 

structed, clj eJ, burdened, em- 
barrassed ercompassed 
clear, a n lull, net 
That IS ilcir fan 
clear, v clarity, elucidate, 
plain, interpret, ecUircire 

ance, mere) , mildness (of 

The teacher showed great r/cm- 

The clemency of the weather 
added to our p'easart 

AhT inclemency, roughness, 

detnent, a kind, lenient, forbear* 

uiicrprci, ecuircire 

cleu, V. acquit, ab ol,c. d,«„. ", m.nisian, 

ease, eaonerate, vinjicjle cr- Til ' ecclesiastics, clcniy. 

tticale, diseataaslc, d.ipVrsc It', '' 7‘1 »• 10 a m 

^cha?™" d«y>na'l*>’„ 

Thev elearei away the wreckage 

s. injTca away tn 
clearance, n clearing, 
clearing, n exoneration, acquit- 
tal, clari'ication, clearance, dis- 
persion; interpretation, expla- 
nation, cclaireissenient dcroue- 

nenf- !i««arf /-t... 

pastor, par* 
'On, churchman, preacher, rce* 
tor, curare, domine, vicar, mis* 
Morarj, ciangelist, patnach, 
dean, bishop. chapia.n. dene, 
deacon, presbyter, imparsonee, 
ktrkman, padre, curf, abbi. 

ti-itfircissenient, ocroue- 

rnent. assart, clearing, *,,1 i ’ ^ ^ 

' '’'"EyijtM'lTclidcnce: pcrsoniyc, 

..y, _^pc.p,c.„y, Wxi.xx.4: 

acciw,, hi, 

Ant.: opacity, ambiguity v«-n.-e. "** saleslady; ac- 

ness, ntransparent^ ^ coununt, recorder, regi'.t'ar, 

cleat, n.: strip proihonotary, amanuensis, 

cleavable a.: divisible, separable. w- , • , 

partable assoctato Weans: clerical. 

Pfoteids are deaiable i ‘=*"''ship 

cleavage, n.: splitting, deft dm- adroit, skillful, expert, 

lion, segmentation irgenious, deft, dexterous. 

The rock showed the line of **«»’ a drtcr mechanic. 
clca..Qe. Xort C/c:c*, as used in Eng- 


lan„, iiiipljcs an apti- 

tude for study or learning, and 
for excellent though not pre- 
eminent meats! acfiicyemcnt 
The early New England usage 
aj implying simple and weak 
good nature has largely af- 
fected the use of the word 
throughout the United States 
where it has never been much 
in favor .Siftarf, indicating 
dashing ability, is now comuig 
to have a suggestion of un- 
scrupulousness, similar to that 
of the word sharp, which makes 
Its use a doubtful contpliincnt 
The discriminating use of such 
words as able, gtfled, talented, 
etc, 1$ greatly preferable to an 
excessive use of the word 

Ant r bungling, awkward, clum- 
sy, (lull. Ignorant senseless, 
thick-headed, slow, stupid 
cleverness, n * acumen, penetra- 
tion, sagacity, discernment, 
dexterity, skill, expertness, 

His cUvtrntss Is apparent 
client, n.' customer, dependent. 

(formerly) vassal, plebeian 
clienuge, n.' clients 
His tluMast demanded it of him 
cUenUge, n : clientele, clients 
clients, n pi.' clientele, clientage 
cliQ, n crag, blulT, precipice I’l, 

clinsate, n* dime, zone, condi- 
tions (of atmosphere), weather 
The rJifliafe here is delightful 
Assoaarea Wonas' roeteroJogy, 
phenology, climatology, accli- 
matable. acclimate, accbnvanon, 
acclimatize, acchimiiration, cli- 
matic, thmaijze, chmatogtaphy 
tlimateric, n.: crisis 
thmateric, a.* critical 
cUmax, n.t culmination, 
climb, T,t clamber, scale, 
climbing, 3.: scandent. scanjorial 

dune, n zone 

dincb, V. grip, secure firmly, 
make fast, nail, grapple with 
That thnehed (lie bargain 
clinic, n school, 
cling, y adhere, cleave, hold fast. 

Itie children clung to her 
dip, > shear, snip, nip, tnm, 
prune curtail 

Ihe lawn was neatly clipped 
clip, n (Colloq) blow, knock, 
ih mp, rap 

clique, n coiirie, circle, 
cloak, n mantle, coat, dolman, 
palladium cipuchm, pelisse, 
pretext blind, mask 
That IS an expensive daak 
That IS only a doak to his real 

cloak, I conceal, mask, hide, 
veil, disguise 

He endeavored to cloak his pur- 
poscs , 

clock, tt timepiece, timekeeper, 
hofologe. horomettr, clepsydra, 
isochronon, scarab, searabee, 

Associated Words holography, 
hoTo)ogiosraph> horo'egy, pen- 
dulum strike dial, tick 
cloekinaker, n horologist, horoi- 

clod n eountrynian 
clod. « ground 

clodhopper, ti hind, lout, bump- 
km boor, clown, yokel 
clog V encumber restrain, im- 
pede. hamper, obstruct 
Dirt has clogged the machine 
dog. n shackle, dragweight. 
deadweight encumbrance t 
sabot ehopme , . , 

His pessimism was a dog to tier 

cloister, n nunnery, convent, 
abbey, priory, monastery, cen- 

Nore Cloister, abbey convent, 
and pnory arc for either sex, 
a friary is always fur men, a 


nunnery for Ticmcn; a monai- 
leri my be for women, tho 
commonly for men A fnory 
IS inferior in dignity to an ch- 
bey A /j£T>nifJ7f was origi- 
nally for a single rccIusc, but 
the word came to be applied to 
collections of hermits’ cells 
TTic fiioiiajtrrj Ia>s stress upon 
the loneliness, the eonzent em- 
phasizes the association of its 

cloistered, a confined, concealed, 
secret, hidden, cloistral 
cloisterer, n recluse, cenobste. 
cloistral, a recluse, monastic, 

close, a uncomfortable, opprea- 
live, muggy, stifling, unventi- 
lated, narrow, cramped, 
close, a. secretive, close-mouthed, 
taciturn, reticent, reserved, tttu 
communieatise, dense, solid, 
compact, imporous 
Uose, a. near, adjacent, adjoin- 
ing; intimate, confidential 
The park Is eloa to the station 
They are elese friends 
closure, n : inclosure. 
close, a.' parsimonious, stingy, 
penurious, niggardly, miserly, 
illiberal, close-fisted, confined 
(to a few), restricted by law. 
He IS close with his money. 

This is a close corporation 
ejoae, a ; exact, Jiieral, faithful, 
intent, assiduous, fixed, intense. 
This is a close copy. 

He is a close scholar, 
close, V.: shut, stop, occlude; con- 
clude, finish, end, terminate 
He closed the door suddenly. 

The letter was duly closed 
dote, v; Inclose, encompass, con- 
fine, environ; grapple, clinch; 
late, calk. 

The waits ehsed oier liim- 
Tbe wrestlers closed with each 

close, n.t conclusion, end; perora- 
tion, reapitulation; grapple. 

TWs is the close of the festivities 
close, n : court, area, enclosure, 
inclosure, closure, yard. 

The close was carefully kept, 
close-tnouthed, a wary, cautious, 
secretive, uncommunicative, re- 

Close-mouthed and unsociable, he 
was not popular with the other 

The little fellow is cautious and 

She IS scry seertint 

Her manner was reserzed. 

A^T garrulous, talkative, chat- 
tering, loquacious 

closeness, n nearness, proximity, 
adjacency , intimacy, density, 

closeness, n reticence, secretive- 
iwss, parsimony, stinginess, il- 
Iiberality, penuriousness, nig- 

closet, n.' private room; clothes- 
press, ambry 

closing, a ; concluding, final, 
closing, n obstruction, stopping 
up, blockade, occlusion; perora- 

clot, n.: coagulum, coagulation 
cloth, c.: drapery, fabric, material, 
texture, textile, woof. weft, 

clothe, V.; attire, dress, array, 
gird, drape 

clothes, n., pi.; attire, dress, cloth- 
ing. garments, vesture, apparel, 
drapery, costume, raiment, 
garb, vestment, habiliments, re- 
galia, uniform, livery, guise, 
wardrobe, rig, toggery, frip- 
pery, regimentals, parapher- 
nalia; {c/rrirof) vestments, ca- 
nonicals ; trousseau (bride's). 

Clothes do not make the man. 
clothing, n.: clothes, raiment. 

Associated Words; frippery, 
wardrobe, habilitory. 
cloud, n * nebulosity. 

Asiociaths WoaDs: rack; cirrus, 
cat's-tail, mare’S'tail; cumulus. 


stratus, nimbus; cirro-cumnlus, ctcty, coterie, association, so« 

cirro-stratus, cumulo-stratus; rosis (a-owaKV dub). 

storm _scud._ wane _c»oud; t«- dobbmg. n mauling. 

dab, V beat cudgel, pommel; 
club (ogetfier, combine, cooper- 

He was severely clubbed 
They flMfebed together to curtail 

dub-bearer, n claviger 

The cl"b-bcarer was the custo* 
dian of the castle 
cloudless, a *" clear. duWoot, n talipes 

cloudlessness, n serenity. dub-footed, a taliped, talipedic. 

cloudy, a lowering, overcast, dub-shaped, a clavate, clavated. 
overclouded, murl^, obscure, " intimation, hint, clew, 

sullen, nebulous, hasy, dim. . *•*5' . , . 

tarnished, indistinct, blurred, dutnp. n cluster, tuft, bunch, 
variegated, mottled . eo'lertion, thiricet 

The cloudy skies betokened clumsy.^a lumbe^rmg, hea^. un- 
storms ‘ 

nish, blemish, eclipse, obsnr- 
ity, _ nephology, meteorology, 
nubiferous, nephelodometer, nc- 
phelometer, nephoscopc, nephe- 
lotd, nephograph 

doud, V. overcast, becloud, ob- 
scure, shade, obfuscate, tarnish, 
sully, blacken 
Error clouds the vision 
The silver plate is clouded 

Ant • clear, cloudless, bnght, dis- 

doven, a . bisulcate. 
clover, n • trifolium, trefoil, atsike 
cloves, n.. pi spice, eugenia, 

Associates Words 

engeoic, eo- 

couth, unwieldy, unhandy, in- 
apt. maladroit ungraceful 
duster, n bunch, clump, tuft; 
racemation, fascicle, raceme, 
panicle, bevy, crowd 
The grapes hung in dustert 
tered, a aciniform, raeemeo, 

The clustered fniit hung thick. 

genm, clove-camphor, eugenol ^utch, v grasp, grip, grapple, 

cllwl, g5,1>. ,n,Kl.%efK 

down, n buffoon, Jester, merry- }|e clutched his gold tighter 
andrew, aany, harlequin, droll, dutch, n grasp, seizure, hold; 
punch, mime, farceur, scara- crampoons 

fflouch, gnmacter, jackpuddmg, His clutch could not be loosed 
boor, lout. gawk, gawky, lulv clutter, n litter, disorder, jum^ 
her, put, bumpkin, churl car), Wc. confusion, disarray 
tike; rustic, hind, clodhopper, Ever^hing was m a clutter 
yokel, yahoo clattered, a disordered, littered, 

clownish, 3 ungainly, boorish, jumbled, disarranged 

awkward, loutish, churlish. The cluttered table was soon 


clownishness, n • zanyism. 
cloy, V glut, surfeit, satiate 

Sweets clov the appetite 
cloving, a luscious 

cleared . . 

coacb. n stage coach, tallyno, 
diligence, trainer. 
coach-dog, a- Dalmatian dog 
coachee, n coachman 
coaction, n compulsion. 

club. n“’ bludgeon, cudgel, tronch- coadjutor, n associate, co-work- 
eon bat. mace, staff shillalah, er. colleague, auxiliary, aceea- 
waddy, bandy, knobkerry; so- sory 

coadjm'ancy, n.; cooperation, 
]Oint action, union 
Much can be accon'plished with 
proper coadjuz^ncy. 
coadjuvant, a cooperative, auxil- 

The remedies tvere coadjuvant. 
coagent, n co-worker 
coagulate, v clot, curdle, con- 
geal, jel'y. rnjs^ 

The mass is eoa^ulaied 
Blood clots upon withdrawal from 
the blood-ve«5eIs 

Milk curdles during an electrical 

Wittt c<i« 2 «ais at Q* cecitiErade 
The pectin found in unripe fruits 
causes them to idly 
The mob was massed in front of 
the court-house 
coagulated, a thick, 
coagulation, n concreatioa, 100. 
eoagulum, n clot, 
co-aid, n. helper, 
coalescence, n union 
eoaleseent. a.: grow'ieg together, 
coalition, n fusion 
coal, n.: anthracite, bituminous, 
carbon, charcoal; culm, scoria, 
slack, ember 

As^ociATto WoBCS carbon, car- 
boniferous, gobbinff, strata, cat- 
bonite, carbonization, brhuette, 
coke, brat, brattice, brctticc. 
coal-dealer, c : collier, 
coalesce, v,* join, 
coal-mine, n : colliery, coalpit 
coal-tmner, n : collier, 
coal oil: kerosene, petroleum, 
ccarse, a • crass, gross, unrefined, 
rude, unpolished, indelicate, ri- 
bald, homespun, vuJ^r, inele- 
gant; unbolted, unpjr.Sed. 

He has a coarse nature 
coast, n.: shore, seashore, sea- 
board, seaside, sfrard, beach- 
coat. li.: sack, jacket, frock, 
tuxedo, cutaway, paletot dread- 
naught ulster, capote, blouse, 
redingote, toga, cloak, surtoat 
dus'er. r-ackiriosh. joseph, ca-- 

dmal, pelerine, temiak (£rt>- 

coat of arms: armorial bearing. 

escutcheon, arms, crest 
coat of mail: hauberk, cuirass 
habergeon, armor, mail 
coax, V cajole, wheedle, per- 
ciiade. entice, cog, tweedle 
Sht tried to coax her mother to 
let her go 

cob, n ‘‘pike, axis, sea mew, gull 

cobble: repair 
cobbler, shoe mender, 
cobblestone: stone 
cobblmg: shoe mending 
cobweb, n web, net snare, 
cochleate: spiral, cock boat 
cock: boat 

cock-crowing: morning, 
cockerel: rooster, 
cock-eyed: squint-eyed 
cockhorse: rotkingborse 
cockle: shell 
cockle: wrmkle. 
cockled: wrinkled, 
cockleshell: boat 
cockloft: attic, 
cockmatch: cock-fighting, 
cockney: Londoner, 
cockney: unmanly, 
cockswain; sttersman. 
cock. It: rooster, chanticleer; ca- 
pon; chief, leader, dominator 
cock, n.: w’cathercock, vane 
faucet, stop-cock, 
cockade, n.' rosette, 
cocicahoop, a.: elated, boastful, de- 
fiant blustering, vainglorious, 
cock and bull story: canard, 
cockatrice, n : basilisk, 
cockled, a' wrinkled, puckered, 

This material is tociled, 
cocoon, n ' enelope, case (hold- 
ing chrjsaUs) 

The chrysalis will emerge from 
Its cocoon. 

coddle. V.: pamper, fondle, cocker 
humor, indulge; paiboiL 

The child is continuously coddled 
code, n • system (of signals), 
system (of piinciples) , digest 

Do you understand the code* 
codify, V. systematue, collect, 
arrange, digest 

The material must be eodt/ted- 
codlmg'moth, n apple moth, 
apple worm, Carpocapsa, pomo- 

The f<J(f/ing.iKo/A IS a trouble- 
some parasite 

coefRcacy, n joint efRcacy 
coefEcient, n agent, coopera- 

coequal, a coordinate, 
coerce, v compel, intimidate, re- 
strain, constrain 

You must not coerce him 
coercion, n compulsion, re- 
straint, force, repression, con- 

She was obliged to use coercion 
coercive, a compulsory, com- 
pellmg, forcing, constraining 

Coereite measures were neces- 

coeval, a * contemporary, coetane- 

coeval, n contemporary 
coexistent, a contemporaneous 
coSee, n . seed, berry, bean, fruit, 
colTea arabtea 

AssociATtP Words caffeine, chic- 
cory, biggin, pulp, parchment 
coffee-house, n • cafe 
coffer, n. chest, treasury, cais- 
son, floating dock, 
cofiin, n. casket 

cog, n • cam, catch, trick, decep- 
tion, fraud 

cogency, n • strength, poiser. 
force, influence. 

The cogency of his reasoning i— - 
pressed then 

cogent, a convincing conclusive 
forcible, influential 

Her argument -was cogent 
cogitate, V.’ meditate, devise. 

He cogitated for some time over 
the matter 

cogitatfon, n thought 
cogitative, a thoughtful 
cognate, a radically allied, kin- 
dred, connected, akin, related, 

English and Sanscrit are cognate 

cognation, n biood-relationship, 

cogniaahiUty, n cogmzabihty 
cognition, n knowledge, power, 
intellect, faculty, conception, 
apprehension (of truth), cog- 

His cogitiiion of related facts was 

cogmuve, a knowing, perceiving, 
cognizabdity, n cognitive, capa- 

cognuable a knowable, cog- 
niseible, intelligible, recogoiz- 
able ascertainable 

Many phenomena are not eognis- 
able by iVe senses 

AhT unknowable, incogniseible, 
unintelligible unrecognizable, 

cogiuzaree n perception ap- 
prehension. knowledge, notice, 

He was forced to take eogmeance 
of the fact 

cogimant, a perceptive, appre- 
hensive noucing, recognizing, 

cognize, V know perceive, recog- 
nize rotice, apprehend 
cognomen, n name, surname 
cognomination, n name 
cognoscente, n connoisseur, pi , 

cognoscible, a cognizable, know- 
able. intelligible, ascertainable, 

The good and the true are «g« 

cogwheel, n wheel 
cohabitauon n living together, 
coheir, n . parcener, joint-heir 


coheifship, n.: parcenary, joint* 

cohere, v Sec connect, 
coherence, coherency, n. con- 
janctjon, union, sticking to, co- 
henng, connectedness, conssst- 
enej’, consequence, congniity 
Coherence is caused by the force 
of attraction 

coherenf, a. cohesrse, cleinng 
together, sticking together, 
consistent logical, suited, 
adapted, fitted 
cohesion, n • sticking 
cohesive, a.' tenacious 
cohetiveness, n stickiness, utnoo, 
sfscosfty, tenacjtj’ 

Its eohesizeness adapted it for 
that use. 

cohort, n soldier 
coiffure, n dressing (for head); 

Her coiffure was artistically ar- 

coign, It . quoin 

ceil,n : convolution, intervolution, 
entangletnent toil mesh, per- 
plexity; querl 

The vines twisted their eoilt 
around the support, 
coil, V,: convolve, jntcrvolve. 

^ The ropes were carefully roiled 
coin, n.; quoin, corner, coigne, 
^ wedge, plug, key 
coin, n.: specie, cash; medallion. 
A$sdcj.vti3) Worts ; nunjinjatic. 
numismatics, numismatist, nti- 
nismatology, jugata, cngrail- 
ment, nurling, mllmg, brock- 
age, numismatography, niJinis- 
matologist, nummary, rouleau, 
nuniru’ar, nummulary, 
coin, V : mint; fabricate, invent, 
originate, neoterizc, neologirc. 
The gold V, as eotned there, 
coinage. .1 : minting; neologism, 
neology, neotensm 
Rare roinager are much sought 

coinade, v.; concur, correspond, 
agree, fcarmoaice, tally. 

Your story eomtides with nme. 

He ronrurffd with me in a state- 
ment of the facts 

His views corrcifoni with mine. 

Our ideas on the subject har- 

Your figures lolly with mine. 

Note A person eoj«ftdej with 
another tn regard to speculatire 
matters, but concurs with an- 
other in regard to practical mat- 
ters, to coincide is only to meet 
at the same point, but to ron- 
cur IS to get together in the 
same road, or in the same 
course of conduct 

comcidence, n concurrence, cor- 
respondence, agreement, coin- 

coincident, a.* concurrent, con- 

There are coincident oae with the 

coincident n . ceincidenee, 
ceifldicant. a.* confirming, con- 

coiner, n.: ramter; neologist, neo- 
tenst iabneator, inventor (of 

cointise, n : ornament, scarf, 
colander, n.: strainer, 
colcol, n.: Indian rnonej^. 
cold, a.: frigid, gelid, icy, cool, 
chilly, nipping, bleak, raw, 
frosty, freezing; unresponsive, 
passionless, phlegmatic, chilling, 
apathetic, reserved, stoical 
cold. a. coldness, frigidity, gelid- 
iw, cliilliness, algidity: catarrh, 
cold-blooded, a : poikilothermal: 

cpldcess, n : cold, gcHdity, cool- 
ness, chilliness, 
coleopter, n.: beetle, 
colcwori: cabbage, 
colic, n : gripe, enteralgla. tor- 

coUaboration: working together. 

kollaborator: co*worker. 
collapse: exhaustion, 
collar, n : ruff, ruche, collet, 
neckband, carcanet, rabat, Pic- 
cadilly, dickey, collarette 
collarette, n.. collar, 
collate, V.: compare, 
collateral, a.: incidental 
collation, n.: comparison, 
collation, n.: refreshment 

coQunate, v make parallel, brin? 

into line, correct, 
colliquation, n melting, liquify- 
ing fusion 

collision, n concussion, inter- 
ference. clashing, brunt. Impact, 
clash, conflict, contact, en- 
counter, meeting, shock, opposi- 

The collision was an unfortunate 

colleague, n . associate. Note Collision is the result of 

collect, n.‘ prayer. motion or action, and is sudden 

collect, v: assemble, accumulate. and momentary, coKMct may be 
amass, convene, convoke, mus- a condition of rest, and be cen- 
ter, group tinuous and permanent Con- 

He collected a mass of evidence citsston is often by transmitted 
collectanea, n.. collection. force rather than by direct im- 

collected, a.‘ self-possessed tael, two railway trains came 

eollectedneas, n.' calmness. into colhston, an explosion of 

collection, n : assemblage, aggre- dynamite shatters neighboring 

gation, accumulation, heap; windows by concussion Impact 

anthology, symposium, collecta- is the blow pven by the striking 

flea, miscellany, rosary, chres- body, as the imfact of the 

tomathy, offering, offertory cannon shot upon the target 

He owned n largo eollecUon of An is always violent, 

books and generally hosule Meeting 

collectivism, n • socialism is neutral, and may be of the 

See Booallsm. dearest friends or of the bitter- 

colleen, n.. girl. est foes, of objects, of persoos, 

college, n.: or of opinions, of two or of a 

Associated Words: collegiate, multitude Shock is the result 

Alma Mater. d collision In the fi^rative 

college dress: academicals use. we speak of ciaj/ung of 

college grounds: campus views, collision of persons Of- 

college student: collegian. position is used chiefly of per- 

collegian: college student sons, more rarely of opimons or 

collegium, n.: interests, conflict is used indil- 

collide, V.: clash, ferently of all 

collie, n.: sheep-dog. . _ 

collier, n : coaT-miner. Ant amity, coincidence, concert, 

colliery, n : coal-mme. concord, agreement, concur- 

coUjgate, v.‘ bind together, ar- rence, conformity, unison, unity, 

range (facts), harmony 

“He cotlicaled a multitude of phe- collocation, n arrangement, con- 
nomena" necHon. setting together (of 

Ant • divide words) 

colligation, n : binding, fastening The proper eolloeation and dii- 
together, arranging. positioji of the facts will re- 

His colhsolion was almost classic seal the irulii. 


collocution, n • dialogic, 
collocutor, n • speaker, 
collogue. V. converse, conler se- 
cretly, hold colloquy 
colloid, n ■ colloid substance or 

colloid, colloidal, a lelty-hke, 
gluedike, uncrysialline. uncrya> 
talhzable, non-dilTusablc 
CoUotds arc opposed to crystal- 

colloquial, a common ordinary, 
ron-hler.iry conversatioral, fa- 
miliar. informal 
That IS a eolloH'ol expression 
colloquy, n conversauon, dialog, 
informal discussion 
The colloquy was rudely inter- 

collude, V connive, conspire, co- 
opente (for fraudulent pur- 

collusion, n.‘ conspiracy, conns- 

Tlierc were several in collusion 
Kith him 

collusive, a.' fraudulently ar- 
ringed, secretly devised 
There was eiidence of collusMt 

colonel, n.r captain 
colonist, n.' settler, 
coloniratlon, n.. settlement, 
colonirc, v.: people, 
colonnade, n tctrastylc, hexa- 

yfylc, octastyle, portico 
colony, n : s-ttlement, depend- 

The cn/.my flourished under his 

A*'(xnATEO W’osDS; colonhl. ccl- 
onist._ colonizationist, planter, 
colonize, colonization 
colophon, n : publisher's inscrip- 

colcphony. n.- rosin, 
color, n : tinge, tincture lint, hue, 
‘hade pigment, pamt, dye. 

As'ociatto Woens: cli-omatics. 
cclori^’e, eotoriit. chromati*"!. 

chromatology, Jake, decolorant, 
mordant, intinctmty, iridescent, 
iridescence, prismatic, _ pigmen- 
tation, fugacious, fugitise, fu- 
gacity, monochromatic, mono- 
chronre, polychromy, polychro- 
matic. sufluse, sufTusion, imbue- 
menC chromatic, achromatic- 
color, o • ruddiness, redness, flush, 
blush, rosiness; semblance, pre- 
text, variety, shade, kind, spe- 

He has a healthy color. 

That gave color to the claim 

Ant ' decoloration, colorlessiress 
color, V dye, tint, tincture, tinge, 
Siam, imbue, variegate, falsi- 
fy. pervert, palliate, gloss, 
garble, distort; blush, flusL 

They colored the goods. 

The statement colored to suit 
his purposes. 

Ant decolor, bleach, deco’or- 

colorable, a * taking color; spe- 
cious, plausible, palliated, pre- 
tended, deceptive- 
color-bearer, n,: standard-bearer, 
color-blindness, n : daltonism, 
achromatopsy, acritochromacy 
colored, a : tinged, stained, dis- 
colored. djcd, tinted, specious, 

Ant.: See colorless, 
colorlfie, a.: tinctorial, 
coloring, n.’ dyeing, tinting, tirc- 
tion. ‘taining. in'tincucn. im- 
buement, variegation 
colorless, a.* faded, unco'ored. 
pale, pallid; neutral, character- 

colorlessness, n,: paleness, 
color-sergeant, n.: standard-bear- 

co!o£‘ 3!. a.: enormous, hug-, gi- 
rmte, monstrous, prod gious. 

colossus, n : giant , , 

colt, r-: flUy (female): foal 
( mjje) : hogg-t 

coltish, a : frisky, sportive, wan- 
ton, playful, 
columbine: dovelike. 
column, n : pillar, shaft, post, 
obelisk; file, line, row; pilaster, 
pi , peristyle, portico, colonnade 
The columnt were classic in style 
They were arranged in columns 
Associated Words- entablature, 
frieze, architrave, triglyph, cor- 
nice, base, shaft, capital plinth 

coma, n unconsciousness 
comatose, a torpid, sleepy, le- 
thargic, unconscious 

Her condition was comatose 

comb, n. crest, caruncle, head- 

combat, n contest, bout, struggle, 
contention, fight, joust, battle 
The combat had begun 
combatant, n contestant, fighter 
combative, a • pugnacious, con- 
tentious, bellicose, belligerent 
He developed a combative tern- 

combination, n union, alliance 
federation, confederacy, syndi 
cate, league, cabal, merger, 
coalition, conspiracy, coopera- 
tion, collusion , amalgamation, 
synthesis, incorporation 
combine, v unite, incorporate 
merge, amalgamate, blend, 
coalesce, confederate 
combine, n, (Colloq) combtna 

They combined their forces 
combine, n pectination 
comblike, a pectinal, pectinate, 
pectinated, pectiniform 
combustible, a inflammable 
combustibles, n , pi fuel, pitch, 
coal, wood 

The combustibles stored there in- 
creased the conflagration 
combustion, n burning, oxida- 
tion, Ignition, outbreak, disturb- 
ance, tumult 

The combusiton destroyed much 
valuable material 

come, v.. arrive, approach; come 

from, issue, proceed, ensue, 
flow, emanate, originate 
come after: follow, succeed 

What comes after this number. 

AjiT precede, antecede 
come again return, recur 
come and go. alternate 
come between intervene, inter- 
pose interfere, contravene; 
cause estranscment, disa/fect 
comedian, n player, actor, thes- 
pian performer, impersonator. 

The comedians held the stage, 
comedy, n play, protrayal, rep- 

The comedy pleased them 
comelmess, n grace, beauty, fair- 
ness, loveliness 

Her comeliness was a great as- 

comely, a proper, suitable, de- 
cent good-looking, handsome, 

A comely maid answered the door. 

Ant uncomely, homely, plain 
come near approach, approxi- 

come round recur, change, re- 
lent circumvent wheedle 
comestibly, a edible, esculent 

comestibles, n . pi foods, victuals, 
niions. provisions, viands, eat- 
-bles. fare 

Comestibles are increasing m 
price dailv 

come to- revive, recover, consent 
accede, yield, arrive at, reach; 
amount to 

come to a head: suppurate, ma- 
ture. culminate 

comfit u confectionery, candy, 
sweetmeat confection 

Cem/its attract the child 
comfort n ease, solace, ne- 
penthe. consolation, encourage- 
ment, abundance, amusement 
cheer, contentment e-nj'oyment 
happiness, opulence, pleasure, 
plenty, satisfaction sufficiency. 


N&te* Comfort H more solid than 
amusement, more quiet and sta- 
ble than pleasure. One lives in 
comfort who has a sufficiency 
of those things which meet the 
immedute and natural demands 
of body and mmd, so as to 
minister to contentment and 
tranquil tnfoyment 
comfort, V.- console, solace. 

He cemforied her as best he 

It was difficult to console her 
His words solaced the mourners 
comfortable, a easy, contented, 
well circumstanced, cheerfut, 
untroubled, quiet, agreeable, 
pleasant, satis^ed, satisfactory, 

Note; A person is eamfortable 
in mind when contented and 
measurably satisfied A little ad- 
ditional brightness makes him 
ehetrful He is comfortable »n 
body when free from pam. 
quiet, at ease, at rest He is 
comforliile in circumstances, 
or in comfortable circumstances, 
when things about him are gen- 
erally asreeable and satisfac~ 

Akt,; cheerless, miserable, dis- 
agreeable, discontented, dissat- 
isfied, wretched, uncomfortable, 
uneay, troubled, vexed, an- 
noyed, worried, plagued, tor- 
mented, forlorn, comfortless, 

comforter, n : consoler, chcerer; 

comfortless, a ; disconsolate, in- 
consolable, desolate, distressed. 
He IS not left comfortless 
Ant,; See comfortable, 
comic, comical, a.: amusing, droll. 

ludiwus, facetious, queer, 
comicality, n : comicalness, drol- 
lery, facetiousness. 

The fom»Vj/i/y of it struck roe at 

coming, n.: approach, advent, ar- 

Their coming was anticipated 
with pleasure. 

The approach of the enemy was 

The advent of spring was delayed. 
The arrival of the package 
pleased them. 

coming between: intervention, in- 
terposition, interference, con- 

comity, n • politeness, courtesy, 
Civility, graciousntss, urbanity. 
Comity was extended to the gov- 

command, v direct, enjoin, or- 
der. require, bid 
He commanded the troops to 

command, n • order, injunction, 
charge, behest, mandate, bid- 
ding, direction, rcquistion, dic- 
tation, precept, authority, lead- 
ership, control 

Your commands shall be obeyed, 
eommaader, n.’ master, ofHeer, 
lieutenant, colonel 
commanding, a.: authoritative, 
imperative, mandatory 
The officer commanding issued h!s 

That is an authoritative state- 

The statute is a wondalory one. 
It was an imperative order, 
commandment, n.’ command, pre- 
cept, law. 

commandments, n , pi.: The Deca- 

commemorate, v.; recall, fix in 
memory, celebrate, signalize. 
We commemorated the anniversay 
of his birth 

commemoration, n.: observance, 
celebration, prayer. 

The commetnoralson was a not- 
able one 

commence, v ; begin, initiate, en- 
ter upon; originate, start. 
Commence and begin, are In 


the mam, interchangeable in 
meaning, but the simple Anglo* 
Saxon fcegtn is usually regard- 
ed as preferable Com>ne»fe » 
far more restrictive in its ap- 
plication than is begin. Thus* 
a tree can begm to grow but 
not commence to grow (Com- 
tnence cannot be logically fol- 
lowed by the infinitive ) Again, 
commence or commencement 
refers merely to some form of 
oclion, while begin is not to re- 
stricted, It being applicable to 
the action, state, material, ex- 
tent, etc. Because of the re- 
strictive application of eom- 
»Hc«ee, and because o! the 
adaptability of begin to all or- 
dinary uses, the latter is gener- 
ally recommended Start is in- 
terchangeably used with begin, 
when the meaning is to set out; 
to enter upon an action course, 
or pursuit, as a journey or a 
race; but the context differs 
slightly. Thus “We started 
early in the morning ," “We be 
gan our journey early in the 
morning" The use of rtarf, as 
in the sentence, "The business 
Will start to morrow,” is collo- 
quial— T jie Correct V/osp. 
commencement, n . beginning, 
rise, origin: annual celebration 
commend, v.‘ commit, consign, 
intrust; praise, extol, recom- 

He commended h to her care. 

His efforts were commended, 
commendable, a.: praiseworthy, 

That is a commendable move- 

Ant.: unpraiseworthy, illaudablc 
commendation, n.; approbation, 
approval, praise, recommenda- 

She seeks their eommendotion 
commendatory, x: laudatory, 

It is a commendatory letter, 
commensal, a associated, eating 
together, symbiotic, 
commensal, n table-companion, 
fellow-boarder, symbion, sym- 

The oyster-crab and the oyster 
are commensals. 

commensalism, n * symbiosis, 
partnership, consortium 

Commensalism is not parasitism, 
commensurable, a proportionate, 
adapted, measurable (by a 
common unit), equal 

The loss here is commensurablr 
with the gam 

commensurate, a commensur-- 
able, measurable , adequate, pro- 
portionate, of equal extent, suf- 

He demanded a commensurate re- 

Ant incommensurate, inade- 
quate, disproportionate, insuffi- 

commensurate, v make propor- 
tionate. reduce to common 

comment, v remark, descant, an- 

She often commented on the simi- 

comment, n. remark, observa- 
tion. annotation, commentary, 

(iis comments on the subject 
were quite apropos 
commentary, n annotation, ex- 
planation, gloss, essay, treatise, 
explanatory notes, systematic 

This fowmenfary is very helpful 
commentator, n annotator, ex- 
positor, scholiast, glossanst, 

A commentator must have a wide 
acquaintance with his subj’ect 
commerce, n business, traffic, 
barter, trading, intercourse, 


Commerce betw^een the two conn- 
tries increased, 
eoaunercial, a mercantile 
It ts a commercial matter of im- 

comminate, v anathematize, 

conunination, n anathema, threat, 

The cotnminaftott struck terror to 
their souls 

commingle, \ blend, mix, mingle, 
amalgamate, commix 
Oil and water will not eonmxnsU- 
comminute, v grind, divide, make 
small, triturate, crush, reduce 
to particles, pulverize. 

Tlie fowl comminutes his food in 
his gizzard 

comminution, n pulverization, 
trituration, grinding, minute di- 

comminuted, a fine, 
comzaiserate, v pity 
eemmlseratieg, a sympathetic, 
comadseration, n compassion, 
commiserative, a. pitying, 
commission, v nominate, enjoin, 
assign, appoint, delegate, cm- 
power, send, give commission 

He was eommtsstoned to do the 

He has been tiowinalri for the 

They were er joined to make the 

They were assisned to separate 

1 will appoint you my deputy. 
You are empouered to proceed 
with the negotiations 
He was the one delegated to go. 
You are sent to get the par- 

commission, n ' mission, delega- 
tion, errand, trust; perpetra- 
tion, doing, committirg 
The fonmiiiiou finished its work. 
coc m iss.sner, n factor, middle- 
man, oQcer, executor 

The fommijiioBcrj W'ere hamp- 
ered by a lack of funds- 
coramissure, n seam 
commit, V assign, intrust, con- 
sign, confide, relegate, perpe- 
trate, do 

He committed himself in writ- 

Note We cJJigB a duty, con- 
fide a secret, entruit a treasure; 
we commit thoughts to writing; 
commit a paper to the flames; 
a prisoner is committed to jaiL 
CoBjtgn IS a formal word in 
mercantile use, as, to fonjig« 
goods to an agent Rehpously, 
we consign the body to the 
grave, commit the soul to God. 
commitment, n consignment, en- 
trusenent, delivering m charge; 
engagement, pledge, warrant, 
imprisonment , referring, tn- 
tnisting to committee. 

They decided upon the eommil- 
ment of the fund to the author- 
ities named 

eoromlttal, n. betrayal, exposure, 
compromising , engaging, pledg- 
ing, commitment. 

He was aware that the commit- 
lot of himself to this course 
would cause cnticism, 
committee. n.r person, persons, 
member, guardian. 

A committee was duly appointed, 
commix, V . mix. 
commixture, n mixture, 
commode, n washstand 
commodious, a. convenient, spa- 
cious, roomy, adap'ed, useful. 

The*e apartments are commod- 

commodities, n, pi merchandise, 
commodity, n article, merchan- 
dise. goods 

You can get almost any com- 
modiiy there. 

common, a popular, public, gen- 
eral, universal; customary, 
usual, ordinarj, common place, 
every-day, familiar, frequent 


gtneral, habit.:al, unweeptional, 
inconspicuous, average, medio- 
cre, natural, normal, 
common, a. commonplace, cbeap, 
mean, hadoie.ed, threadbare, 
tnte, vulgar, vile, coarse, low; 
plebeian, proletarian, 
commonalty, r proletariate, pro- 
letariat. populace. Tarletry, 
bourgeoisie, rode, rank and file, 
the common people, 
commonly, adv ordinarily, gen- 
erally, customarily 

The word is misused, 
commonplace, a. banal, baclc- 
ceyed, tri'e, ordinary, pbti- 
tudinous, prosa c. 

commonplace, n banality, plati- 
tude, tri*e remark, uninterest- 
ing occuneuee- 

commonplaceoess, o mediocrity 
common run: generality, 
commons, tu pL tood. 
common sense: gumption, 
commonweal, n. common good. 
pubLo welfare, community, 
body pol ee. 

commonwealth, o.* state, com- 
munity, repebbc, democracy; 
body poLtic, whole people. 

‘The essence of a eommonu.e3lth 
is sell-rule,” 

commotion, n • exatement, agita- 
tion, di-camposare, tumult, dis- 
turbance. turmoil, not, pertur- 
bation, flurry, furore, stir, ado 

There was a great eommatvit m 
the room. 

Her esc\Umtnt was easily sub- 

His ngiJuftai! was clearly seen. 

Her ducompoTure was noticeable, 
communal, a., public, common. 

The (omtnuital system has been 
tried out. 

commune, v ■ confer, converse 
(intimately; partake (of Eu- 

Sire {omrtured with her spiritual 

commune, n * township, corporate 
body, community, people. 

A corfmure wa^ established, 
communicable, a impartible, 
catchirg, communicative. 

His sickncas is comnunscaile. 
communicate, \ impart, trans- 
r*!* recojot, tell, announce, pro- 
claim promulgate, share, pass 
on intecc. 

He communicaied the good news 
to them 

Some (Lssases be rommioit- 

communication, n conversation, 
tafs, correspondence, message, 
letter passage, highway 

The reached them 

in due ume. 

Is there communtcahan between 
these buildings’ 

commonicauve, a ready, frank, 
talsative. eirpressive, liberal, sharing, ready, cons- 

She IS {ommunuati'-t only in re* 
gard to her own persona! 

ccimmuiuon, n sharing, conunnn- 
tcauon. pamnpation, assooa- 
tion, fellowship 

A certain tenmuman of thoug^it 
IS necessary to mteHectnal de- 

communion, n euchanst. Lord’s 
Sapper, sacrament, vianccm. 

She partook of the corrmunton 

.Assocutsd \Spms host, wafer, 
elemenu, chalice, pa'en, cred- 
ence, corporal, euchanstic, a- 
bonum, ostens on, impination, 
punacator, transubstantiation, 
cocsubstantiation, concomitance, 
post-commuaion, ante com- 
mtmioQ, Tobpreseflce, ostensor- 
Tum. morstraace, jarjam tarda, 
dominicale. celebrant, communi- 
cant consistentes, inunction, 
communism, n. hnmanitanani^m, 
somaliaui. Founensm, Samt 
Simouiani m. phalanrterism. 

CcmmuKtm has hfn tn-sil out 

comiutnity, n corporation, tooc- 
t\, association, bodv , people, 

The foinwninsfy ■?.erc up m arms 
at ihe SLCg’estion 

comrountty, a massed corpora- 
tion s'icetx, associated 

singing IS inspiring 

commutable, a interchangeable, 
changealht, mutable ttansmiil- 

Consonmts are sotnctnnes row- 
mutal Ic 

commutation, n exchange, bar- 
te' suhstitutscin, compounding 
CowjiiutadoB IS allowed on this 
rulro id 

commute, \ exchange, substi- 
tute, regulate, reduce. 

The sentence was commuted to 
one year 

commute, t pay (in gross 
amount), travel (on commuted 

They commute regularly 

compact, a dense, crowded, 
dose, solid, packed, condensed, 
consolidated, firm, pressed to- 
gether impenetrable, serried 
The cloihmg was done up in a 
neat, compact parcel 
A^T kiD e. porous, diffuse, 
spongy, soft, shifting, scatter- 
ing, friable 

compact, n covenant, agrccnicnl, 
pact treitv, contract 
They signed a comfort to that 

compactness, n solidness, close- 
ness, conciseness, terseness 

companion, n comrade, intimate, 
consort assoaale partner, fel- 
low, chum, compeer, confeder- 
ate. accessory, accomplice, ally, 
col'eamie, mate, crony, confrere, 

companionable, a.* genial, affable, 

She ts fontpanipnable and lovable, 
coznpanionless, a alone 
companionship, n associatim,, 
coirpanv, intinacy, fellowship, 

He has <iought the compamonskip 
of older men 

The attpciation of such men is 
a scliooling n itself 

He was good company 

Their tnttn acy was one of long- 
standii g 

They were united m close fcUoiv- 

Their nocry was nuch sought 

company, a visitor guest, fel- 
lowship eonpanionship. asso- 
ciation sficicti . companion, es- 
cort. a«‘cnibly group, crowd, 
ecncouTst syndicate, corpora- 
tion. firn house, troupe, hand, 

The great concourse of people 
cheered his every word. 

Akt seclusion, aloofness, lone- 
liness. re'ireTient 
comparable, a matchable 
comparative, a relative, esti- 
mated or proceeding by com- 

They tteattd him wnh cemparo- 
fite 1 eglect 

Ant ibsolute, positive 
comparatively, adv relatively, 

Protoroology is a comparaUzeJy 
new sricne- 

compare, v collate, liken 
comparison, n illustration, sim- 
ile siimhiude. collation 
compass, n iTistrument: circuit 
(of horizon or heavens) 
compass, n extent, reach, sweep. 

stretcli, bounds, scope 
compass, v effect, attain gam, 
reach, achieve, aceomphvh 

Desired results were not easily 

How did they efect the reconmli- 


They ha\e gamed the results dc- 

They reached the correct condn- 

He aehteied success at his work 
compassable, a attainable 
compassion, n commiseration, 
pity, sympathy, condolence, 

She excited their compasiton 
compassionate, a kind, piUtut, 
sympathetic, merciful, humane 
compatibility, n congruily, con- 
sistency, tolerance, harmony, 
congeniality, accord 
compatible, a congruous con- 
sistent, agreeable, congenial, 
harmonious, accordant 

Ant incompatible, incongruous, 
inconsistent, disagreeable, un- 
congenial, unharmonious, dis- 

compatriot, n fellow country- 
man, citizen, patnot 
compeer, n peer, equal, compan- 
ion, associate 

compel, V make, force, constrain, 
oblige, necessitate, dragoon, 
overpower, coerce, drive 

Vou may be eompelled to go. 

Note Force implies primarily an 
actual physical process, compel 
implies the exertion of power 
almost as absolute, subduing all 
resistence Coerce implies the 
actual or potential use of so 
much force as may be neces- 
sary to secure the surrender of 
the will; the American seces- 
sionists contended that the F^- 
eral government had no right 
to coerce a State Comlrain 
implies the yielding of judgment 
and will, and m some cases of 
inclmaiion or affection, to an 
overmastering power 
compellation. n salutation, ad- 
dress, apellation, form 
compellative, a ' apellative 
compellative, o.‘ name. 

compelling, a coercive, con- 
straining, torciblc, imperative, 

A compelling force urged her on 
Ant elective, optional, discre- 

compelhng, n coercion, con- 
str_iiit compulsion, duress 

compend, compendium, n. epit- 
oini ummary digest 
compendious, a brief (yet com- 
prehensive), succinct, compact 
compensate, v requite, remuner- 
aie recompense, pay, repay 
compensation, n amends, pay- 
ment pav, remuneration, re- 
quital recompense, set-off 
That IS some compensation for 
your time 

compensatory, a compensative, 


compete, v contend (emulously), 
vie, strive for, rival 
fie competed for the prize 
competence, n wealth 
competency, competence n abil- 
ity, fitness, qualification efS- 
c'tncyi proffineney capability 
He was chosen becau<e of his 
competency to do the work 
competent, a qualified talented, 
clever gifted, capable efficient, 
effective, proficient, able 
She was a compeleni judge of 

He was not quaMed for the po- 
The entire family was quite tal- 

U was a clezcr thing to do 
He was a gifted musician 
She IS a capable woman 
He proved an eKcunt assistant 
Her work was not effective 
Akt incompetent, unqualified, 
incapable, inefficient, unable 
competing, a rival 
competition, n malry, emula- 
tion, contention, strife 
Competition is a spur to actlvi^. 


competitive, a rival, 
competitor, n contestant, oppon- 
ent, rival, anlafronisi. 

The comt'cUiois hotly contested 
for the prize. 

compuation, n collection, com- 
piling, matenaJ fcoinpiled) 
compile, V collect gather (ma- 
terul), put together 
He compiled several volumes 
complacence, complacency, n 
sclf-satisfaction, serenity 
Hts cowiplafewfi carried him 
through many a difticultj 
complacent, a satisfied, affable, 
complain, t repine, gramble, 
murmur, tthine, croak, find 
fault, grov.1, grunt, rtmonslrate 
Note One complains of a real or 
asstiBicd p'lcvance, bo may 
Mitrwuf through mere peevish- 
ness or ill temper, he repines. 
With distress, at the it- 
resocable of the inevitable 
IS by speech or 
vinting, murmuTins is com- 
moply seid of half*reprcssed 
utterance, fcptning of the men- 
tal act alone- One may com- 
plain of an offense to the 
offender or to others; he re- 
tnonstraies with the offender 
oidj. Complain has a formal 
and legal meaning, which the 
other words hate not; the 
same ts true of the noun cotn- 

complainant, n petitioner, plaint- 

complaining, a ; repining queri- 
monious, murmuring, queruloos, 
discontented, grumbling 
compldnt, n • plaint, lamentation, 
murmur: malady, ailment, dis- 
ease; accusation, mfonnatton. 

complaisance, n : courtesy, polite- 
ness, good-nature 
Her complaisance on this occaston 
left her. 

complaisant, a : affable, pohte, 
coarteous, good-natured, inend- 

Her manner was complaisant 
complement, n fullness, com- 
pleteness. perfect state, full 
amount, allowance, full nutn 

complemental. a completing, 
forming complement, comple- 

complete, V consummate, finish, 
perfect, accomplished 
complete, a consummate, whole, 
integral, entire, plenary, un- 
abridged, intact 

completed, a accomplished, fin- 
ished. perfected, consummated, 
completely, adv fully, entirely, 
tlioroughly, utterly 
completeness, n entirety, 
completmg, a cfow'ning. 
compUtton, n eondusvott. con- 
summation, end, close, termina- 
tion, finishing 

The completion of the task was 

They have reached a safe een- 

This js the renjrKmma/ieB of their 

The end was soon reached. 

He spoke at the close of the 

This marked the tcrmiHofion of 
their lease 

The Untshinp of the building was 

Associato) WfiRns integration, 
elaboration, realization, effectua- 

complex, a heterogeneous, con- 
plomcraie, composite, com- 
pound, niijied. conlused, en- 
tangled. complicated, intricate, 
involved, abstruse, obscure, 

Noif That is row^Jfx which is 
made up of several connected 
parts That is compound in 

which the parts are not merely honest bookkeeper 
connected, but fused, or other- Ant incomplex, srnple, obvious, 
wise combined into a single complexity, n intricacy, enlan- 
substance In a eompostie ob- glemein, complication 
ject the different parts have compilable, a complaint, yield- 
less of unity than in that which mg, accordant. 

IS complex or compound, but compliance, n concession, sub- 
maintain their distinct indi- mission, yielding, obedience, ac- 
viduality In a helerogeneoux quiescence, assentation 
body unlike parts or participles compliant, a obedient, tractable, 
are intermingled, often without yielding, submissive, flexible, 
apparent order or plan Cott- complicate, v complicated 
glomerate (literally, globed to- complicate, v snarl 
gether) is said of a confused complicated, a intricate, in- 
mingling of masses or lumps of volved, complex, entangled, ob- 
various substances The New scure, complicate 
England pudding-stone IS a con- complication, n entanglement, 
glomerate rock. In a complex involution, intricacy, complex- 
object the arrangement and re- ity, snarl, confusion, imbroglio 
lation of parts may be perfectly Ant disentanglement, simplicity 
clear, in complicated mecban- complicity, n guilt, wrongdoing, 
istn the parts are so numerous, partnership (m crime), partici* 
or so combined, that the mind pation 

cannot readily grasp their mu- coraplusent, c formal greeting, 
tual relations; in an tntrteaie remembrance, conpatulation, 

arrangement the parts are so act. expression (of commen- 

intertwined that it is difficult to daiion), dartenng, praise 
follow their windings, things complimenta, o, pi regards 
are imvlied which are rolled complimenta^, a laudatory, 
together so as not to b« easily commendatory, flattering 
separated either in thought or compline, n evening prayer 
in fact, things which are complot, v conspire 
tangled cr entangled mutually complot plot 
hold and draw upon each other comply, v consent, agree to; ac- 
The conception of a matcna! commodate itself, fit, conform, 
object IS usually complex, in- componency, n constituency, na- 
volving form, color, sire, and ture. structure, composition 
other elements, a clock is a component, a constituent, part, 
comphcoied mechanism , the composing 
Gordian knot was intricate, the component, n constituent, «le- 
twining serpents of theLaocoon ment, part, ingredient 
are invalided We speak of an comport, v correspond 
abstruse Statement, a complex compose make 
conception, a confused heap, a compose, v quiet, appease, pac- 
heterogeneous mass, a tangled ify, assuage, moderate, alleviate, 
skein, an intricate problem; of conciliate, abate, console, lull, 
composite architecture, an in- allay, hush, still, calm 
tolled sentence, of the comph- She has composed her feelings. 
cated or tntneate accounts of a Her nerves have been Quieted 
great business, the entangled ac- His wrath was o»eoje<f 
counts of an incompetent or dis- The child has been paetfed. 


Her fears -tterc osnwgfd 
Hts enthusiasm has been moder- 

The snffeririff was oWma/frf. 

The forces hate been eonetitaieif 
The wind has abated 
Her love consoled him for the 

She was JulJei to sleep 
Her fears were allayed 
Her voice was hushed in slumber. 
The waves were stilled 
composing, a sedative 
composite, a combined, mixed. 

compound complex 
composition, n piece 
composition, n combination, reg» 
ulation, orderly, disposition, 
construction, maVe»up, struc* 
ture, essay, exercise, produc- 

compositor, n types«ttef. 
compos mentis, sane 
compost, n.. manure 
composure, n. calmness, self- 
possession, sedateness, equa- 

compotation, n.i drinhing«bout. 
compom, V, preserve, 
compound, n. mixture, concoc- 
tion, combination, amalgama- 
tion, intermixture, conglomera- 
tion, medley, synthesis, salma- 
gundi, farago, Jumble, olio, 
hc>dgepodge, olla podnda. 
compounded, a ■ mixed, com- 
bined. concocted, amalgamated, 
comprehend, v.: fathom, grasp; 
understand: embrace, embody, 
comprise, contain 

coraprehensihUity, n : fntelligibil- 
itj, intellectabilify. 
comprehensible, a • inlelligiblc, 
conceivaWe. intellectable 
comprehension, n understanding. 
appre_hen«ion, knowledge 
A>rT.’ incomprehension, inappre- 

comprehensive, a • broad, wide, 
extensive, extended. wide^ 
reaching, Urge, liberal, tolerant 

The statement is romfrehrnstte 
The street is broad 
The vkm IS Ttndf 

ffis trade is cxlensite 
The territory has been estendtd 
His influence is zitde-reocking 
He has a large outlook on life 
His views are liberal 
His manner is tolerant 
Am narrow, restricted, mcom- 
pr^ensive, illiberal, intolerant 
compress, v crowd 
compressed, a condensed, crowd- 
ed, pressed together, complicate, 
folded in, firm 

compressible, a condensable, 
pressed (into smaller volume): 

compressing, a pmching 
compression, n. condensation, 
confinement, crowding 
coaprisal, n. inclusion 
comprise, v include, comprehend, 
embrace, involve, contain, cm* 

My , .. 

compromise, n. peace-making 
comprotmse, v.. adjust, settle, 
compound ; endanger, expose to 
nsk, commit, compromit 
comptroller: manager, 
compulsion, n.: coercion, restraint, 
constraint, obligation, coaction. 
They were under eomfiulsiori to 
perform the deed. 

This was possible by the eoereion 
of the men. 

There was a rrjfroinf placed upon 

They felt the cenjfrofnf. 

He was under no obligaiion to 

Ant discretion, spontaneity, vo- 
lition, election, free-will 
compulsory, a.* coercive, obliga- 
tory, constraining, unavoidable. 
Ant : optional, discretional, elec- 

compunction, n : contrition, rc- 
raor»e. qualm, regret, etmg of 

computable, a : estimable. 

computation, n cal-’nlation, reck- 
oning, estimation, enumeration 
compute, V : reckon, calculate, 
estimate, forecast, enumerate, 

Tlie interest has been eompuled 

They reckoned the possible m 

They calculated the whole 

Its value was incorrectly estf 

He has forcasted the results 

He enumerated the articles stolen 

The loss was rated at $10,000 
comrade, n companion, mate, 
associate, compeer 

comradeship, n association, cam- 

con, V read, study, pore over, 
gajc upon 

conation, n faculty, aspect, en- 

concatenate, v link 
concatenation, n senes, succes- 
sion, union 

concave, a rounded, vaulted, de- 

Ast convex 
concavity, n depression, 
concealed, a . latent, secreted, hid- 
den, clandestine, disguised 
concealment, n hiding, secretion, 
secrecy, privacy, seclusion, re- 
tirement, latency suppression 
concede, v yield, allow; confess, 

He conceded many privileges io 

You must concede that thought is 

conceit, n conception, fancy, 
idea , whim, caprice, vagary, 
freak, priggerv, self-conceit, 
vanity, eeotism, self-glorifica- 
tion, inflation, overweening, 

conceited, a • priggish, bombastic, 
egotistical, bumptious, vain, self conceited 
concei'edness conceit 

conceits \/jttj sayings 
conceivable, a thinkable 
conceive, v form concept, image, 
vuualizc, imagine understand 
concentrate, \ centralize consol 
idatc focus condense rectify 
concentration, n consolidation, 
centralization condensation 
concept, n conception idea, no- 

conception, n ideation imagina- 
tion idea notion concept, im 

concern, n affair, business mo- 
ment importance interest con- 
sequence weight anxiety, so- 
licitude uneasiness care 

Am uflc<Miccni, inconsequence 
concern, n firm, house, partner- 
ship company 

concerned, a worried, solicitous, 
apprehensive, anxious troubled, 

She was deeply concerned about 
the results 

We were v-ornei over the entire 

They were toUexieus of our com- 

They were apprehentmt of 

£>o not be anxtous as to the out- 

He fell into a troubled sleep 

She was not uneasy over the 

Ant unconcerned, indifferent 
concerning, prep regarding, 
about respecting, touching, 
with reference to 

concert, n accordance, concur- 
rence harmony musicale. 
concertedly, adv together 
concession, n land, privileges, 
things (granted). granting, 
grant, allowance, )iclding (on 

concierge, n janitor, doorkeeper 
conciliate, v appease, placate, 
pacify, calmed reconcile, pro- 


The two f 2 ctions were finally 

The pain was apfeasei- 

Her anger could not l>e placated 

It was impossible to pactfy her. 

She was calmed by his presence. 

The gods were propiltaled. 

1 cannot rcconft/e hitn to the 

Ani alienate, displease, es- 
trange, offend. 

condliauoTV, n tcconottaUoti, 
pacification, placation, propitia- 

conciliatory, a pacificatory, p!ac- 
atory, propitiatory 
concise, a sententious, snccinct, 
epigrammatic, laconic, terse, 

Ant diffuse, prolix, 
conciseness, n shortness, brevity, 
succintness, terseness, pithiness 
conusely, adv . tersely, pithily, 
succtntly, epigrammaticaily 
conclave, n secret assembly, 
council, company, cabal 
conclude, v.. decide, resolve, de- 
termine; infer, deduce, 
conclude, v.. effect, arrange; 
close, end. 

concluding, a : closing, 
conclusion, n decision, determi- 
nation, inference, deduction, il- 
lation, corollary; peroration, 
finale, denouement, completion, 
I’enyoy, close, end. 
conclusive, a.* decisive, final con- 
vincing, cogent. 

conclusiveness, n ■ stienglh. 
concoct. v,‘ compound, mix; in- 
vent. devise, contnve, excogi- 

concoction, n.: contrivance, 

scliCTe, plan, plot; mixture, 
concomitance, concomitancy, n : 

concomitant, accompaniment 
concomitant, a.: accompanying, 
conjoined with, attendant co- 

concomitant, n.: accompaniment, 

concord, n.* harmony, accord, 
peace, union, unity, agreement 
concordance, n. agreement, har- 
mony, accord , index, cross- 
reference, list dictionary, 
concordat, n treaty, 
concourse, n assembly, 
concecte, a joined, coalesced, 
coalescent composite, solidified, 

concrete, a individual, specific, 
special, particular ; emboied, 
set forth 

concretion, n laptdescence. stone, 
solidification , clot coagulation, 
lump, nodule 

concretion, n. concreteness, de- 
terminateness (Logic.) 
concubine, n paramour, odal- 
isque, pU harem, seraglio, 
concupiscence, n lewdness, 
concur, v agree, 
concurrence, n. coincidence, 
concurrent, a cooperating, 
concuss, V shake, 
concussion, n shock 
condemn, v. anathematize, curse, 
execrate, denounce, reprobate, 
doom, ban, censure, blame, re- 
prove, sentence, convict 

Nort: We may eenxure silenll) > 
•we condemn ordinarily by open 
ud formal utterance. Condemn 
is more final than blame or ceti- 
jure, a eondemneif cnminalhas 
had his trial; a condemned 
building can not stand; a eon- 
dttnntd ship cannot saiL One 
is confided when his guilt is 
made clearly manifest to others 
or to himself; in law, one is 
conneted only by the verdict of 
a jury In stating the penalty 
of an offense, the legal •word 
eentence is probably now more 
common than condemn; as, he 
was jenleneed to imprisonment. 
But It IS good usage to say he 
was condemned to impri'on- 


Avt • e-coneratt, exculpate, ab- 
solve, justify, vindicate, praise, 
condemnation, n . reprobation, ex- 
ecration, denunciation, ban 
condemnatory, a . condemning, 

condensable, a.: reduablc 
condensation, n contraction, 
condense, s abridge, reduce, epit- 
omize, compress, concentrate 
condescend, v vouchsafe, design, 
condescension, n 
condign, a just, 
condiment, n. seasoning, 
condition, n category, predica- 
ment. state, plight, situation, 
stipulatJOti, term, prerequisite, 
yrovision, proviso, 
conditional, a provisory, con- 
tingent. subject stipulative 
He was granted a conditional 

The legacj was a frotMcry one. 
eenditionate, v . regulate, qualify, 

conditionate, n contingency, 
conditions, n . pi. terms 
condolatory, a. commiseratory, 
sympathetic, pitying 
condolence, n. sympathy, 
condole with: console, 
condonation, n pardoning, for- 
giveness, condonance 
condone, v pardon, 
conduce, v contribute, redound, 
lead, tend, subserve, advance, 
corducible, a.* contnbuting. 
conducive, a favorable 
conduct V pilot, escort lead, 
guide, attend, convo}, admin* 


He cordiicttd his ow-n affairs 
with prudence 

conduct n management guid- 
ance, leadership, administra- 
tion; behavior, deportment 
conduction. n transmission. 
tran<fererce, spread, convey- 

conductor, n guide, 
conduit n channel 
confab, n talk 

confabulate, v (Colloq) chat, 
confabulation, n conversation, 
confection, n sweetmeat article, 
compound, mix, article of fur- 
niture, dress 

confectionery, n candy, 
confederacy, n league, compact, 
confederation, union, 
confederate, n ally 
confederate, v unite 
confederate, a federated, confed- 
erated. allied, leagued, 
confederation, n federation, 
league, coalition, confederacy, 

confer, v give, bestow, grant; 
advise hold conference, consult 
together, take counsel 
coziferee. n recipient 
conference, n consultation, 
conference, n assembly 
coofemng, a giving 
confess, v acknowledge, accept, 
own, admit, avow, concede, 
grant, divulge, disclose, reveal. 

AssociATto Wosps endorse, rec- 
ognize, certify 

Note We acceft another’s state- 
ment. admit any point made 
against us, acknowledge what 
w^e have said or done, good or 
bad, ototi our individual be- 
liefs or feelings . certify to facts 
withn out knowledge , confett 
our own faults, tndarte a 
friends note or statement; 
grant a request, osw our faults 
or obligations, recognise law- 
ful authority , concede a claim 
Confess has a high and sacred 
use in the religious sense, as, 
to confess Christ before men 
It mav have also a playful 
*ense {often wth to), as, one 
confesses to a weakness for 
confectionery The chief pres- 
ert use of the word, however. 


IS in tlie sense oi TnaVing 
known to others one’s own 
wrong-doing, in this sense con- 
ftss IS stronger than acknov/l- 
edge or admit, and more sj>e- 
afic than o v« a person orf- 
niifr a mi tike, afinoa/erfgrt 
a fault , r‘ nfessas sin or crime 
Akt cloik, conceal, hide, mask, 
sow, disguise, screen, secrete, 
veil, dsown, dissemble, dissim- 

confession, n avowal acknowl- 
edgment, admission confiteor, 
'hnft, cxoniologests 
AssoriATcn Words shnve. shri,^ 
ccnfcs'ional shriven, shrteea, 
shrift father 
eonfidarte, n inend 
confide, v trust fully with, in- 
trust, repose confidence, reveal 
(in trust), commit 
confidence, n trust, faith, de- 
pendence, reliance, assurance, 

We have great confidena in his 

Aj.t. See doubt, 
confidences, n . pi secrets, 
confident, a. undoubtIng. san- 
guine, sure, reliant, undaunted 
confidential, % intimate, trusted, 
related privately, trustworthy; 
secret, secretly imparted 
confiding, a.: trustful 
configuration, n conformation, 
ouilme, contour, istcmal form; 
structural arrangement, dispo- 
sition (of parts), 
confine, n.: border, frontier, 
boundary, limit. 

confine, v.* restrict, restrain, cir- 
cumscribe, limit, pinion, bound, 
inclose, incarcerate, immure, 

confinement, n : imprisonment, 
durance, restrain, duress ini- 
fflurem-nt, incarceration. limbo,* 
circum'cription. Imitation, ly- 
nc- n childbirth 

confines, n., ph borders, ptt- 
anct«, boundaries, outskirLs, 
pcflieas. frontiers, mardies 
confirm, V corroborate, substan- 
tiate, ratify, verify, establish, 
fix, prove. senVe, strengthen, 
uphold, sanction, sustain 
The report of his nomination has 
not been confirmed 

Note Testimony is corroborated 
concurrent testimony or by 
circumstances , confirmed ^ 
eslabltshed facts That which ts 
thoroughly prated is said to be 
ettabUshed ‘o ts that which 
IS cifficnJ and has adequate 
power behind it, as, the esfab- 
Itsbcd government, the estab- 
kshed church The continents 

ate fixei A treaty is retuici; 
an appointment confirmed An 
act IS isncUoned by any person 
Of authority that passes upon 
It approvingly A statement is 
stibttantiated, a report cen- 
JifwrJ a controversy settlei, 
the deci'ion of a lower court 
sutiatned by a higher. Just 
government should be utjttld 
The beneficent results of Chris- 
tianity fon^rm our faith in it 
as a dmne revelation 
Akt abrogate, annul, over- 
throw, shake, unsettle, up«et, 
weaken, cancel, dc'troy 
cocfittnation, tv corrohoration, 
Tatification, substantiation, veri- 

conliraMtive, a. afTirmativc. 
confiscate, v. appropriate, ad- 
judge forfeited, seire. 
connscation, n appropriation, 

eonfilcor, n ; confession 
confiagfatioR, n.. fire, blaze, burn- 
ing, holocaust- 

coofiict, n. antagonism, encount- 
er cla'hing. opposition, battle, 
sVirni'h -itrrggle. -infe. *crim- 

gratulate one’s self, which Is 
less natural, is beconinj prev- 

Ant-: commiserate, condole with, 

congregate, s. assemble, flock to- 
gether, meet in a body , collect 
congregation, n assembly, con- 
course, assemblage, meeting, ag- 
gregation, gathering, company, 
congress, n convocation, assem- 
bly, conference, formal meeting 
congntence, congruency, n agree- 
mert, consistency, suitability, 
congTuity, concordance, appro- 
priateness, conformity 
congruent, a correspondent, at*- 
propriate, suitable, agreeing 
congnuty, n harmoniousness, ap- 
propriateness, practical agree- 

congruous, a appropriate, con- 
sistent, Itarmoniously related 
tribute, unpheate, cohere, fra- 

conical, a pointed 
conjectural, a suppositional, un- 
certain, doubtful, undetermined 
conj'ecture, n guess, hypothesis, 
surmise, supposition, augury, 
inference (from questionable 
evidence), indecisive opinion- 
conjecture, V surmise, suppose, 
judge (from incomplete evi- 
dence), speculate 

conjoin, v.; connect, associate, joto 
together; unite 

conjoint, a united, coopcralmg, 
associated, conjoined 
conjugal, a.: matrimoniaL 
conjugate, a.- united, combined In 
pairs, kindred 

conjunction, n. junction, union, 
as'ociation, league, comWna- 
tion, connection; connective 

conjuncture, n : juncture 

conjuration, n,: enchantment, 
spelt incantation, sorcery, mag- 
ic art, solemn entreaty, 
conjure, v. summon, enjoin sol- 
emnly adjure, appeal to sol- 

conjure, v juggle, exorcise, sum- 
mon, raise, bring, effect, ot 
drive away (by magic), 
conjurer, n magician, wizard, 
sorcerer, diviner, enchanter, ex- 

conjuring, n jugglery 
conjury, n sleight of hand, 
connect, v join, link, couple, at* 
tach, unite, bind, fasten togeth- 
er, associate with, affiliate, at- 
tribute, implicate, cohere 

The t»vo families arc closely con- 

They will o/Ti/tafe with us in the 

The societies fraternize with each 

connected, a.: joined, coup**! 
linked, afliliateJ, related, alAv 

connection, n. union, allianee, ro- 
lationship. junction, conjunc- 
tion, affiliation, association, fill* 
ation; implication. 

There is no eonnecUon between 

Ant ; disconnection, detachment, 
isolation, incoherence 
connection, n.. kinsman, relative, 
relation, i^nd, tie link, coup- 
ling, vinculum. 

connivance, n : collusion, passive 
cooperation (in crime), indirect 

contuve, v.: be In collusion, 
connive at: blink, 
connoisseur, n - critic, j’udge. 
connote, v.: designate (by impli- 
cation), imply (as an attri- 

connubial, a : matrimonial, con- 
jugal, nuptisb 


consanguineous, a.: akin, rclatej, 

consanguinity, n.. btood-roialion- 
sliip, kinship 

conscience, n moral conscious- 
ness, mind, ethical judgment, 

Associated Woaas casuistry, 
Lrinys, compunclion, qualm 
conscientious, a scrupulous just, 
upright, liigii'tninded 

He IS a censcienlious youth 
conscionable, a reasonable, just 
conscious, a aware, sensible, cog- 
nizant, apprised, percipient, 
knowing, sentient 

He IS coHsttoui of being watched 

Note One is aiivre of that 
which cMsts without Uini, but 
is tonsetous of the inner wotk- 
■ ngs o! his own mind Sfitnbif 
may be used in the exact sense 
of ronariour, or it may partake 
of both the senses mentioned 
above One may be itmibU of 
his own or another s error, but 
Is eonsciouf only of his own 
J'cnnMr has often a reference 
to the emotions where tori’ 
scious tnight apply only to the 
intellect; to say a culprit is 
scnubte of his degredalion is 
more forcihle than to say he is 
cansciout of It 

Ant, unconscious, unaware, in- 
sensible, cold, dead, deaf, igno- 

consciousness, n ' intuition, 
awsreness. feeling, sensation, 
intellectual activity, faculty, 
condition, mind 
conscript, n soldier 
conscription, n draft 
consecrate, v, dedicate, hallow, 

consecrated, a holy 
consecration, n devotion, 
consecutive, a, successive, follow- 

consecutively, adv. one after the 

consensus, ii. general agreement, 
uiiait unity 

consent, v agiee, atcoid. concur, 
aiicde. yield, assent, acquiesce, 

lonijd), pCTiwl 

Akt dissent disagree, refuse 
consent, II acijuiescence, compli- 
ance concurrence, approval, 
piniiission agreenient 
consentient, a agreeing, conso- 

consequence, n issue, result, ef- 
fect end. event sequence, se- 
quel, outcome, outgrowth, up- 
shot, eventuality, pursuance; 
importance, moment, weight 

Note tffett is the strongest of 
these words, it is that which » 
directly produced by the action 
of an emuent cause, thus, we 
siy. ' Tiery tffett must have an 
adequate cause ' (seecAUSB) In 
regird to human actions, tfftet, 
(ommonly relates to intention | 
as. (he shot took tdeet, i e , the 
rffiif inieniled A tonsequintt 
IS that which follows an act 
naturally, but less directly than 
ilie tUttt The motion of the 
piston IS the riftcl, and the agi- 
tation of the water under the 
picldlc-whcels a censequtnet of 
the expansion of steam in the 
cylinder The result is, lit- 
erall), the rebound of an act, 
slepcnding on many elenrents; 
the issue IS that which flows 
forth directly, we siy the issue 
of a battle, the result of a cam- 
paign A ronjrqiirBf common- 
ly IS that which follows Sim- 
ply m order of time, or by logi- 
cal inferenre 

Ant See antecedence 
consequent, a attendant, logical, 
reasonable, following 


The interruption of cofflmcrcc 
tofisequent on the war, was a 
serious loss 

consequent, n . conclusion, conse- 

conservation, n ■ maintenance, 
preservation, keeping protect- 
ing, protection 

conservatism, n changelessness 
His fonjcnalijm has protected 
his interests 

conservative, a unchaoemg, un- 
progressive, moderate, not ex- 
treme, preservative 
conservatory, n greenhouse, 
conservatory, n school, 
conserve, n jam 
conserve, v. preserve, save, 
consider, v ponder, contemplate, 
meditate on, deliberate, calcu- 
late, think about, regard, heed 
considerable, a important, valu- 
able, influential, good deal of. 
large portion of 

•considerable, n (Colloq) much, 
good deal, large amount 
considerate, a * circumspect, heed- 
ful, thoughtful, mindful, delib- 
erate, pTudeni. 

Ast ‘ inconsiderate, thoughtless, 
heedless, imprudent 
tonsideration, n * advisement, de- 
liberation, contemplation, deler- 
ence; reason, motive 
consign, V/ commend, commit, 
deliver formally, yield in trust: 

consigne, n.: countersign 
consignee, n.* factor, 
consignment, n • shipment, 
consist, v.- *ubsist, be maintained: 
be compatible, harmonire 
His story does not eonsxst with 
the CMdencc. 

consist, V.* be, have (as its na- 
ture^ : be composed, be consti- 
tuted. made op of 
True chanty dr>es not eons«f in 
mere almsgiving. 

•consistence, consistency, n : har- 

mony, compatibility, coherency, 
imiformn), firmness, thickness 
consistent, a uniform, not con- 
tradictory, congruous, compati- 
ble, accordant, logical 
consistory, n a'sembly 
consolation, n solace, comfort, 

condolence. relief, support, 


console, v cheer, comfort, en- 
courage condole with, solace, 
sympathize With 

Note One condoles with another 
by the csprcsEion of kindly 
sympathy n Ins trouble, one 
consolts him by eonsiderationi 
adapted to soothe and sustain 
the spirit, as by the assurances 
and promises of the gospel; he 
encourages him by the hope of 
some relief or deliverance, one 
comforts him by whatever act 
Of word tends to bring mmd 
or body to a state oS rest and 
cheer We s}mpatki:e with 
others, not only m sorrow, but 
tn )oy 

Ant grieve, hurt, annoy, dis- 
tress. disturb, sadden, trouble, 

consoler, n . comforter, 
consolidate, v . compress, co»- 
Crete, solidify, merge, unify, 
combine, incorporate 
consolidation, n umrication, com- 
bination, union, incorporation, 
consonune, n bouillon, soup 
consonance, n. harmony, con- 
cord. agreement (of sounds), 
c nsonant, a harmonious, ac- 

consonant, n ]et*er 

Assoctateh Woans spirant, frica- 
tnc. surd, sibilant 
consort, v. mingle, 
consort, n ' companion, partner, 
hu'bancl, wife; accompanying 

conspectus, n • digest, genera) 
sketch, tjnopiis 

conspicuous, a noticeable, promi- 
nent, salient, manifest 
Ant irconspicuous 
consptcuousness, n standing out 
conspiracy, n plot, complob 
combination, connivance cabal 
machination, intrigue, coItusioP 

Note Combinalton is neutral 
and may be for good or ev«l 
purpose, the last hve word* 
have a bad meaning Consl^ir- 
acy ij direct agreement with 
others to commit crime, a cow- 
btralwn, as of a mob, to com- 
mit crime, may not be a f»«- 
spira i collusion ts a playing 
into the hands of others, fur- 
nishing concealed or deceptive 
assistance, eonnnance is an in- 
tertional overlooking or ignor- 
ing of crime that one ought to 
resent or denounce \ gam- 
ier may have confederates m 
colluitoM With him, his business 
maj flourish by the eonnitanef 
of the police, he may enter into 
eonsfitracy to evade the law 
conspirator, n conspirer, in- 
triguer, caballer, plotter, maeb- 

conspire, v plot, complot, machi- 
nate, intrigue, cabal, collude 
constancy, n stability, unchange- 
ableness, steadfastness resolu- 
tion, fidelity, lojalty, devotion 
constant, a unchanging, perma- 
nent, unwavering, unswerving, 
unshaken, steadfast, stanch, loy- 
al, faithful , continuous, inces- 
sant, perpetual, uninterrupted, 

AST See Inconstant 
constantly, adv always 
conS**rnatiOn, n terror alarm, 
di-may, panic, distraction 
constipated, a bound costive 
constipation, n costiveness, sleg* 

constituency, n voters, elector, 
body of electors, district 

constituent, a component, con 

constituent, n ingredient, essen- 
tial, part, elector, voter 
constitute, v compose make up, 
maki enact, fix, establish, ap- 


constitution, n physique struc- 
ture temperament cl aracter 
constitutional, a organic inborn, 
innate, inbred natural con- 

constitutional, n (Colloq ) walk, 

constrain, v compel make, 
oblige urge hold down, re- 
strain keep back 

consttained, a forced unnatural, 
involuntary, embarrassed 
constraint, n force compulsion, 
coercion, pressure restraint, 
restriction, unnaturalness, difii- 

constrict v bind cramp, compress 
together, contract 

constriction, n contraction, com- 
pression, cramping 
consmetor, n sphincter, boa, 

constringent, a contracting, 
binding crimping compressing 
construct, v build form, put to* 

? ether manufacture, make; 
orm mentally, fabricate, devise, 

construct, n mental form, con- 
structed object 

construction n structure, con- 
structing style 
constructive, a building 
construe, v translate, interpret, 

constuprate. v rape, 
consuetudinary, n ritual 
consult. V ask advice of, regard, 
consider deliberate, discuss to- 

consoltaMon, n conference, con- 
vocation, council advisement 
consultative, a deliberative 


consume, v.: burn, destroy, waste, 
squander, eat up, eat, absorb, 
devour, spend time, engross, 

This lamp consumes oil 
He IS consumed with envy 
consumed, a. spent, 
consuming, n consumption 
consummate, v complete, per- 
fect, execute, do 
He has consummaled his plans 
consummate, a supreme, perfect, 
finished, complete 

consummation, n fulfillment, 
realization , perfection, attain- 
ment, act, end 

consumptible, a consumable 
consumption, n burning, eating, 
wearing out, squandering, de- 
vouring, consuming, phthisis 
contact, n touching, tangency, 
conimgenc), impact, juxtaposi- 
tion, osculation, contiguity, ap- 
position, syzygy 

contagion, n communication, me- 
dium view, contagium 
contagious, a communicable, pes- 
tilential, pestiferous. 

A^T incommunicable 
contain. \ compisse, embody, in- 
clude, comprehend, hold, re- 

container, n receptacle 
contaminate, corrupt, pollute, 
defile, infect, tamt, vitiate, sully, 

contamination, n. corruption, pol- 
lution, defilement, vitiation, 
tamt, infection 

contemn, v reject, despise, scorn; 

neglect, disdain, slight, 
contemner, n ttofler. 
contemplate, v- meditate on, 
think on, consider, look at; in- 
tend, plan, eonsidcf- 
He contemplates enlarging Ibe 

contemplation, n.: meditation, re- 

contemplalive, a.* thoughtful, 
meditative, rcfiective 

contemporaneous, a.: synchron- 
ous, conlcmporary, synchional, 

contemporary, a coeval, con- 

contempt, n disdain, contumely, 
derision, scorn, dctc tation, dis- 
grace. reproach 

contempublc, a abject, despic- 
able, base, Ignoble 
His action is eonti mpltble 
He was reduced to abject want 
The trick was a despicable one. 
His motives were base and ig- 

contemptuous, a supercilious, 
scornful, disdainful, insolent 
contumelious, flouting, cynical, 

content, v struggle, vie, wrestle, 
combat compete, contest op- 
pose. dispute, maintain, argue. 
They contended that they were 

contender, n stickler, 
contending, a opposing, ceo- 
fltciing, adverse 

content v. appease, gf*ti/y, 

contemeo, a, content, satisfied, 

contention, n.: dissension, con- 
iroveriy, al’ercation, di'pute, 

contentious, a litigious, disputa- 
tious, quarrelsome, polemical, 

contentment, n. satisfaction, com- 
fortableness, happiness, content 
conterminous, a. adjacent, bor- 

contest, V.* dispute, oppose, liti- 
gate; strive, contend, vie. 
contest, n rivalry, tournament 
tourney, match, competition, 
emulation; dispute, diisension, 
feud, controversy, contention, 
contestable, a * debatable, 
contestant, n.; competitor, dis- 
putant, riral. 


contiguity, .1 . contact, immedi- 
ate connection, continuity, near- 
ness, proximity, approximatioa 

contiguous, a adjacent, adjoin- 
ing, touching 

continence, continency, n chas- 
tity, self-restraint, moderation 

continent, a chaste, self re- 
strained, virtuous 

continent, n mainland, land, 

contingence, contigency, n 
chance, possible occurrence, un- 
certainty, accident, hazard, 

contingent, a conditional, acci- 
dental, fortuitous, nonpredict- 
able, possible 

contingent, n possibility, con- 
tingency, proportionate share, 

continual, a ceaseless, perpet- 
ual, constant incessant, contin- 
uous, regular, ciRinrerrupted, 
unremitting unvarying unceas- 
ing, unbroken 

Note Coniuiuom describes that 
which IS absolutely without 
pause or break, ecntiitual, that 
which often intermits, but as 
regularly begins again A ro«- 
iittuous beach is exposed to the 
ct>n/i««a/ beating of the waves 
In like manner, the tacesfonl 
discharge of firearms makes the 
ceasWe/sroarofbattle Conslani 
is sometimes used m the sense 
of eonttnual, but its chief uses 
are mental and moral 

continuance, n continoatioi^ 
constancy, perseverance, perpet- 

The court asked for a fonliitu- 
ance of the case 

This IS a coiiiinualtan of the pro- 

He was convinced of the co»~ 
stancy of her love 

Persneranee wins 

The will provides for the per- 
petualion of the allowance 
continuation, n protraction, con- 
tinuance, prolongation, perpet- 

continue, v persevere 
continued, a extended, pro- 
longed, protracted, serial 
continuous, a uninterrupted, un- 
ceasing, ceaseless, continual, 
constant, running 
Ant intermittent, occasional, in- 

contorted, a twisted, wrenched, 
contortionist, n performer, ac- 

contour, n outline, profile, de- 

contraband, a forbidden, unlaw- 
ful, prohibited, illegal 
contract, v condense, reduce, 

narrow , syncopate, shrivel, 


contract, v inevr, take to one’s 
self, acquire, betroth, covenant, 

contract, n compact, covenant, 
agreement, pact, arrangement, 
bargain, cartel engagement, 
protocol, concordat, treaty, con- 
vention. stipulation, promise 

Note All these word* involve 
at least two parties though an 
engagement or promise may be 
the act of but one Mutual 
promises may have the force of 
a eonlract A consideration, or 
compensation, is essential to 
convert an agreement into a 
eontraet A coniraet may be 
oral or written A eoienant m 
law IS a written contract under 
seal CovenonJ is frequent la 
religious usage, as contract is 
in law and bu'iness Compact 
IS essentially the same as fo»t- 
tract, but IS applied to interna- 
tional agreements, treaties, etc 
A fcorgaiB IS a mutual agree- 
•timt for an exchange of values 


\Tit’iout itie formality oi a ton* position, oppose, diflercntiate, 
tract A sttpulatton is a sinsle dtscnminaic 
Item m an asref»if«r or fOH- 

/ra<r< A cartel is a military Note We contrast objects that 
asrccrient for the exchange of have been iJreatfy compared. 
prisoners or Uie like We muu fo« paie them, at least 

moment ifilv even to know that 
<ontracted, a narrow, mean, il- they arc diiTefent We contrast 
liberal, scanty, shrunken them nlicii we cbverve tiieir un- 

con..ractUe, a coniractinB ^ likeness in j general way, we 

cortracting, a. puckering, astrin— dnT’ercH/iaie iliem ivlienwenote 
pent, contractile, agreeing, in» the tlifTerence exactly and point 
curnng by point W’e </ijri«guw/i objects 

contraction, n abbreviation, as* when we note a di/Tcrcnce that 

iriction, constriction, stricture, may fall shot of contrast, we 

condensation, smcopation discriminate them when we 

The chss was studving the con* classify or place them according 

tr ’ction of words te> their Ji/ferenfej 

contradict, v gainsay, contro- 
vert, impugn, contravene, nulli- contravene, v oppose, counter- 
fy act, eontradiot, thwart, count- 

Do not fonirodift me ervail. transgress, violate 

I shall not gaiHJoy your remark, contravention, n., epposiiion. 
You can not eontroterj this state- counteraction, contrad i c ti o n , 

ment tran»Rtcs»)on, violation. 

His motives were not impugned contretemps, n.: hitch, awkward 
The law must not eontratene yus- tncident, accidental embarrass* 
t ce. ment, accident. 

Tl at decision nullifies the previ- contribute, v.: give, furnish, sup* 
ojs one p!v. elTeet, influence 

contradiction, n.' gainsaying, op- contribution, n.. subserlptloB, 
poiiiion, contrariety, antago- gift, lax; writing, article 

insm, paradox, mconnstcncy. conmtt, a : repentant, sorrowful, 
contradictory, a inconsistent. penitent, conscience-smitten 

rreconcilabic. paradoxical, op- Ant : impenitent, obdurate 
posing, contradicting contriteness, n : penitence, sor- 

contrariety, n ■ repugnance, an- row, repentance. 

t-gonism, disagreement, contra- contrition, n,; compuncUon, re* 
diction, opposition, inconsist- morse, penitence, brolrenness 

cnev (of spirit), srif-reproich. 

contrary, a.: adverse, counter, op- contrivance, n.; devising, contriv- 
po'cd; repugnant, contradic- mg. expedient, artifice, device, 

tory, retroactive, incompatMe, invention, scheme, 

artagomsuc, conflicting, incon- contrive, v.: concoct, invent, de- 
‘isJent; per»’er»e, eaptiotss, re* »i«e. scherre, excogruhr, plan, 

fractory, headstrong, wayward, contriving, a.* contrivance, 
intractable. _ control, w regulate, restrain, re- 

contrast, n.: comparison; antithe- prew. check, bridle; dominate, 

sts. disvimilitude, op?o*«ion, snpenniend, govern, maiage, 

unliVene«» direct, command, master, 

contri't V. co-npar'-, place in Op- control, n.; restraint, check, 


hindrance, repression, domina- 
tion, ascendency, dominion, reg 
Illation, direction, superintend- 
ence, command, mastery, gov- 

Ant unrestraint, abandon, sub- 

controllable, a manageable, gov- 
ernable, tractable, docile, sequa- 

controUtr, n.: tegnlatoT, taler. 

governor, comptroller 
controlling, a restraining, regu 
lating, checking, dominating, 
superintending, governing, over- 

controveraial, a : polemic, polem- 
ical, disputatious 

controversy, n.* dispute, conten- 
tion, disputation, altercation, 
logomachy, polemics 
controvert, a argue, contend 
against, refute, disprove 
controvertible, a.: refutable, de- 
batable, mooted, contestable 
Ant incontrovertible, irrefuta- 
ble, undebatable, incontestable 
controverting, n denial 
centumaslous, a . perverse, ob- 
stinate, refractory, rebellious 
contumacy, n dehance, pervers 
ity, perverseness, incorrigibility, 
contempt (of authority) 
contumelious, a contemptuous 
rude, insolent, abusive 
contumely, n • haughtiness, in- 
solence, rudeness, contempt, 
abuse, insulting speech 
contusion, n.* bruise, injury 
conundrum, n riddle, enigma, 
puzzle, problem. 

convalescence, n.: recovery, re- 

convene, v.; convoke, congregate, 


convenient, a.: advantageous 
handy, serviceable, seasonable, 
timely, appropriate, suitable, 
opportune, accessible, easy 
convent, n • monastery, nunnery, 
cloister, pnory, abbey. 

Associated Woeds monastic, 
conventual, conventicai 
conventicle, n assembly, 
convention, n usage, custom, 
conventionality, assembly, con- 
gress diti, convocation synod. 

The (oniention will meet in this 

conventional, a formal, method- 
ical customary, stipulated, cove- 

conveotionalism, n formality, 
conveniirin jliti , artificiality 
conventionality, n custom 
converge, v approach, fend 

Ant diverge 

conversant, a familiar with, ac- 
quainted knowing fully, under- 
standing. proficient 
conversation, n chat, talk, col- 
loquy, converse conference, 
confabulation, parlance, parley, 
eommunicaiion, intercourse, in- 
terlocution. causerie, interview 

Their conversation was quite in- 

Note Conversation (Latin eon. 
With) IS, etymologically, an in- 
terchange of ideas with some 
other person or persons Talk 
may be wholly one-sided Many 
brilliant talkers have been in- 
capable of comersatton There 
may be inirrcourjc without con- 
tersalwn, as by looks, signs, 
etc , comniuniopi is of hearts, 
with or without words, com- 
muRicalicn is often by writing, 
and may be uninvited and un- 
reciprocated Talk may denote 
the mere utterance of words 
with little thought, thus, we 
say idle talk, empty talk, rather 
than idle or empty comersaiion 
liiseourse is now applied chief- 
1v to public addresses A con- 
ference IS more formal than a 
conversation Dialogue denotes 


ordiiiarify an artificial or imagi- 
nary coniersation, generally of 
two persons, but sometimes of 
TDore A colloquy is mdefimte 
as to number, and generally 
eomewhat infonnal- 

coaversadonal, a ' colloquial, in- 

conversationalist, n. talker, 
converse, v talk, chat, confabu- 
late, parley, commune, confer 
converse, n. conversation, 
conversion, n transformation, 
transmutation, change, prose- 

conversion, n removal, rcnew- 
ing, regeneration , appropria- 
tion, application, employment, 
convert, v alter, shut, reverse, 
transform, transpose, transfer, 
transmute, change, regenerate 
He was eonvtrled to the new 

me oress tias oeen aiierea. 

The responsibility has been 

Thctf plans were reverted 

The place has been transformed. 

Their positions were transposed. 

He was transferred to a new sta- 

The seeming dross is transmuted 
into gold. 

Our plans were changed. 

His very soul was TigentraUd. 
convert, v, appropriate, apply, 
use; proselyte 

convert, n.: proselyte, neophyte, 

Kon : The name disciple is given 
to the follower of a certain 
faith^ without reference to am* 
previous belief or allegiance; a 
comert is a person who has 
come to one faith from a dif- 
ferent belief or from unbelief 
A proselyte is one who has been 
led to accept a religious system, 
whether with or withont true 


faith; a convert is always un- 
derstood to be a believer. A 
neophyte is a new convert, not 
yet fully indoctrinated, or not 
admitted to full privileges. The 
antonjnns apostate, pervert, and 
renegade are condemnatory 
names applied to the convert by 
those whose faith he forsakes. 

convertible, a, changeable, 
convex, a * bulging, protuberant, 

Ant concave, holloAcd. 
convexity, n protuberance, gib- 

Ant concavity, hollow, depres- 

convey, v carry, transport, trans- 
fer, shift, transmit, impart, 
communicate . grant, cede, give, 
move, remove 

Please convey this carefully. 

Nort Conv ey, transmit, and 
transport all imply delivery at 
a destination; as. I will eonvey 
the information to }our friend; 
air conteys sound (to a listen- 
er); a man comes an appear* 
ance, conveys an impression, the 
appearance remaining his own, 
the impression being given to 
another; 1 will transmit the let- 
ter; transport the goods A 
horse cames his mane and tad, 
but docs not eonvey them. 
Tranfer may or may not imply 
delivery to another In Jaw, 
real estate, which can not be 
moved, is conveyed by simply 
transferring title and posses- 
sion. Transport usually refers 
to material, transfer, transmit, 
and eonvey may refer to im- 
matCTial objects; we transfer 
pos*e5*ion, transmit intelligence, 
convey ideas, but do not trans- 
port them In the case o£ con- 
vey the figurative sense now 

conveyance, n.* carriage, trans- 
mission; demise, transfer, ces- 
sion, alienation 
conveyer, n carrier 
convict, n.; felon, criminal, cul- 
prit, prisoner, malefactor 
convict, V.. condemn, prove 
guilty; convince, awatren 
conviction, n faith, belief, propo- 
sition; adjudication 
Our eonticuon proved to be false 
convinced, a. sure, certain, per- 
suaded, satisfied 

Ajit perplexed, puaaled, unset- 
tled, disturbed 

convincing, a persuasive, cogent, 

convivial, a social, jolly, gay, 
festive, festal 

convocation, n congress, synod, 
diet, council, convention, con- 

convoke, v call, call together, 
summon, gather, collect, con- 
vene, assemble, gather, muster 
Net! A convention i> ealUd by 
some officer or ofEicefs, as by 
Its president, its executive com- 
mittee. or some eminent lead- 
ers, ihe delegates are esstm- 
bUd or comenfJ in a certain 
place, at a certain hour Con- 
ickt implies an organised body 
and a superior authority, <u- 
temble and eomenr express 
more independent action , Par- 
liament 15 eoniektd. Congress 
assfntblft Troops arc mut- 
tered. witnesses and jurymen 
are summoned. 
convoluted, a rolled 
convolution, n winding, fold, 
turn, whcrl 

convoy, n escort, attendance; 

protection, guard 
convulse, v agitate, shake, cause 
spasms, disturb 

convulsion, n spasm, paroxysm; 
commotion, agitation, disturb- 
ance, upheaval 

cook, n chef (chief cook), 
cook, V stew, seethe, gratinate. 

cook, T (Colloq) tamper with, 
garble, falsify 

cooking, n cuisine 
cook-room, n kitchen, cuisine; 
galley, cuddy 

cool, V refrigerate, chill, moder- 
ate, alias quiet, calm 

cool, a moderate, deliberate, un- 
excited sell possessed, dispas- 
sionate composed, chilling, 

apathetic inditTerent, noncha- 
hnt, unconcerned, repellent, un- 
fnendJy distant, rerenionious. 
cool, a (Colloq ) flippant, pre- 
suming audacious, impuoent, 
shameless presumptuous 
coolie, n laborer 
cooling, a refreshing 
cooling, n refrigeration, gela- 


cooling, a refrigerant, chilling 
coolness, n nonchalance, indiffer- 
ence, dispassion 

coolness, n (Colloq) impudence, 

coop, n cote, mew, pen, poultry- 
house. hutch 

coop. V confine, men', shut up, 
imprison, incage 

cooperate. \ unite, concur, work 
together abet, help, collude 
The two factions will not eooter- 

Let us all unite in the work 
Several causes concurred in mak- 
ing the trouble 

They norfird together faithfully 
We would not abet him in his 

They are /lelfirg a worthy cause 
He colluded with an accessory. 
Akt oppose, resist, hinder, 

cooperating, a cooperative, con- 
current. auxiliary, synergetic, 
cooperation, n concurrence, 
working together, collusion; 
synergy, synerg sn. 


Akt .nntsffonism, cornpetition. 

cooperator, n associate, 
coordinate, v make equal, haf- 

coordinate, a equal, ooO'Subor- 

Am unequij, subordinate 
coordination, n equality 
coot, n (Cf.lloq I dullard, simple- 
ton. dolt, dunce 
copartner, n partner 
cope, V strice, contend with 
copier, n tTan^cnbcr, copyist 

Ant originjtor 

copious, a abundant, plcntiiul, 
ample, overflowing, exuberant 
copper, n. cuprum, cauldron. 

AsvciATta Woxns cupreous, 
cupric cupriferous, cuprous, 
cuprite, spciss. chafeopytitc. 
chalcorrap'iy, veriligns. crugi- 
nous, clialeograplier. chatcogra- 

copperas, n ferrous sulphate, 
green viirol, sulphate of iron 
copse, n lirusliwood, thicket cop- 
pice, boscage bosk 
copula, n bond 

copulation, n union, conjunction: 

sexual union, coition 
copy, n transcript, transcription, 
reproduction, replica, replica- 
tion. facsimile, duplicate, count- 
efpirt, imitTtion, counterfeit, 
apograph, estreat, exemplifica- 
tion, porotype, protocol; pat- 
tern, original, model, example, 
precedent, manuscript, 
copy, V.' reproduce, transcribe, 
duplicate, tr.ncc, nutate, fo’low, 
ape; exemplify, 
copyist, n copier, 
coquette, n • fiirt. trifier, 
coquettish, a.- flirtatious, 
coi^, n animal, coelenterate., 
polyp, anthozoon; madrepora, 

corban, n offering, 
corbel, n.; bracket. 

cord, n.: twine, string, torsade, 

cordage, n. rope 
cordate, a heart-shaped, 
cordial, a sincere, hearty, affec- 
tiomte. strengthening, invigor- 
ating cJiecring 

cordiality, n sincerity, heatti- 
ness, ardor, crnprcssement 
cordon, n ribbon, badge, band; 
I nc, body (of troops) 

core, n heart 

correspondence, n letter writing, 
‘imifiriti, agricmcnt, congniity, 

cork, n stopper, stopple, shire, 
cormorant, n glutton 
com, ft maize, Indian corn; 

corner, n angle, canlle, bight, 
cu«p coin, quoin coigne, nook, 
niche, recess, direction, quar- 

comer, v perplex, confuse, non- 
plus, pose 
comet, n horn 
cornucopia, n horn 
corollary, n deduction, 
corona, n crown 
COfOnach, n dirge, 
coronation, n.’ crowning, 
coronet, n crown 
corporation, n • company, 
corporeal, a material, personal 
bodily, physical corporal 
corps, n : body (of troops or per- 

corpse, n • cadaser, remains, 
relics, carcass, mummy- 
Associated Woxm cadivcrous, 
cidaveric, nccrophilum, re- 
crophilous, carrion, necropho- 
bn, rrecrogenic, recrogenouc 
necrotomy, necropsv. cof'iri. 
bier, catafalque. ie»pi'K cre- 
nnfe. cremiton-, cremation, 
eremalorium, embalm, enbalm- 


corpulent, a bulky, stout, obese, corresponding, a similar, simi 
fat, large, fleshy farly placed, correspondent 

corpus, n body, collection (of corrie, n hallow 
writings), chief part corridor- ball 

corpuscle, n particle, cell, mole- corngible reformable. 

cule, mite corroborant, a strengthening 

corpuscular, a minute, small corroborate, v confirm, strength- 
cellular en support 

corral, n pen enclosure, stock- corroboration, n proof 

ade, paddock corrode, v canker, erode, con- 

correct, a accurate, exact, pre- sume wear awaj 
CISC, right, faultless, perfect, corrosion, n erosion 

true, proper, decorous 
Ant incorrect, erroneous, false, 
untrue, inaccurate, faulty, im- 

correct, v rectify, right, amend, 
emend, reprove, chasten, dis- 
cipline. modify, counteract 
correctible. a rectifiable 
correction, n amendment, emen- 
dation. rectification, discipline, 
punishment, counteraction, 

corrective, a correctory, reform- 
atory, disciplinary, emendatory, 
counteracting, antidotal, medic- 
inal, rectifying 
eerreeuve, n. medicine 
correctness, n accuracy, exact- 
ness, precssion, merranev 
He studied to acquire correctness 
in speech and manners 
Ant error, incorrectness, inac- 
curacy, inexactness 
correlate, v correspond 
correlated, a interrelated 
correlation, n mutuality 
correlative, a correlated, cor- 

correspond, v tally, correlate, ac- 
cord, agree, comport, harmon- 

correspondence, n agreement 
adaptation, congruiti. concur- 
rence, homology, letters 
There uis no correspondence of 
tastes between them 
corespondent, a conformable, 
congruous, suitable, fit adapted 
correspondent, n • writer. 

corrosive, a corroding, erosive, 
eroding, carkmg, fretting, vex- 

corrugate, v wrinkle 
corrugated, a wrinkled, ridged, 
corrugation: pucker 
corrupt, a addled, spoiled, 
tainted, rotten, decaying, de- 
praved, dissolute, vitiated, un- 
principled, unscrupulous, vi- 
cious, venal, purchasable, mer- 

corrupt, V spoil rot deprave, de- 
b-ise pervert, demoralise, de- 
fi'e infect, pollute, vitiate 
corniptible, a dishonest 
corruption, n putrefaction, de- 
cay pollution, vitiation, im- 
probity depravity, demoralisa- 
tion, dishonesty, bribery, su^ 
ornation venality 

Ant incorrupt on, honesty 
coraage, n watst 
corsair, n robber 
corselet, n breastplate, armor, 

cortege, n procession, strain, ret- 

He was accompanied by a brilliant 

The procession took two hours to 
pass the reviewing stand 

There w ere notable men in hi's 

The relt'tiies of princes no longer 
block the entrance 
cortex, n bark, covering, 
cortical, a external, outer, bark- 


cortilc, n • court>*ard. 
corcscant, a sparkJingr. 
corniscate, v sparkle 
coryphee, n ballet-dancer 
coryphxus, n leader, 
cosmetic, n. paint 
cosmic, a harmonious (as ap- 
plied to the universe); orderly 
(as applied to any system) 

This IS the basis of cosm\e casual- 

Ani : chaotic. 

cosmism. n.. theory, doctrine. 

Cosmtsm IS the doctrine of evolu- 

cosmogony, n. theory of gencra- 
. tion, account of origin of world 

"Cojmogntiy treats of the birth, 
cosmoRTophy, of the description 
of the world ” 

cosmography, n descriptive sa- 
ence of the universe (including 
geography, geology, biology, as- 
tronomy.) See cosmogony, 
cosmology, n cosmic science, 
cosmic philosophy. 

Comoloiy is the seienee of the 
universe: ontologj'. the science 
of the individual 
cesmoplastie. a creative, 
cosmopolitan, a * unlimited, free, 
unprejudiced, world-wide. 

Ills manner was eeumopoMan. 
cosmopolitan, cosmopolite, n.: 

lie IS stiialy a losmopohian (or 
eosmopoUte'), free from local 

cosmos, n • orderly conception of 
the sniverse; any harmcmious 

Cossack, n •. soldier, 
cosset, n • lamb, 
cosset, n pet. 

cost, a • charge, rcnuirc as a price, 
cost, n • price, outlay, charge, ex- 
per'»; lo^v, detriment, suffering 
costerr-onger, n : fruiterer, cos- 
tardTongcr, co'ter 
eos’iven'Js, n.* constipation, 
costlneif. n.. richness 

costly, a : expensive, high-priced, 
dear, rich, sumptuous 
costume, n. dress 
cot, n hut, cottage, pen, cote, 
coop, cradle, crib 

cotemporary, a contemporane- 

coterie, n set. clique, circle, 
coterminous, a adjacent, border- 
^ing on. coextensive 
cotillion, n dance 
cotta, n vestments, 
cottage, n cot, cabin, casino, 
lodge, chalet, bungalow, hacien- 
da, croft, bower, shanty, hovel, 

cottager, n colter, cottier 
couch, n lounge, sofa, bed- 
couch-grass, n quitch-grass 
cough, n. expulsion, paroxysm. 

As<tociATED WoEos bechic, tussi- 
cular, pectoral 
couloir, n.. gully, 
council, n.: aldermen, cabinet; as- 
sembly, synod, cabal, junta, 
junto, camarilla. 

council-chamber, n.; audience- 
room, divan. 

counsel, n : consultation; advice, 
admonition, suggestion, deliber- 
ation, forethought; exhortation, 
persuasion, warning 

They took cownref together. 

Associated Woans’ admonitory, 
mentorial, monitorial 
counsel, v.‘ advise, admonish. 

They eovntrled him to take ac- 

He aivisti them against their 
best interests 

He was cdtnontshcd to amend his 

counselor, r • adviser, monitor, 
admonitor, mentor; lawyer, at- 
torney, counsel 

count. V • enumerate, compute, 
call off, number; consider, 
reckon, c«teem, judge, think; 
add value, carry weight; rely 

coust, n.: numbering. 

countenance, n • face, features, 
visage, general appearance, 
good ft ill, approval, encourage- 

countenance, v encourage, farar, 
approve, abet 

I could not rotintenanre sneh ac- 

Ant obstruct, frustrate, impede, 

countenancing, n favor, 
counter, n opposite 
counter, a : antagonistic, contrary, 

counteract, v. defeat, contravene, 
frustrate, neutralize 
counteraction, n frustration, neu- 
tralization, contravention, 
counterbalance, v. countervail, 
counterpoise, equiponderate, bal- 

countercharm, n charm, 
counterclaim, n set-of! 
counterfeit, a false, fictitious, 
fraudulent, spurious, sham, 
mock, feigned, imitated 
counterfeiter, n . forger 
counterfeiting, n ‘ falsification 
counterfoil, n stub 
countermand, v revoke, cancel, 
annul, rescind, recall, contradict, 

countermand, n revocation, con- 
tradiction, annulment, rescis- 

counterpart, n. duplicate, double, 
counterpoint, n polyphony 
counterpoise, v counterbalance, 
balance, oppose, equal, equipon- 

countersign, n * password, watch- 
word, ronjignr 
counterterm, n antonym 
countervail, v. counterbalance 
counterview, n opposition 
countless, a • great, innumerable, 
inconceivable, infinite 
countrified, a • bucolic, rude, rus- 
tic, rural, uncourtly 
country, n territory, region; ru- 

ral parts, faming reg on, na- 

Associatep Words patriotism, 
patriot, patriotic, compatriot, 
expatriate, expatriation, mciv- 
istn, deport, deporiation, na- 
iiv 'il, repatriate repatriation, 
rusticate, rustication 
country, a agrestic, rural, rustic 

Country customs prevail here 
countryman, n compatriot, fel- 
low cituen farmer, husband- 
man granger rustic, peasant, 
(country bumpkin) carl, clod, 
clodhopper, yahoo, vokel. churl 
coupi. n carnage, half-compart- 

coup it thfatre, n claptrap 
couple, n brace, span, couplet, 
two, pair, team 

couple, 1 connect, ;oin, Jink, 

couplet, n distich 
coupon, n certificate, section, 
detachable portion, sample 
conpbng, n connection 
courage, n bravery, gallantry, 
intrepidity, heroism, hardihood, 
fortitude, fearlessness, pluck, 
prowess, valor 

courageous, a brave, bold, hero- 
ic, gallant, intrepid, hardy, fear- 
less, dauntless, chivalrous, dar- 
ing, lion-hearted, valiant, valor- 

couner, n emissary, messenger, 
runner, servant, estafet 
course. « passage, progress; 
bearing, direction, procedure 

In coarse of time, that matter 
nil! be attended to 
course, n routine, order, se- 
quence, rotation, succe'sion, 
regularity , career, behavior. 

He will take the regular gymnas- 
tic courte 

His course of action had not been 

coarse, n series, bout, round, 
beat, race 


cramp, n.: pain 
cramped, a narrow 
crane, n lifting machine, 
cranium, n sLull. 
craniologist, n phrenologist, 
cramology, n phrenology 
crank, n brace, support, winch, 
turning-handle , bend, crook, 
turn, twist, curve, conceit, quip, 
ouirk, whim 

cranky, a (Colloq) capricious, 
crotchety, unreasonable, cross, 
perverse, cantankerous, cross- 
grained, contumacious , unsteady, 
cranny, n chink, crevice, 
crape, n. curl 
crash, n toweling, 
crash, n collapse, ruin, smash, 

They were caught in the trath 
crass, a coarse, stupid, dull; 
gross, crude, unrefined, thick m 

That was a cratt error 
crassibngual, a. thick-tongoed. 
crassitude, n.- thickness 
crave, v. long for. hanker after, 
yearn for. entreat, implore, be- 

He trated her pardon, 
craven, a,: cowardly, 
craven, n.; coward, 
craving, n • passion, appetite, hun- 
ger, desire, longing, hankering, 
hungering, yearning; supplica- 
tion. entreaty. 

He was filled with a framing for 

His /•asfion for «ports was intense. 
Jfjs increased daily 

'preir hungrr was quickly relieved 
He had a strong dttxrt to meet 
her agaii. 

Her longing for her old home 
was intersc 

His entreaty for help met with in- 
rtant response, 
crawl. v.‘ grovel. 

crawling, a.: creeping, groveling, 
reptile, repUtorial. reptant, rep- 

craize, v • madden, distract, de- 
range, confuse, disarrange 
craze, n craziness, derangement, 
distraction . fanej", freak, crotch- 
et, infatuation, mania, passion, 
crazed, a frantic, distracted, de- 
mented, infatuated 
craziness, n dementia, delirium, 
insanit}'. lunacy, monomania; 
megalomania, paranoia, 
crazy, a demented, deranged, 
delirious, dementate, insane, 
mad, lunatic, distracted, frantic, 
crazed, crack-brained; decrepit, 
shaky, rickety, tottering, dilap- 
idated, eager, desirous, infatu- 

Ast rational, sane, reasonable- 
crazy person: lunatic, madman, 
maniac, bedlamite; monoma- 
niac; paranoaic; megalomaniac, 
creak, n squeak, 
cream, n • quintessence, best part; 

cremor; eesiretic. 
crease, n. wrinkle, ruck, fold, 
create, % make, produce, oc- 
casion, originate 

creation, n.* origination, invention, 
making; cosmos, world, uni- 

creative, a. inventive, cosmoplai- 
tic, demiurgic, omnific. 

The artist’s creaUie faculties are 
strengthened by use. 
creature, n: being, man, animal 
creche, n.* nursery, 
credence, n : faith, assurance, con- 
fidence, belief, credit, accept- 

Credence was immediately given 
the report. 

I have no faith in his pfomi«es 

He gave me full assurance that 1 
should have his consent- 

My eonfidence was misplaced. 

This lelief is shared by many. 

The report received some credit- 

The acceftance of this dogma i* 

credential, n.: testimonial. 

credentials, n , pi.: certificates, let- 
ters. testimonials 

He ivas given his credenltals 
credible, a probable, believable, 
trustworthy, accredited 

The story did not seem eredibU 
credit, n belief, confidence, faith, 
good name, repute, honor, es- 
teem; prestige, influence, trust, 

He received the entire credit for 
the success of the movement 

Ant . discredit, dishonor, unbe- 

creditor, n ■ person (indebted) 
credulity, n faith, fanaticism 

Her creduhty I's almost unbe- 

credulous, a gullible, unsuspect- 

She was extremely credulous. 

Ant : incredulous 
creed, n belief. 

There are as many creeds as there 
are souls 

Associated Words symbolism, 
symbolics, Athanasian, Apos- 
tles', Nicene 

creek, n brook, bourn, burn, 
rivulet, race, runlet, runnel, 
streamlet, cove, bight 
creel, n • basket, 
creese, n sword, 
creep, v,* crawl, move slowly, 
move secretly: fawn, cringe 
creephole, n retreat, expedient, 
makeshift, subterfuge 
creeping, a * crawling, replant, 
reptile; fawning, truckling, syco- 
phantic, obsequious. 

There are vast multitudes of 
creeping life 

creeping, n • reptation, formica- 
tion, Itching 

cremate, v • incremate, incinerate, 

cremation, n : incineration, incre- 

Cremation is rapidly gaining in 

Associated Words, crematory, 

crenate, a scalloped 
Creole, a Spanish - American, 

creosote, n wood-tar oil 
creptitant, a crackling 
crescent, a increasing, growing; 

crescent shaped 
crescent, n half moon, 
cresset, n torch 
crest, n tuft, top, crown, ridge, 
summit, helmet, armorial bear- 
ings, device cognizance 
They reached the crest of the 

The crest was a dragon 
crested, a cristate, tufted 
crestfallen, a dejected, discour- 
aged. disheartened, downcast 
He was quite crestfallen over his 

cretaceous; chalky 
crevice, n cleft, fissure, rent, 
cranny, crack, chink, 
crew, n assemblage, tbroDg, 
gang, mob, band, crowd, com- 
pany. cabal , . , , 

crib, n manger, rack, bin, busker, 

enb, V (Colloq ) steal, filch, pla- 
giarize, purloin, appropnate. 
cribbing, n stealing 
crick, n pain 
cricket, n stool, 
cner, n herald 

crime, n wickedness, iniquity, 
offense, abomination, felony, 
wrong, sin, atrocity, outrage, 
enormity, transgression, mis- 
demeanor, malefaction, derelic- 

Many crimes were attrib- 
uted to them 

Assooated Words criminology, 
cnininologist, criminality, re- 
a^vism. recidivist 
criminal, a felonious, flagitious, 
VKious. wrong, sinful, iniqui- 
tous nefarious, wicked, unlaw- 
ful, illegal, immoral, culpable, 
abominable, guilty. 


NoTt E\ery rnminal act is tt' cnncum, n (Collofi); twist, turn, 
Irgtil or u’llaitful, but ilUgal or trcak. caprice, fancy, wliim 
irn/d-i/ii/ acts m> not be fww- cnngc, v. cower, truckle, fawn, 
mi/ olTiii't-s 43^ IS! public law inxicb 

are criminal oiiin'es iKam't cringing, a truckling fawning 

pruaic rig It* arc tnerth tl.igji strvil'* obstii-imis, sla\i,'i 

or unij ./ 1/ \s a g-niral rule, • le iriiirjing suj plicants I arcd to 

all act- p’-m-i ible l.> *inc or wn- pLad tlicvr cue 

prisonmcnt or both, art friwi CfinLle n i nnkle ripple, twist, 

trial in \n.i rf iht htt It is sinuosiiv tend curl 

I'l < j/ Iff a mn to trespass on crinkly, a kmV> \ .isy 'irikly. 

ano'hi' land, 1 « rt is not cripple, s iK- ii 1 mas-t lame, 

rrie T ' t trespas ir is IwMe hoiuh tiams'ring 

to a > I 1 I lor dimagts but crippled, a di-abkd. maimed, 

rot t ii.mcrt (11 1 >r im- 1 ifttt, deio'mcd hilf 

P'l ' I \ 'rf m 4.1 a-t 15 crisis, n clmiattcnc, sirai*, emer* 

.1 erii 1 „ct of an ag raiattd l-cnc>, csigttic>, critical junc- 

Icirttl \ ' •! I- p-i si i' li bs m- Inn 

jri (rr m m tSc p'ntcntaf> The <rifir ^35 upon them 

or b> (kath \ ,ld7ii«mi crime crisp, a livel), crackling friable. 

w ore thii I mgs puMic odium brittle iliort, brisk 

yuiJiij reftrs to the irdul ertsp, a crimp 

Kcncc or tul appttrcs. habits. A'.r tenacious, touch, flexible. 

or pTsMjps, .irioNs acts .arc not tnttnon. n standard, law, rule. 

secessuril) rrimi of or oen I hat n no crMerion by which to 

illegal wc speak of a txnoiir judge 

horse That which 1$ inirjutiout, critic, n adept, censor, reviever, 
I e, conlfar> to enuitj. may judge, irspeclor. censurer; ca* 
somet m*j be done tnder the viler, carfcr, J'oilus. 
fomt of law Ingratitude is The cnfic should an impiftial 
Sinful. h>pocris> 11 tineked, but ju'lye, nj| a prejudiced eaitler. 
•cither IS punishable by Inintan ctiiical, a : fastidious, discnminal- 
law, hence, neither is erminat ng. cemorious, carping, cap- 
er i//rjo/. t OJS cavi’rg, roilem; tnwient* 

ous. decline, crucial, precarious, 
Akt innocent, lawful, legal, ^ust. climacteric. 

Tinumis, right, fnerito-ious, criticism, n : censure, cr’tlfiuc, 
moral an mdiersicn, strictu-c, re- 

crim-nal, n • felon, malefactor, cul- priKif, caul, 

prit. crininaloid Tlicy Inirlv mvile eriiicism. 

criminality, n : Ruillrre«s. ruilt, criticize, v : find faulL 
crime, wrong, sin, vic’cdness entique, n : crilicism 
CrimiraU'y is not c.'-td by pun- croak, v., utter rough sound, de- 
^ 5 hr-ent cry, complain, forebode, grum- 

ernainalcrd: criminal ^ ^ tie 

crunjtate, i . incrim nalc, impli- The frogs erojirif in the marshes 
^ rate, accuse ^ croaker, n : alarmist, decrier, pc$- 

cnminaiion, n : inciiminatioi sirmst, gnimWer, 

crimp, r: wrinkle, ripple, twist. He is an inveterate cruoirr 
Irmil. curl. cri«p frirz crock, n : jar, j^it, snut, soot 

crimpy, a : frizzy, c'lrrpcd. wavy. Crceius, n : rich nan 


eroft, n : farm, 
cromlech, n monument, 
crone, n woman 
crony, n (Colloq ) bosom friend, 
intimate associate, chum 
crook, n bend, turn, curvature, 
curve, deflection, crosier, pot- 
hook, artifice, ruse, tnck. sub- 

The rivulet took many a crooi 
and turn 

He will accornplish it hook or 

crook, n wron,j doer 
crook, V. bend mcurvati, curve 
crooked, a twisted, bent, tortu- 
ous, devious deformed, sinu- 
ous, flexuous curved, cunrl- 
Imear, spiral winding, laby- 
rinthial, distorted awry, wry. 
askew , fraudulent, dcoh'"*** 
unscrupulous, knavish 

Ant See 

crookedness, n curvature, de- 
formity tortuousness, tortuos- 
ity, sinuousity, incurvaiion. 
curvitv, wrvness, anfracuostly, 
disl.unesty. improbitv 

The crooktdnttt of the path de- 
layed Its 

His (rookcdnfss in business deal- 
ing tocn became knoiiTi. 
croon, V. hum, moan, 
crop, n,’ maw. 

crop, n harvest, ingathering, 
fruit, product, growth; craw, 
inghivies, dihtation 
crop, V clip, lop, cut off; gather, 
garner, reap, harvest; browse, 

cropping, a • cutting, 
crosier, n crook 
cross, n crucifix, rood, gibbet, 
rebntcil cro<s, gamtradion, sab 
lire, fylfot, swastika, cross hot- 

Asiociateo Words* crucify, cm 
cifier, cruciform, crucifixion, 
crucial, criicigerous. crucifer, 
cruciate, sexiltum, crantara. 

cross, n hybrid, liraraer, mon- 

cross, a adverse, opposed, thwart- 
ing, untoward, bafil ng contra- 
dictory perplexing, perverse, 
contrary peevish, cynical, surly, 
unaninhie maffable petulant, 
crabbed crusts c iptious, churl- 
ish M-ctm b iraeiiovs fretful, 
choleric touchi ill natured, 
ira«ribJe acrinionioiis irritable. 
He IS rust and churlish m his 

cross, a j'fiwart transverse, in- 
aerse liter.. hanged, intersect- 
ing coiKi-ing crosi-bred 
cross, a m'lr ect. traverse, pass 
over thwart, run counter to, 
obstruct h nder, counteract, 
clash with oppose, frustrate, 
baflle intercross, mterbreed, 
hybridire, cancel 
crossbarred, s csneellated 
crossbars n , pi lattice, grille, 
cancel !i 

crossbeam, n girder, stringer 
crossbow, fl arbalest, arcubaiisf. 
crossbreed, n hybrid mongrel 
crossbreeding, n hybridization 
crossbred, a hybrid mongrel 
crosscut, V intersect 
cross-examination, n cross-ques- 
tioning, inquisition 
He withstood a rigid rreM-erami- 


cross-eye. n strabismu*. strabism, 
squint-ey e 

cross-fertilization, n allogamy, 
cross-grained, a gnarled, resis- 
ant. contrary perverse, intract- 
able. refractory, stubborn, fro- 

This wood 1$ fwr-jcroinerf 
Do not allow vourself to become 


crossing, n hybridization 
crossing, n decussation, intersec- 
tion, cancellation, consigna- 
tion. traversing; crosswalk; 


crossing, n.: frustration, opposi- 
tion, thwarting, contradiction, 

He never thought of crosjing htt 

crossness, n peevishness, cyni- 
CMtu, pewUnce, uoamtahUily, 
moroseness, asperity, ill-natore, 
maffability, irascilnhly, imta- 

Her erossneis marred the pleasure 
of our visit 
crosspiece, n • yoke, 
cross-questioning, n • cross-exam- 

cross-shaped, a crucial, 
crosstie, n tie 
crosswalk, n crossing 
crosswise, adv across, traos- 
serseli, crosi, contrarily, at 

crotch, n angle, fork, crotchet, 
crotchet, n whim, fancy, caprice, 
freak, vagary. 

That IS more than a mere 

crotchety, a. fanciful, whimsical, 
vagarious, capricious 
crouch, V. cringe, truckle, (awo; 

couch, squat, stoop 
croup, n, onanebe. 
crow, n,: bird, rook, corvus. 

Assoctateo U'OBDS. caw, corvioe, 
corvoid, corvKorra 
crow, V.: cry (as a cock); brag, 
vaunt, tAulC, swagger, gascon- 
ade, vapor. 

crow's feet; wrinkle, 
crowd, V.; press, jostle, shove; 
cram, cramp, compress, impact, 
squeeze, sto?;. 

He CTouded bis way excitedly 
through the throng 

The child must not crowd the two 
> ear’s course info one, 
crowd, V.* swarm, troop, throng; 

Tbev rroudfd round him 

Jligh thinking crowds out all that 
is low Of worthless. 

crowd, n.: concourse, crush, posse, 
mass, multitude, bevy, number, 
throng, horde, host, troop, kno^ 
assembly, confluence; populace, 
rabble, mob, proletariat, riffraff, 
commonalty, the masses, rough- 
scuff, rabblcrout 

crowded, a crammed, com- 
pressed, cramped, squeezed, 
congested, compact, serried, 

Ant incompact, lorose. 
crowding, n compression, con- 

crown, n coronet, corona, dia* 
dent, tiara, wreath, garland, 
coronal, chaplet, laurel, t^yi; 
rojalty, sovereignty, capsbeaf, 
top, crest, summit, vertex, con- 
summation, vortex, krone. 

AssocfATro W'oxoa coronal, 

crown, V consummate, complete, 
crowning, z completing, con- 

crowning, n coronation; consum- 
mation, completion, 
croeter, n staff. 

crucial, a., cross-shaped, cruci- 
form; severe, trying, 
crucible, n ; melting-pot; test, 
trial, ordeal. 

The metal was placed in the 

She considered it a crucible, in 
which her soul must be tested. 
cniciTix, n.. cross, 
cnicifomi, a.: crucial, 
crude, a undeveloped, uncouth, 
inelaborate, irurtistic, unfin- 

It was only a crude attempt to 
develop the basic thought, 
cruel, a ’ pitiless, inhuman, un- 
merciful, merciless, fell, brutal, 
unfeeling, severe, relentless, 
ruthless, inexorable, Lneompas- 
sionate, implacable, tniailent. 

Do not be cruel to those under 
your controL 


cnielty, n.: severity, atrocity, In* cryini;, n • wailnif:, wail, weeping, 
humanity, implacability, pitl* clamation, biwling, puling, 
**, *''***■ squalling, soliljing 

Needless cruellict were imposed crying, a solilung, weeping, da* 
upon the prisoners mint flagrant, heinous, nefa* 

cruise, V sail about, sail over. — 

(Colloq ) wander about The <rvi«g fluid was soon corn- 

cruiser, n man-of-war. 

_ This IS a rrjiMj. need 

. } " *crap upon cinsure, denounce, 

crumble v decay, disintegrate. condemn 

/ ,• crypt. Cl rtcess, vault, catacomb, 

crumbly, a friable follulc 

crumple, V crush together, rum- c,ypt,c, a occult, enigmatical, 

P^, rude, wrinkle hidden, secret 

crusade, n. pilgrimage, enterprise, cryptogram, n secret writing, 
concerted movement, warfare cipher writing 

cresader, n pilgrim cryptograph, n system, art (of 

" bottle. secret writing) 

crush, V. vanouish, quell, over- cryptography, n cipher writing, 
power, subdue, conquer, sup- cryptology, n secret linguage; 
press, press, compress, iqueexe cipher writing 

Uo not attempt to crui/i your op- cryptonym, n secret nime, a 
ponent name known only to a brother- 

ine fruit was trvshtd hood 

crush, ri. compression, crowd, crystal, a cleir transparent, 
pressure crystalline, pellucid 

crushing, a overwhelming. crystal, n glass, flint glass, 

It was a cfioAing blow quarts dismnnd, object, form, 

ilie ovtrwlielming catastrophe cryaralline, a clear 

discouraged them cub. n bear 

crush-room, n foyer. cubic, a iix sided 

crust, n,- incrustation. cucumber, n vine, Cueumnls, 

crust, V. incrust, fruit, pepo gherkin 

CTusty, a . surly, cross, unamiable. cud. n rumen, nuid 
crux, n puzile, riddle AssociAtro Words ruminant, 

cry, V ; wail, weep, sob, squall, ruminate, rumination, ruminan- 
whimper. blubber, bawl, bcvrail. In. merycism 
pule, call, exclaim, yell, voafer- cuddle, v nestle, snuggle, 
ate, clamor, ejaculate, shout, cudgel, n club, bludgeon, 
scream cudgelling, n mauling, pounding, 

cry, n acclamation, outcry, ex- clubbing 

clamation, ejaculation, clamor. He took the rudgefmg with a 
scream, shriek, howl, yell, proc- good grace 
hmation, vociferation, yoiclcs cue, n catchword, suggestion 
slogan, shibboleth, halloo, hint. Intimation, queue, pigtail 
whoop, hoot, crying, lamenia- He was lo thoroughly acquainted 
twn, mewl, plaint, whimpering, with the lines that he give each 
weeping, wail in turn his rue 

cry down: decry, traduce, dispar- cuff, n box, buffet, slap, man- 
age, dispraise chette {vmamtntoJ cuff). 


caS, 1. box. buflet, slap, smite, 

caifass. n." breast-plate. bacL- 
pbte, armor 

cnisine. n. kitchen, cooking de- 

The ruifiuf of this hotel i> of the 

col-de-sac blind aJlej. trap 
ooll, ^ «eIeo! <ort out set apart, 
gather, pick. 

Thes tuilrd the most beautiful 
of the blos'oms 

cultiunatc, \ reach meridian . 
reach final eflecl, come to a 

"A grand nrocc‘sion of the dy- 
rasties oi life, beginning «ith 
the loner forms, and culmmjl- 
trg in man" 

culmination, n passage <o%ef 
meridian) , acme, «ummit high- 
est point 

The star’s eulnincticn mas 
watched niib interest 
culpable, a. guilty, blameworthy, 
blamible, censurable, 
culpatory, a censuring, blaming. 

The tvofd was used in a eu!patory 

culprit, n • malefactor, offender, 
cnminal. sinner, dehmiuent 
cult, n . belief, system, study; rit- 
ual; homage. 

culdvable, a, tillable, culfurablc, 

cultivate. \ • till, work, raise, im- 
prose; study, refine, cisilize; 
cherish, foster, 

cultivation, n tillage, improse- 
ment fos'ering. care; rcfi-c- 
ment. culture. See re^'nemc'i? 
culture, n : cuhnation, tillage, en- 
lighterment edaration, refine- 

Culiure M the strengthening and 
doelop ng of man s mental and 
no-alpcwcfs. See refinesaent. 

Kora: ^Yc say the nhtire. rulli- 
I’T* '1, or of the ground 

cr son. tie niturf or riJ/iro- 
tiOB of crops, of wheal: the 
cu’lure or cu'tr.a' cn of O)- 
sters trout, the fulture or mf- 
u*on'’n of the mind (see re- 

cultured, a educated, enlightened, 
ref ned 

cumbersome. a tiurden«one, 
trot-biesomr ltwicM), unman- 
ageab'e, c_ nbrous 
cumulate, \ heap 
cumulation, n l cap, pile, mass, 
accumulai on 

cumulative, a superadded. 

This medicine is cuinuUtive in its 

cuneiform, a cuneate. wedge- 

cunning, a artful arch, crafty, 
wih. desiening, (’eeeitfuL ia* 
triguing, $li . euriou«, rgen- 
lous; dexterous, <kiIlfuL 

The ra\cn is a ri/tio/ng bird. 

This tov is a fvn'img contrir* 

canning, n craft, craftiness, de- 
ee-h subtlets. trickery, wflmtss, 
dextent), ski’l, Ingeruity. 

His fwrining and trickery availed 
him little. 

He exhibited the mo*t worderfal 
runnmg in his behavior 
cup, n.: mug, beaker, bumper, 
noggin, ni.iperkin, tankard, jo- 
rum; caljx. 

caps, n , pi : carousal, wassail, in- 
toxication, orgies, 
cupboard, n : locker, buffet, am- 
bry, closeL 

Cuirid. n : god, Eros. lose. 

Cn/'irf too often shoo's his arrows 
at rando-n 

Jfny the cedi be kind to jn i 

“A bcv>- q( Ereifi, apple- 

cupidity, n a^3rice, greediness. 
co\c!ou«ness. Iu«t 

CwAirfity and cronce gase way tu 

cupola, n dome, lantern 
curable, a remediable, sanable. 

Ant incurable, irremediaWe 
curacy, n cure, spiritual char^ 
curate, n clergyman 
curative, a. remedial, sanatory. 

Fresh air has great eurattte qua!* 

curator n warden, custodian, 
keeper, trustee 

curb, V check, repress, bridle, re- 
strain, contol 

He curbed his impatience as best 
he could 

curb roof: gambrel roof, mansard 

curdle, \ coagulate, curd, clab- 
ber, thicken, lopper 
curdled, a.' coagulated, thickened, 

His blood curdled 
cure, n clergyman 
cure, n • spiritual charge, curacy, 
medical treatment, therapy, an- 
tidote, remedy, specific, hcalii^: 
cure, Y ■ heal, remedy, put right, 

cure-all, n ' panacea, catholicon. 

It seemed a veritable cure-all 
curfew, n bell 
cuno, n curiosity, 
cunority, n inquisitiveness, cu- 
rio, rarity, freak, rara avis, 

Her furwit/y was not aroused 

This relic is a real curiosity 

Ant : incuriosity, uninquisitive- 

curious, a : inquisitive; strange, 
unusual, rare 

He was quite curious to leant the 
cause of it all 

That IS a curious specimen 

Ant incurious, common, usual 
curl, n ringlet, toupet, kink, 
curl, V : crape, crisp, cnnip; 

writhe, twist, wind, wreathe 
curling, n • crispation. 
ctiriy, a.- curling, curled, wavy, 
crinkled, crinkly, kinky 

curlyene, n (Colloq ) flourish, 
paraph, caper 
currency, n money 
current, a instant, present, rife, 

This 1$ the current number of the 

These reports are current 
current, n stream 
current of air draft 
cutnculum, n race course 
cumculum, n study 
curry, n dress 
curry, v fawn 

curse, n anathema, malediction, 
denunciation, ban execration, 
malison, imprecation, futmma- 
tion maranatha torment, 
plague scourge affliction 

Tlie priest uttered a curse against 
the heretics 

curse, v anathematize, condemn, 
execate. fulminate, denounce 
cursed, a accursed, abominable, 
execrable, odious 
cursive, a running 
cursory a superficial, hasty. 

1 gave the volume only a cursory 

It^was'a superUciol examination, 
cursorily, adv slightly 
curt, a abrupt 

curtail V shorten, reduce, re- 
trench , . 

His allowance was curlatled 
curtailment, n retrenchment, re- 

A curtailment of expenses is nec- 
essary here 

There should be a general re- 
trenchment , 

curtain n hanging, drapery, val- 
ance, portiere, purdah 
enrtana, n sword of mercy, 
curtilage, n yard 
curtsy, n bow 
curvate, a bent, curved 
curvature, n curve, crookedness, 
flexure, sinuosity, . 

carve. V bend, crook, deflect, de- 
viate, turn, inflect, wind. 


curve. V.' gambol, 
curvilinear, a.: crooked, 
cushion, n pad, pillow, pillion, 
bolster , pouf, poufile 
cusp, n corner. 

custodian, n. curator, keeper, 

custody, n safe-keeping, care, 

Please keep this package in >our 
custody while we are away 

He was placed under the custody 
of the court 

custom, n usage, conventionality, 
practice, patronage, tribute, 
import, duty 

What IS the usual custom under 
such circumstances? 
customary, a habitual, usual, 
wonted, conventional, accus- 

The c««/omary formalities were 

customer, n patron, 
cut, V hew, gash, slash, crop, 
reap, mow, shear, whittle, dock, 
curtail, lop, prune, dip, dissect, 
shave, trim, detruncate, cham- 
fer, chase, chisel, lance, exscind, 
bisect, cleave, razee, slit, tnetse, 
unputate, carve, felt, score, nurl, 

cut, n * mcision, slit, wound, gash 
slash, notch, groove; slight, 
ignoration; taunt, sarcasm 

The evl soon healed. 

She felt the cut deeply, 
cut, n • defile, passage; kerf; 
piece, slice- 

There was a short cut through 
the neadow. 

It was Hs favorite cut of meat 
cut, n : mode, fashion, style; en- 
graving, etching 

The coat was of the latest cut. 

This cut is the original etching 
cut down: fell; retrench, curtail, 

cute, a. (Colloq>: clever, sharp, 
ingenious, cunning, shrewd, 
cuticle, n.; scarfsWm. 

cotis, n.: skin, 
cutlass, n sword, 
cut off amputate, sever; interrupt, 
stop, intercept 

cut out. remove, exsand, excise; 

supplant, debar, exclude, 
cutting, a secant, interseettng, di- 
viding, incisive, sharp, keen, 

cutting, a penetrating, biting, 
nipping, caustic, sarcastic, satir- 
icjI acrimonious, mordacious 
cutting, n amputation, incision, 
felling, cleavage, truncation, 
dissection, scanfication, slash- 
ing, curtailment, cdotomy, crop- 
ping, slip, scion, dipping, 
cutting out: cxsection, excision, 
cut to pieces; dismember, dissect, 

cut up: afflict, distress, harry, 
gneve, play pranks, play tricks, 
misbehave, cut capers 
cycle, n recurring period, vast 
period, eon, round 

Thought builds the man, the mo- 
ment. the fvf/e 
cycle, n. wheel. 

cyclone, n tornado, hurricane, 
t>phoon, baguios 

The oclone blowing spirally in- 
ward, develops a vacuum 
Cyclopean, a gigantic, massive, 
Cyclops, n : giant, 
cygnet, n swan, 
cyclorama. n, picture, panorama, 
cylinder, n.. roller, gun bore, 
cylindrical, a : round. 

Cymric, a : welsh, cymry. 
cyTiic, n • misanthrope, ineerer, 

He it a confirmed cynic. 

The OTwantftfope hales his fel- 

The f’cssimtst has lost all initia- 

cynical, a.: sneering, sarcastic, 
soured, misanthropic. 

III! cynical remarks annojTd her. 


cjulctsm, II . sarcasm, misatt* 

His fynifijBi made him an un- 
welcome guest 

cynosural, a attracting (atten- 

cynosure, n person, center, ob- 
ject (of attraction) 

She was the cynonre that attract- 
ed all eyes to her 
cynosure, n • polestar. Lesser 
Bear, Polans 
Cynthia, n moon 
cyst, n membranous sac, vessel, 
receptacle, cell, spore-case 
Csar, n Tsar, Tzar. 

Czarina, n . Tsarina, Tsantsa. 


dabble, v.: sprinkle, splash, med- 

The child dabbltd in the water 

Do not dabblt with such matters 
dabbler, n.: superficialist. sciolist, 
imatterer, dilettante 

He IS a mere dabbler 
daft, a : idiotic. 

He has gone quite daft 
dagger, n : bowie knife, dirk, obe- 

The dagger is sheathed 
daily, a diurnal, quotidian 

Accidents are of daily occurrence 

Note* Dotly is the Saxon and 
popular, diurnal the Latin and 
scientific term In strict usage, 
daily IS the antonym of mghtly, 
as oiurnof IS of nocturnal Daily 
is not, however, held strictly to 
this use, a physician makes 
daily visits if he calls at some 
time within each period of 
twenty-four hours Diurnal is 
more exact in ail its uses, a 
diurnal flower opens or blooms 
only in daylight, a diurno/ bird 
or animal flies or ranges only 
by day; in contradistinction to 
ttoeiumal flowers, birds, etc. A 

diurnal motion exactly fills an 
astronomical day or the lime of 
one rotation of a planet on its 
axis, while a daily motion oi 
any kind is much less definite 

damtiness, n delicacy exquisite- 

Therc was a pleasing daintiness 
of touch 

dainty, n delicacy, tidbit, treat, 
rarebit, bonne boueke 
It IS a rare damty 
dainty, a faslidious, squeamish, 
finical, delicate exquisite 
dais, n platform, settle 

The dais filled the end of the 

dale, n glen, dell, dingle vale, 

The dale was carpeted with green 
dalliance, n fondling, endear- 
ments, delay, procrastination, 

His days of dalhonee are over, 
dally. V dawdle, trifle, delay, 
{wstpone, procrastinate 
He dallied with the proposition 
He dandled his time away 
She delated the work 
dam, n barrier, weir, burrock. 

The dam held the waters 
dam, V restrain, obstruct 
It dammed his eloquence 
damage, v injure, hurt, harm, 
despoil, scathe, deface, impair, 
disfigure, damnify 

damage, n injury, detriment, im- 

K airment, defacement, harm, 
urt. mischief 

Such damage cannot be repaired, 
damages, n , pi indemnity, satis- 
faction reparation 
The plaintiff was awarded the 

There is no indemnity for such 

Th^Sute takes life as satisfae- 
tton for murder 
The loss IS beyond reparation 

darksome, a (poetic) obscure, date, n time, period of time, du- 
shadowy, gloomy ration 

The darksome vallev affrights That is the date mentioned 

darling, a dear, precious, be- 
dam, V repair 

dart, V spring dodge boh, shoot, 
shoot through 

Cupid darts his arrow at them 
Pains dart through his hmbs 
dash, n onset, rush, sally, 
energy, animation, vigor 
He made a dash at them 
That regiment is noted for its 

dash, n concussion, collision, al- 
lision, crash , abashment, frus- 

The dash of the waves deafened 

His plans met with a dash 
dash. V hurl, throw suddenly, 
sketch, write hastily 
He dashed it to the ground 
She dashed off a note to them 
dash, V sprinkle, bespatter, 
check, discourage 
They were dashed with mud 
His hopes were dashed aside 
dashing, a spirited, bold, bril- 
liant, ostentatious, gay, roar- 
ing, rushing headlong 
That IS a dashing steed 
The dashing waves broke high 
dastard, n coward, poltroon, 

dastardliness, n cowardice 
dastardly, a cowardly, poltroon- 

That was a dastardly deed. 

data, n , pi facts, premises, 
things conceded 

The data are accessible to all 
He laid the jaeis before him 
The premises are faulty 
The ihngs conceded do not exist 
in fact. 

daub, V smear bedaub, besmear, 
soil, sully 

daughter, n female ehifd, connec- 

daunt, V cow intimidate, 
frighten, alarm appall, dis- 
hearten scare 
It is enough to daunt one 
daunt, V reduce, crush, bring 

Adversity failed to daunt her 

daundess, a intrepid, valorous, 
daring fearless 
Her courage was dauntless 
dawn, n daybreak, dayspring, 

He leaves at down 
day, n time, age, generation, 
epoch era 

That could not occur in our day. 
day, n daytime 

day-dream, n revery, idle fancy. 

You are indulging in day-dreams 
day-scholar, n extern 
dazzle, v daze, blind, bewilder, 
astonish oserpewer 
dazzling, a brilliant, intense, 

It was a dasshng display 
it was a bnlliant sunset 
How uxenre and glaring the 

dead, a lifeless deceased, inani- 
mate. defunct, extinct. d*part- 
ed, inorganic 

dead, a inert obtuse, callous, 
torpid, unfeeling, unvaried, 
The engine is dead 
It was a dead season, 
deaden, v blunt benumb, hebe- 
tate moderate, subdue, make 

His sensibilities are deadened 


His plans met with a dazlt, 
dash, V.: hurl, throw suddenly; 
sketch, write hastily. 

He dashed it to the ground 
She dashed off a note to them 
dash, V . sprinkle, bespatter, 
dieck, discouraRe 
They were dashed with mud 
His hopes were dashed aside 
dashing, a • spirited, bold, bril- 
liant, ostentatious, ga> , roar- 
ing, rushing, headlong 
That is a dashno steed 
The dashing waves broke high 
dastard, n coward, poltroon, 

dastardlmess, n cowardice 
dastardly, a cowardl), poltroon- 

That was a dastardly deed 
data, n , pi facts, premises, 
things conceded 
The data arc accessible to all 
He laid the facts before him 
The premises arc faulty 
The things eoneedid do not 
exist m fact 

date, n time, period of tune, du- 

That H the date mentioned, 
daub, s. smear, bedaub, besmear, 
soil, su1l> 

I7o not daub the walls 
daughter, n.: female child, connec- 

daunt, v.j cow, mtimidate, 
frighten, alarm, appall, dis- 
hearten, scare. 

It IS enough to daunt one 
daunt, V.; reduce, crush, bring 

Adversity failed to daunt her 

dauntless, a.: intrepid, valorous, 
daring, fearless 
Her courage was dauntless. 
dawn, n : daybreak, dayspring, 

He leaves at dau-n 

day, n • time, age, generation, 
epoch, era 

That could not occur in our day 
day, n . daytime. 

There are still llircc hours of day 
day-dream, n revery, idle fancy. 

You are indulging in day-dreams. 
day-scholar, n extern 
hhe IS only a day scholar 
dazzle, v daze, blind bewilder, 
astonish, overpower 
Tlic light dazstes one 
dazzling, a brilliant, intense, 

It was a dazzling display. 

It was a hrilhani sunset 
How intense and glaring the 

dead, a lifeless, deceased, inani- 
mate, defunct, extinct, depart- 
ed. inorganic 

dead, a inert, obtuse, callous, 
torpid, unfeeling, unvaried, 
The engine is dead 
It was a dead season 
deaden, v blunt, benumb, hebe- 
tate, moderate, subdue, make 

His sensibilities are deadened. 
That vivid coloring may be dead- 

deaden, v.t retard; render non- 

deadly, a : fatal, mortal, noxious; 
implacable, unrelenting 
Deadly effluvium escape from the 

The illness proved fatal 
The wound was mortal. 

Noxious weeds filled the garden 
The enemy was implacable. 

His parent was unrelenting in his 

deafening, a : loud, stentorian, 
clarton, resonant. 

There was a deafening report, 
deal, V : distribute, apportion, dis- 
pense, allot, trade, traffic, ne- 

Tortunc deals strange hands 
He will not deal wi'li him. 


dealer, n : trader, dispenser, re- 
tailer, merchant, tradesman, 
broker, jobber 

He IS a dealer m antiques 
dealing, n traffic, intercourse 
business, transaction, negotia- 
tion, commerce, trade, appor- 
tionment, distribution 

We have had deahngt with them 
dean, n chief official; minister, 

He is the dean of the department 
dear, a cherished, beloved, dar- 
ling, precious 

Ant hated, despised, unloved 
dear, a ■ costly, expensive, high- 

Ant cheap, inexpensive 
dearly, adv fondly, tenderly, 
dearly, adv at a high price 
dearth, n scarcity lack, defi- 
ciency, want, famine 

There was a dearth of food 

Ant plenty, alfiuencc, abundance, 

death, n decease, dissolution, dy- 
ing mortality expiratioa 
death, n final extinction, destruc- 

Tins IS the death of our friend- 

Ant birth, life, immortality 
deathless, a immortal, imperish- 
able, undying 
death notice obituary, 
debar, v preclude, exclude, shut 
out, interdict 

They arc debarred from it alL 
debark: v land, disembark. 

The troops debarked. 

Ant sail 

debarment, ii ■ exclusion, obstruc- 

Ifc sufTered debarment. 
debase, v ikgradc, deteriorate, 
aliase vitiate, corrupt, alloy, 

debasement, n * degradation, 
abasement, deterioration, dep- 

debatable, a • contestable, moot, 
disputable, mooted, controvert- 

You arc on debatable ground 
Ant incontestable, indisputable, 

debate, v argue discuss, moot, 
contend controvert 
You can debate at length on the 

debate, n discussion, argument, 
dispute controversy, disputa- 
tion forensic 
That IS open to debate 
debater, n rtasoncr, debater, con- 
He IS an able dt baler. 
debauch, v vitiitc deprave, cor- 
rupt, demoralize, ravish, rape, 
debauch, n dcbaiiehery, dissipa- 
tion, ab melon drunkenness 
Tlic weeks dcbotieh killed him. 
Ant umpcrancc, continence, 

debauchee, n Iibrrtmc, drunkard 
He IS a confirmed debauchee 
debauchery, n sensuality, licen- 

debilitate, v enfeeble, unman, 
weaken, unnerve, incapacitate, 

He IS completely debilitated 
ife 1$ enfeeblid through illness 
The news unmamied him 
His testimony ueakened his case 
The shock mucrved liim 
Ills hek of experience incakae- 
tialed l«m for the posilvon 
Grief imdennmcd her healthy con- 

debility, n feebleness weakness, 
enervation dehabihtation, frail- 
ness, invalidism 

debit, n debt, obligation, liabil- 

Ills debit constantly augments 
debonair, a suave courteous, ur- 
bane, comphisant, gracious, 
debt, n • liability, due, obligation, 

Ant . asset, resource 


deceive, v. delude, beg’uile, mis- 
lead imriose upon, ci'ciiment 
You deceive j-oursclf in the mat- 

Ant undeceive, diiillasiomee, 

deceiver, n imposter snirdler 

decency, n propriety, scemhness, 
decorum modistj 
A^T indecency 

decennary, n period of ten years, 
deccnnuim diradc 
\\Tiat n ill the next drernnar^ 

decent, a suitable modest de- 
corous stitiJj rtspertabJe. 

Ant iiidiccni immodest un- 


deception, n imposition, dn- 

plicits deceit, hoax fallacy 
ruse craSt imposture, artihct 
illusion prevarication. King 
tricUtrv 1 abncation 

Notr fifcrit is the h«bit, dr- 

ff/'tiwi the act rwle app'ica 
to the di position out of ulnch 
deceit and dccetiirm trrow and 
also to tbeir actual practice 
raUehood and /jm? arc the ut- 
teram*e of what the spcaler 
knows to be urtruc, decetl and 
decethen ma> be merely m act 
or inflication Dccef’Uon nay 
!«: innottr* and even tinmiui- 
tional as in the case of an op- 
tical il'ii'icfi, deceit aUva>s in- 
vohes injurious intent Craft 
and cuyivino have not necessar- 
ily an> nio',.1 cjual •> , tbcj are 
common iraus of an mals, but 
slnnl ra'ber low m ’be human 
scale Dii'^hcity is the habitual 
spealnp or acting with in'cnt 
to appear to mean what me 
docs not DifTimKla/icn is rath- 
er a concealin? of what is than 
a pretense of what is not 
/'merer 15 simplj an adroit and 
delicate nanagemert of a mat- 

ter lor one's own side, not nec- 
essarily involving drccif 
Akt fair dealing, frankness, 
honesty, openness, simplicity, 
sinccnt' truth wracity 
Ant eltssncss candor, dis- 

iJltj^ionmcri fair dealing sin 

deceptBve, a delusive fallacious, 
decctful msidic'us. sophistical 
His rumntr was dccet'‘nc 
Ant guittless candid inrcnu- 
01 s siiitert open 
decharm v di^ibusior re, d’‘scn- 
<h T* disab i«e 

decide, v deiirrmnc ■•rttle con- 
clude. resolve 
Please decide nuicklj 
decided, a urequnocal di’cr- 
mined pronounetd unvucr- 
ing, positive 

She sliowtd a decided prudilic- 
tion for il 

decision, n dctcrmnation settle- 
Trent conclusion, verdict m- 
fertnee, deduction, frirntss, 
resolution, consttney, stcadiast- 

Her dectstOH was a fair one 
Am indecision irresolution 
decisive, a conclusive, final per- 
tmptorj, summary' 

You have a deantc way of (’'"i-g 
til ngs 

deeJa n platform 
deck, V bedeck, array 
It was dec! cd with flowers 
declam, v’ speak, harangue 
He declaimed against it 
declamation, n set speech, recited 

That was a brilliant iedamoueri 
declamatory, a formal (some- 
times noisy, stilted) 

His stvlc was loo declama'or^ 
declaration, declarement, n • av* 
scrtion, aFlrrvation, avowal, 

Do you sta'e that as a declaration 
of your position* 

to the disposition out of which resolution, constancy, steadfast- 
deceit and deceplioft grow, and ness 

also to their actual practice Her decision was a fair one 

Falsehood and lying are the nt- Am indecision, irresolution 

tcrance of what the speaker decisive, a conclusive, final, per- 

knows to be untrue, deceit and emptory summary 

deception may be merely in act You liive a decisive way of doing 

or implication Deception may things 

be innocent and even unmten deck, n platform 

tional, as in the case oi an op deck, v bedeck, array 

tical illusion deceit always m It was daked with fiowers 

volves injurious intent Craft declaim \ speak, harangue 

and cuniiiKf have not necessar- He declaimed against it 

ily any moral quality, they arc declamation, n set speech, recited 

common traits of animals but extract 

stand rather low in the human That was a brilliant declamation 

scale Duplicity is the habitual declamatory, a formal (some- 

speaking or acting with intent times noisy, stilted) 

to appear to mean what one His style was too declamatory 

does not Dissimulation is rath- declaration, declarement, n as 

er a concealing of what is than sertion aTirmaticn, avowal. 

a pretense of what i$ not predication 

Finesse is simply an adroit and Do you »tiie that as a declaration 

delicate management of a mat- of ) lur pj ition’ 

ter (or one s own side, not nee- declaratory, a assertory, asser- 

essanly involving deceit live, maimainmg, affirming 

declare, v afnrm assert, aver. 
Ant fair dealing, frankness stare predicate 

honesty, openness, simplicity. He declared that it was possible 
sincerity, truth, veracity decline v languish, sink, wane. 

Ant guilelessness, candor, dis- lean incline, bend, deviate, 

iHusionment, fair dealing, sin- stray 

eerity decline v deteriorate, decrease, 

deceptive, a delusive, fallacious, dimmish m value 

deceitful insidious, sophistical The market value declined 
His manner was dectptne decline, v refuse, reject 
Ant gaiileleis, candid, mgeno- you must decline the invitation 
ous, sincere, open decline, n deterioration, degen- 

iecharm, v disillusioniie, disen- eracy. decay 

chant, disabuse The dictine of the nation wa* 

decide, v determine, settle, con- rapid 

elude, resolve Ant progress, advancement, 

PIea«e decide quickly improvement 

decided, a unequivocal, deter- declivity, n downward slope, dec- 
mmed, pronounced, unwaver- linatton 

ing, positive They slid down the dech,.ily 

She showed a decided predifec- Ast acclivity, ascent 
tion for It decollated, a beheaded, decapi- 

decision, n determination, settle* tated 

ment, conchi'ion. verdict, in- A decollated figure confronted 
fereace, deduction, firmness them 


dicoUetage, tu- oatlme of bodice, Akt : indecorum, impoliteness, 
low in neck, part of neck cx- indecency, 
poled decoy, v. entice, lure, allure, en* 

The dfcollctage was very be- snare, entrap 

coming The hunters dtco^ed the game. 

dfcoUete, n.. low-necked decoy, n lure, enticement, mag- 

Thc gowns were net. allurement 

decolor, \ decolorize, ivhiteiL The dtcoy was hidden in the 
The marenal must first b* de* rushes 

colored decrease, n diminution, rcduc- 

decompose, v analyze, separate tion, decline, abatement 

into elements decrease, % dimmish, reduce, 

TVie compound may be Awtntfit. subside, iepiecime, 

posed abate, wane 

decompose, \ rot, deca> .putrefy. Decrease the expenditures if you 
Animal natter decomposes can_ 

decorrpose, i withdraw power dtcreasinc, a diminishing, wan* 
from * «ng. decrescent 

decomposition, n separation of The decreastng; speed heralds our 
con'iitucnt elements, potrcfac- approach to the town 
tion, disintegration, combina* decree, n law, edict, fiat, man* 
tion of compounds. 

Decomposition is a grafloai The derrer was published 
process decree, \ enact, ordam, enjoin, 

deconeentrate, % scatter, dis- The king has drrreed it 

tribute, di'perse decrepit, a old. aged, superannu* 

The troops were deconcentraud ated. «enile. 
decorate, \ embellish, adorn. He his become quite detretit 

beautify, ornament, garnish, decrepitude, n eld age, senility, 
enrich, trim, bedeck. Deeretitude is creeping upon him 

The city was decoroicd ifl his decrescent, a decreasing, dimin* 
honor islnng. waning 

Ant naf, disfigure, dclace. The deertsernt moon shows pale 

spoil . again«t the dawn 

decoration, n insignia, regalia, decretal, n. mandate, edict. 

embelbsliment, adorning, para- decretal, a of the nature of a 
phernaha decree 

The decoration was conferred These are the decretal letters of 

upon him the Pope 

decorative, a * ornamental, em- decrial, n. condemnation, dis* 

belhshirg, adorning 

The s‘>le IS decorahve. 
decorous, a becoming, correct, 

lief Whaiior is deeoroos. 
decorticate. bark, peek skin. 

The tree was decorticoied 
decorum, n politenc's, decency, 
seem' '’e*s 

Her dccrum in siicech, manners, 
and d'css is faui.lcss 

praise, detraction, belittling 

There was a gerreral dccnal 
dccner, n • pessimist, croaker, 

Jle IS a confirmed decrier, 
decry. disparage, belittle; slan- 
der. Sllllf) 

He decried the whole movement 
dedicate, v.- consecrate, devote, 
give up; preface, inscribe. 

He dedicated his life to the work. 


Tlic volitiiic w.ij itedteated to her 
tltdicaiion. ii consecration, act* 
ling ajiirl, rclin>|ms!imcn( 

Itic ileduolian Ityjk ^bcc last 

deduct, V siiliiraci, rcKate 
You miy <Ictiu<i your commit 

deduction, » demonilr-iiion, 
proof, infcreiuc, coiicliition 
Tint It n sciiiilile drduilioH 
deduction, n iiililraciion ahatc- 
He nia<fe a dfjuclion for ihtl 
deed, ii exploit, net. frai, perpe- 
Irition, performnnee, iiunt 
Tint wit a noialdc drril 
deed, v convey, trnntfcr 
It was iletiteit to tliem 
deem, V ealeem, coittider, regard, 

Do you dftm tint nccettify? 
deep, a profound, nitnintr. in* 
explicatile, uiif ithom iMe. in* 
comprclten'iUe, Tecomliie, ah 
atrutc, Sts: leioiit, irtful, cun* 
nlng, .ttime. ihrrwd 
deep, n extending fir. dark, low, 
lonoTtmt, full iiinctJ. 
deep, n jiiiitierard, ai'xorlied, dif* 
(icult of putigc deep excava* 
lion III tlic fo-Kl 
Ant lupecficiTl, iluHow 
deep, II occin, nliyat 
deepen, v iiticiixify 
The tragedy 

deepnett, ii profuiidily, crtfil* 

deface, v nnr, rlitripurc, mutilate 
Do not tieftiee tlie ceiling 
defacement, ii ditrigurcmeiit. mu- 
tilillon. mirriiip' 

Conn iiiffer Jefuetment 
defalcation, n ciiritilnimt, abate* 
iiicnt, fnilierrlriueitl 
Tlicrc waa a defaUatinn of the 

dcfamition, n caliiiitiiy, lilicl. Ira* 

He allowed tlie Atfitmaitm to 
pats imclnllenccd 

defamatory, a Bhuilrrm laliim* 
iiioiu, liI.rlli'iM 

Hut )> cxirciiicly dt/amaiory 
defame, v c ilumnute. inallKu, 
vilify, xlaiider 

I>i> nut dflomt lilt chiracicr. 
default. II iirglcrt, oiiiiisioit, 

f iiitifp 

lliat giir* tiy default 
defaulter, n delinipieut. ember* 

Hr M t difiiuUrr 

defeaiance, n annulment, abro* 

Mill 11 dffcasame of llie hw 
defeat, ii rrpulir, nvertlirow, 
V iiw(tintiiiifiit diiipp'iintmcnt 

llir army xiiJTerriJ defeat. 
defeat, * frintratr, overnntcli, 
rcpiilie, diiroiiifii. rout, clieck* 
intlr, outwit, luiW, foil, frut* 

Hut diftais i)ic whole project 
defeat, v whip, wont, tlirath, 
xmiir ill iMur. bvllrT 

Iliry were defeated on tliclr own 

defect » I leimtli, fltw, Imper* 
(niion (mbie (tltinsf, sUoil* 
ioiiiiiig mririiiily 

Tliti II 8 •erloiit defect 
defection, n aluiidoiiment, deter* 

Hit deftilion iinptrilontlile 
defective, n lacking abnormally 

Hill iliiM It not d/fteliie 
defend, v gnant iirnlect, fortify, 
Cirnum. pretervr, Inrbor, 
cmintcnincp iiplioM. e<p<>tiie, 
viiidu lie mlvocatr, plead, Justi- 
fy mtmlam 

They defended the town 

He defend} the cmirie tliey Ittvc 

Ant betray, ca‘t out. expel, ex* 

defendant, n defender, one sum* 

They ate tlve dtfendanft in tlic 



defender, n • assertcr, defendant, 
Mndicator, advocate, champion, 
pleader, guardian 
He IS an able defender of the 

defense, n protection, defending, 
maintenance , guard, protec- 
tion, bulwark, fortress, breast- 
work, shield, \indication, ad- 
vocacy, plea, excuse 

Note- The weak ma> speak or 
act in defense of the strong, 
none but the powerful can as- 
sure others of protection A 
defense is ordinarily against 
actual attack, protection is 
against pos ible as well as ac* 
tual dangers \\c 'peak of de- 
fense against an assault, protec- 
tion from the cold, k'lnrficonon 
is a triumphant defense of char- 
acter and conduct against 
charges of error or wrong 

A^T abandonment, betrayal, de- 
sertion surrender 
A^^ betrayal, exposure, surren- 
der, abandonment, capitulation. 

defenseless, a unarmed, unpro- 
tected, unguarded 
He li entirely defenseless. 

defensible, a maintainable, lusU- 

This «eems to be a defensible 

defensive, n. safeguard, readiness 
for defense 

De on your defensiie in the mat- 

defer, v . adjourn, procrastinate, 
protract, suspend, delay 
You may defer the payment of 
i^'c bill a I itle longer 
^^T • assemble, conclude, con- 
• ummatc, finish 

defer, v.* respect, reiere, submit, 
\enerate, yield. 

Kote' We defer to rectwniied 
superiors in po'iMon. ability, ot 

attainments, \vt respect power 
and worth wherever found 
The military officer must defer 
to the views of authority of a 
commander whom he may not 
respect, a discoverer sure of 
his facts may not defer to the 
incredulity of those whom oa 
other grounds he respects most 

Avt defy, despise, disregard, 
scorn, slight 

deference, n respect, regard. 

She shows the proper deference 
deferential, a dutiful, obsequious. 

ffe was almost too deferential 
defiance, n challenge, provoca- 
tion, opposition, insubmission, 
contempt, insubordination, in- 
surgency, mutiny, rebellion. 
The animal trumpeted his defi- 

defiant, a disobedient, insubmis- 
siie. rcl>elIious. mutinous 
Ant obedient, tractable, submis- 

deficiency, n inadequacy, InsufTi- 
eicney, shortage 
There is a iefiextney here 
de6cient. a lacking, inadequate, 
insufficient; defective 
The tegimtnt was drficinit in 

Awt sufficient, adequate, per- 

deficit, n shortage (financial). 

The books proved the cfc^rit. 
defile, V corrupt, befoul, soil, 
spoil, sully, vitiate, taint 

Note* The hand may be defied 
by a touch of pitch, swine that 
have been wallowing in the 
mud arc befouled Contaminate 
and xnfeet refer to something 
evil that deeply pervades and 
rermtatet as the human body 
or mind. Pollute is used chiefly 
of liquids; as, water polluted 
with sewage. Tainted meal is 


T^ulsive, vifcclid meat con He iml.LiUO no time 

tains germs of disease A toiled for the interview 

garment may be cleansed by I do not krow ibc tjad amount 

wasliitig, a spoiled carment ts of the bill 

beyond cleansing or tepatr He made a /'y.asr statement of 

Bright metal is (atmuAfd by ilic situation 

exposure, a fair sheet is f«f Ant indefinite inexact maccu' 

hed by a dirty hand In 6g rate 

uratiye use dc/iU may be osed definition, n explanation descrip- 
... « comment commentary 

merely m the ceremonial sense, 
eonianiiiiale refers to deep 
spiritual injury PoUhU has 
also a reference to sacrilege, 
as, to pollute a sanctuary, an 
altar, or an ordinance The 
innocent are often contaminated 
W as'ociation with the wicked, 
the vicious are more and more 
corrupted by their own ex- 
cesses We speak of a vitiated 
taste or style, fraud vtiiaies 
a title or a contract 

Ant • efcanse, duinfect hallow, 
purify, sanctify, wash 
Ant cleanse disinfect, purify, 
wash, sanctify 
defile, n narrow pass 
They approached the deHle 
defilement, n uncleanness, foul- 
ness, corruption, pollution 
defiliatlon, n abduction, kidnap- 


ffc was convicted cl deflmUo” 
definable, a exactly ascertained 
or determined 

Your stand is easily deHnahte 
define, v circumscribe, interpret; 

That boundary definee my pat- 

definite, a positive, specific, ex- 
press, explicit, specified, exact 

He has no dejlnile plans 
Ills commands were poniwe on 
this point 

The instructions are iPecific. definitive, a 
He callod for the exfrttt pur- explicit 
pose of seeing me That adjecti 

interpretation, trans- 

Nott a dehnxUon is exact, an 
e 1/ Imialwn general, a deftnt- 
tiaii IS formal a drffri/>fiOH 
pictorial A definiUon must in- 
clude all tint belongs to the 
object defined and exclude that 
which does not a description 
may include only some general 
fe tures an e'lpti’ialion may 
simply throw light upon some 
point of spceis) diflicvtty An 
exposition umiertakes to state 
more full) what is compactly 
given or only implied in the 
text as on ei position at Senp- 
ture Interpretation is ordinar- 
ilv from one language into an- 
other, or from the language of 
one period into that of another , 
« may also be a stitement giv- 
ing the doubtful or hidden 
meaning of that which t$ rec- 
ondite or perplexing, as, the 
interpretation of a dream, a 
riddle or of some difficult pas- 
sage DeUmtion, explanation, 
exposition, and iiifcr/>rrtufi(Jn 
are ordinariJy blended in a 
conimentary which mav also 
includ'* desriiplicv A fOWi- 
mciif IS up in 1 single passage; 

1 ramment >ry miv be the same 
but «s U'liallv understood to be 
a Toliimc of comments 

determinate exact, 


deflect. V.. bend, turn aside, 

You cannot defied him from his 

defiecdon, n. deviation, turamg 

Such a defection must be expect- 

deform, V, mar, distort, disfigure, 
deformation, n change of form, 

That IS an unfortunate deforma- 

deformed, a . misshapen, dtsfig* 
ured, crippled. 

deformity, n disfigurement, tin- 
shapeliness, distortion, blem- 
ish. abnormalitj, monstrosity 
defraud, v cheat, suindle, Vktlh- 
hold by fraud. 

He was defrauded by them 
defray, v bear expense, make 

His expenses must be defroyd. 
deft, a ‘ dextrous, adroit, expert, 
skillful, apt, clever, ingenious, 
proficient, trained. 

She IS extremely deft. 

Ant. • awkward, clumsy, on- 
skilled, bungling, maladroit 
deftness, tt' skill, actroitness, pro- 
ficiency, training, ingeniousoess, 
aptness, cleverness. 

Such deftness is remarkable, 
defunct, a.: dead, extinct, de- 

The title IS defunct. 
defunct, n.: the dead; a dead per- 

I say this with due respect to the 

defy, V.: challenge, dare; spurn, 
flout, scorn. 

He dffifd them. 

degeneracy, degeneration, n.: de- 
clne, retrogression, detenota- 
tion, degeneration, 
degenerate, v.; deteriorate, de- 
cline, retrograde. 

The species need not desenerate. 

degradation, n.* abasement, dis- 
grace, humiliation 

His degradation was complete, 
degrade, v. abase, debase, dis- 
grace, pervert, humiliate, dis- 

He has degraded himself by such 

degraded, a. debased, low, shame- 

A degraded creature is to be 

degree, n rclatiie amount, ex- 
tent. or intensity 

It IS seieral degrees colder, 
degree, n grades, stages, steps 
(one of a succc««ion) 
degression, n descent, decrease 
by steps. 

deific. a det/ymg, making divine, 

deification, n. apotheosi<. 

It IS a deihcotion of the affections 
of man. 

deif^v. apotheosiie, worship (as 

The people deified hifiv 
deign, V. condescend, vouchsafe, 
stoop to grant 

Deign to grant the request. 

Ant • spurn, scorn, disdain, 
deism, n.. belief in God (with de- 
nial of the supernatural or 

Deism is belief in a Diiine 
power or in God with denial of 
the supernatural or miraculous, 
and usually of a future state. 

Ant : atheism, materialism, ag- 

deist, n* belieicr in deism. 

A deist denies supernatural reve- 

deistic. a . pertaining to deism or 

Deity, n • God. Jehoiah, The Al- 

deity, n god. idol, divinity, 
deject. I dishearten, discourage, 
ca't down (tn «psr!t). 

He was very much dejected 


dejected, a.: disheartened, discoar« delete, s blot out, erase, cancel, 
aged The paragraph may be dtlettd 

The dejtcUd suitor withdrew deleterious, a hurtful, noeiom, 

Ant ■ animated, inspired, stnnn* pernicious 
lated, urged on The {no>eincnt was dttelmotts to 

delay, n. deferring, deferment, the cause 

procrastination, postponement, deletion n striking out, erasing, 
respite, reprieve, retention, ob- _obliterating 
struction, lingering 
delay,! postpone, put off, retard, 
hinder < 

Ant. dispatch, hasten, expedite, 

delectable, a. delightful, enjoy- 
able, charming 

The guests as well as the \iands deliberate, 
were dtUciabU. 

Ant unpalatable, nauseous, dis- 
tasteful, fulsome 

delegate, v. depute, commission. 

We will delegate him to attend 
delegate, n. deputy, proxy, com- 
missioner, envoy, appointee, 

They were the accredited dWe- 

Note These words agree in des- 
tgnatuig one who acts in the 
place of some other or others 
The legate is an ecclesiamcal 
officer repreyenting the Pope 
In strict usage the deputy or 
delegate is more limited in 
functions and more closely 
bound by instructions than a 
rtfresentatr.e A single officer 
may ha« a deputy, many per- 
sons combine to clioose a dele- 
gate or refresentattze In the 
United States informal a<seiii- 
blies send delegates to nominat- 
ing conventions witli no legis- 
lative authority , refrese^ta- 
laes are legally elected to Cim- 
gress and the various legisla- 
ture', with lawmaking power 

delegation, n.* people delegated 
or deputized 

The delegation convened at once 

This dtUlion improves the arti- 

deliberate, a intentional preraed- 
it ite I do e on purpose 
It was a diliterate insult 
\Nr it-iidental unconsciots 
unprcnieditaicd unintentional 
liberate, v consider, debate, 
ponder, meditate, reflect, 
weigh, confer 

Note An individual considers, 
meditates, fonders, rejects, bv 
him«elf. he neighs a nutter in 
his own mind, and is some- 
times «aid even to debate with 
Inmself Consvll and confer 
always implv two or more per- 
sons. as does debate, unless ex- 
nre'sly limited as above De- 
liberate, which can be applied 
to a single individual is also 
ihe word for a great number, 
while fOiuMh i> ordinarily lim- 
ited to a few , a committee cen- 
sults an assembly deliberates. 
Deliberating always carries 
the idea of slown«». f0"iu/{- 
w- IS compitible with haste, 
we can speak of a hasty coi^ 
suIUtion. not of a hastv delib- 
eration Debate implies oppos- 
ing views, dehberoee. simply a 
gvthenng and balancing of a^l 

tr or deliberate with a view to 
action while meditation may 
be guite purposeless 

deliberation, deliberateness, n 
wn'ideration. di'cussion. con- 
sultation ^ 

Give the matter due drfiJrro.un 

delicacy, n. daintiness, fineness, delicious, a.' cS'iuisifCr pleasur- 
dclightfulness able 

There is a delicacy of outline The cadence was delu^oMt to the 
there '■Jr , , , 

Ant indelicacy, coarseness Vnt repJ«nc, loatiisomc 

delicacy, n luxury, dainty delight. alrsiirc, charm, ravish, 

They detnand all the delicacies of rij i«.x 

the season 7h<. j>u d lights us 

deLcacy, n extreme accuracy or delight n lij(>,'incss. amusenent, 
scnsitivene's rapt ir 

She shows a certain delicacy of Hir dcli,U< ass u .bounded 
touch deltehted. i charmed, oicr/oyed, 

deLcacy, n appreciation, fastidi* enraj re! 

ousness, resene She ti-.Atl to the delighted audi- 

That question nu^t be touched tn-r 
upon with dfh ti.j delightful, a. clwsnmnf:. enchant* 

delicate, a gracciul fine, exquis- mg. r-pturous. beatific, ravish- 

itc. mnjte skndcr. refneJ ing ddcxtab'e. phrasuraWc, con* 

sensiuie. ta^ll'llous. dainty . 
cfiucal, tickli'h 
It was a dihcate retn*ncler 
A.nt indelicate, coarse, harsh, 
nide, unrefined 

delidoos, a lusetoji, palatable, 
savory, dainty 

Note That is deltctaus which 
sfTordj graiifiut on at once 
vjvid anrl dehcarc to tie semes, 
especially to those of taste and 
smell, as, delicious frui:. .a de- 
licious odor, luscious ha. a kin- 
dred bit mo'c fulsome mean- 
ing, inclining toward a cloying 
excess of sweetness or richness 
5'aiory is applied chiefly to 
cooked food ma Ic pabiab’e by 
spices aid conJiTent* Df~ 
[ightful may Lc applied to the 
higher watificatwn of sense, as 
deltgl tful rrusic, but is chiefly 
used for that which is mental 
and spiritual. has a 

1 n'led use in this way; as, a 
delicious bit of poetry; the word 
•s soTOctmes used iroiKally for 
■if~e pleasing absurd ty, as. 

IS deliciousl 

end. bi'ier, u-sirorj, na- 
The . 

gcniai enjojab'e 

Note agreeable refers to what- 
ever ,.i»cs a mikl degree of 
ptciN-'e , a«, an agreeable per- 
fume Iccef'iabte indicates a 
thirg 1 - be worthy of accept- 
ance, j. an offering 

Grateful I, stronger than agree- 
olle Of grflfi/yi;ig, indicating 
whatever awakens a feeling 
alti.i to gratiiude A fleosanl 
face and fileasing manners 
arouse flcaturable tensations, 
and trike the pos«essor an 
agreeallt companion, if pos- 
sessed of intelligence, vivacity, 
and Roodress, such a person’s 
society will be deUghlfuf. Crim- 
inals may find each other’s com- 
pany ffincfrnial, bat scarcely de- 
lightful iotvj/yin^ denotes any- 
thing that 15 received with calm 
aoju evcencc. as substantia! 
fo^, or cvablished truth That 
IS «r/re'if which is received 
with joyful 1 eartiness; as, wel- 
come tilings 

Ant . ohrpresiing. disappointing, 
distressing, ha'cfvl, horrible, 
SDcIancIoly, miserable, mourn- 
ful. p' nful, saddening, woeful, 
wrcfi ed 


delineate, v depict describe, 
draw, figure, paint, picture, 
portray, represent, sketch 
delineation, n.. figure, picture. 

She gave a perfect dtltnealton of 

delinquency, n fault, ofTensc, <:in 
Such delinquency can not be par- 

delinquent, a neglectful, sinful 
He was delinquent in the matter 
delinous, a. irrational, wandering, 

Am- rational, lucid, sane 
delinum, n insanity, hallucina- 

deliver, v discharge, emancipate, 
free, liberate, ransom, redeem, 
Te«ci e, save, sa free 
He deincrcd them irom bondage 
Ant betray, capture, confine, en- 
slave, imprison, incarcerate, op- 

deliver, v • transfer, give, com- 

Please deliver this promptly 
deliver, v, utter, speak (fotm- 

He delivered a fine address 
deliverance, n * rescue, salvation 
redemption; extrication, acquit- 

She asked for deliverance from 
her duties 

delivery, n rescue, release liber- 
ation , surrender, conveyance 
transfer, transmission 
His delivery was pleasing 
delusion, n illusion, deception, 
phantasm, hallucination, mock- 

Nott: An illusion may be whol 
ly of the sense; a delusion al- 
ways involves some mental er- 
ror In an optical tlhisian the 
observer sees either whit does 
no* exist, or what exists other- 
wise than as he sees it as whw 
in 3 mirage distant springs and 

trees appear close at hand We 
speak of the illusions of fancy 
o" of hope but of the delusions 
of the insane A hallucinolion 
IS a false image or belief which 
has nothing, outside of the dis- 
ordered mind, to suggest it, as, 
the luiUucinations of delirium 

Ant certainty, fact reality, 
truth verity, disillusionment, 

ddusive, a misleading, decep- 

Thc argument is delusive 
demand, n exaction, requisition, 
requirement, order, request 
The demand exceeded the supply 
demean, v conduct, bear (used 
reflexively) .. . 

He demeaned himself as a gentle- 

demeanor, n deportment, car- 
nage, behavior, bearing mien 
Her demeanor was dignified 
dement, n mark fault, wrong- 
doing misconduct 
lie deserved the deineril 
demi monde. n women (of equi- 
vocal reputation) 

The demt-mondt were attracted 

deml*tnondaine, n a member of 
the demi monde 

IS a demi-mondaine 
dem«e. v leave bestow (by will). 

He demised the property to the^ 
derTKC. n death transfer at 

His*immediate demise was feared 
demit. V 8"= “P- relinquish, re- 

Thfappointment was demitted 


democracy, n.: eovcrnment (by 

Akt. autocrac}’ 

democratic, a. pertaining to de- 

He IS extremely demoeraite 
demoiselle, n truss, unmarried 

demolish, v destroy, raze, dis- 
mantle, annihilate. 

Note’ A building, monument, or 
other structure is detnoitthed 
when reduced to a shapeless 
mass. It IS rased when leveled 
with the ground, it is destroyed 
when Its structural unity is 
gone, whether or not its com- 
ponent parts remain An edi- 
fice IS destroyed by fire or 
earthquake, it is dewoUtUed by 
bombardment, it is minca 
when, by violence or neglect, it 
has become unfit (or human 

Akt.’ construct, create, make, re- 
pair, restore 

demolition, n destruction, dis- 

The detnoUtion was complete, 
demon, n. devil, fiend, 
demonstrable, a real, actual 

The proposition is drwofijfrojrr. 
demonstrate, show, point out, 
make clear, indicate; argue 
demonstration, n. certainty^ evi- 
dence, proof, conclusion, infer- 
ence, consequence, induction 

Note’ Demonsiratton, in the 
strict and proper sense, is the 
highest form of froof, and 
gives the most absolute rrr- 
but can rot be applied 
outside of pure maihematicj or 
ether strictly deductise reason- 
ing; there can be froof and 
rertaiHly, however, in matters 
that do not admit of demen- 
rfrafion Litdeare is that which 

tends to 'how a thing to be 
true; in the widest sense, as 
including se\i-eztdence or con- 
sciousness, It IS the basis of all 
knowledge Proof in the strict 
sense IS complete, irresistible 
estdenre, as, there was much 
ettdenre against the accused, 
but not amounting to full proof 
of guilt hforal fcrljini^ is a 
conviction resting on such evi- 
dente as puts a matter bejond 
rcsonablc doubt, while not so 
irresistible as demonstralion 

demonstrative, a conclusive, con- 

demonstrative, a impetuous, ex- 

She IS too dei'totisirsh, e 
demonstrator. n exhibitor, 

She IS an able demonstrator. 
demotilitauon. n subversion, cor- 

The demorehsalion was complete, 
demoralise, v deprave, corrupt 

They were not demoratised by it 
demur, v. offer exceptions, take 

He can not rfcinur. 
demur, n hesitation, suspension 
of action. 

The note was taken without 

They accepted with demur. 
demure, a sedate, sober, staid, 

den, n * cavern cave, retreat, 
haunt; squalid resort 
denatured, a adulterated, 

The liquid is denatured 
denial, n.: rejection, disavowal, 
divacknowledgmcnt, refusal, re- 

Ant ; afTirmation, acceptance, 
avowal, confession 
denizen, n . inhabitant, native, 
dweller, citizen 

He was a denisen of the citji. 


denonunate, v.: call, name. 

It ^vas so 

denomination, n.: name, epithet, 

denomination, n.: sect, school 
Thej belong to no particnlar df 

denominative, a. denominabte, ap- 

denote, signify, imply, indi- 
cate, betoUn 
WTiat does that denotf* 
denouement, n winding up no- 
ravelnient (of plot), catastro- 

It was a striking di'nouemint 
denounce. \ arraign, stigmatize, 
accuse publuly 
He dengyfiifj them 
Avt . applaud, approve, exoner- 
ate, justifv 

dense, a compact, hard, impene- 
trable, obscure 
That n a dfnte undergrowth 
density, n denseneo. compact- 

^\■hal IS its i/enfifi * 
dent, n . indentation 
The deni di-hgures it. 
dent, \ • indent 
Do not deni the wood 
denudate, a naked stripped, de- 

The dktiuJite branches bent to 
the «torm 

denunciable, a censurable. Warn- 

Such rcneis are dfniinnjVr 
denunciation, denouncing, n con- 
demnation, arraignment, accu- 

denunciatory, a ; condemnatory 
deny, v • gain«ay. contradivt, dis- 
avow, di<own, abjure, renounce 

Xort: .k nvin a'-jures his religirti. 
his opinions, or liis allegiance 
One re, unis his belief renifunces 
hi< allegiance. refaJules * 
eUim. refrueira fjl-c statement 
eg, ot van order, Hema» J,"y. 

rfui.ot dis.Uim diso-tn what 
has been irul' or fal5el> im- 
piud to him or supposed to be 
his He mav his signature, 
dir ., ilie aa oi lu> agent. 
Jis i>i hi' child I'ltcr denied 
)ii> I rd / jii' rniplio <ome 
prill U' illcviiiue or connec- 
thvi \ ninic of tiu United 
biiU' irnoi .l^ lire allegiance 
to th. King ot hjigbnd b U will 
promptli o.’ii It 

Ant a» w ow i. acknowledge, 

deny, i rciu-e acecS' 

Do not d. flv him entrance 
depart, i Uaie <iiut, go away, 

\nt abide remain, sojourn, 
tarn coniiiiue 

depart. I c'enate difTer, go aside, 
Ihei d.rjr/eJ from the arerptei 

depart. i die exjnre decease 
fie de/J’VJ thi' liie 
department, n dni'ion, section, 
pan district preniKt, branch, 
proiiicc .tatioi, 'phere. capac- 
u» . 

depanure. n reiirement, with- 
drawal deiiitioi 
His J.r<rf«n « '* hiifneJ 
depend. ' lean, reply iru«t 
dependable. a trintworthy, 
ttu' » reliable 

She i> d. '.-(•S’. ^ 

\\r ui tru twc'rthv. unreliable 
dependant « rriamer ias<al. 
subject cvolhf' c-cneeijnenc'e 

They are nJa’ifJ on his boan- 

dependence. dependency, n re- 

^ 1.. .i.T'enLieiiri . mam- 

I place derenJenie on vor wi 
dependent, a C'lidiliored c 


He IS Jefendenl upon men 
\\T independent, ii'KOi 
tio led 

C -15 

depict. V poriral, delineate, de- depcrsitory, n • storehouse, maffa* 
scribe, picture »ne. depot, ■warehouse, proinp- 

He dcttctcd the grandeur of the tuary 
scene. Place this in a suitable defont''ry. 

depiction, n portrajal, desenp- depot, n station 

tion. picture depot, n warehouse, depository, 

deplete, \ empty (partially), les- lhat is a depot for all kinds of 
sen. exhaust goods 

The larder is depleted deprave. \ corrupt, polljie 

depletion, n lessening, exhaus- E\il associations had cep-azed 
tion (whole or partial) him 

The de/’/efKiii hampered the work depraved, a corrupted, debased: 

depioiahle, a lamentaMt. piUa- vitiated 

blc, wretched depravity, n degeneraej. wicked- 

Conditions were deplorable oess. sinfulness 

deplore, s lament deprecate, be- deprecate, v disapprove, deplore, 
wa’l, regret bemoan bewaiL 

He deplored the action taVm deprecation, n disapproval, plcad- 
He lameitrd the rupture of their mg against pra\er. entreatj 
fritndship depreciate, v lower Ic'sen. be- 
lle deprecated the nccessilj of little, deerj, underrate. 

foreclosing the rrorigigc The value has depreiviled 

He hru-atled the death of his depreciation, n lessening, lower* 
friend mg (of values) 

He reoretted his failure to be A certain depreciation wai ex* 
present. pected 

He bemoaned his fate. depredation, n pillage, sacking, 

depolarue, v deprived of mag- spoliation, plunder 

netic polarit>, (hence) non* The i/c/^redatipn was complete 
ambiguous depredator, n.* plunderer, despoil* 

depopulate, v unpeople, remove er, p’lbger, robber 

inhabitants depress, lower, let down, push 

The region was depopulated. down; dispirit, sadden, 

deport, V carry oil, transport. She was very much de/rwcif. 
banish. depressed, a • lowered, dejected. 

The inhabitants were deported di'piritcd. 

deportation, n iraosporiation, depressing, a • sorry, sad, dismal, 
banishment dispiriting 

Deportation was the order of It wav a depresiin'] srene- 
the hoar depression, n. dejection discour- 

deportment, ti. behavior, conduct, agetPeni, despn-idcwcv. gloom, 
demeanor. vapors; inaclivitv, dullness 

Her deportment was dignified The depression could not be over- 
deposit, V.* lay down, place jn- come 

deposit, n : sediment, precipitate, depression, n.' cavity, hollow, in- 
The deposit was earned away- dentation 

ceposvtary, n trustee, fmardian. That is only a slight dr>rejn»n 
The depositary is a safe maa there 

deposition, n • deposit. depnvation, n bereavement, tak- 

The deposition of dew was no- ing aw3>, depriving 
ticeable They suTcred great depriz'altons 


as now distant, but at some 
time attainable ; as, the captive s 
longing for release. Coiettng 
ordinarily denotes wrong desiu 
for that which is another s 

Ami • apathy, 

intipathy, aversion, 

design, V.- draw, delineate, slcctch. 

He designed the pattern 
design, V . purpose, intend, nave 
in mind 

He early designed to become a 

deagnable (accent on (amej), 
a. capable of being designed 

V : e,us« to t, ,„porl«n,tt. 

Pl!Sn;,;pp.t, >k' f “'A hITSS; of 

designation, n appellation, title, H a ^^54 

disunguishing mark "IJy' ^ the dcSflate dreary, waste, devas- 

designmg, a artful, wily, crafty. broken hearted, inconsol* 

subtle, politic, disingenuous 

She IS a d«ig«i'ig individual desolate country 

Ant • artless, candid, frank, in- ji desolate 

aeeuf, ingenious ,t»Iolate v devastate, depredate, 

desre, n request, petition, en- « .-vj-j despoil, sack, lay waste 
treaty, expression of Th<y%soloted the land 

longing, craving, wish, aspira- . ^ devastation, de- 

tion, hankering. jpoilslion . v .« >,• 

.t tltt n„M«< SSS 

of these terms; it 1$ a quiet, or ^ loneliness, forlorn- 

even a vape or uneenscjous. ‘»«®;^®Veariness. affliction 
tendency Even when we speak was complete 

of a strong or decided . p*/ y become hopeless 

tion we ^o not express the m „ hopelessness, despera- 

tensity of desire Desire » r T,w.n»«. de«Don 

wide range, from the highest 

objects to the lowest, desire is 
for an object near at hanil or 
near m thought, and viewed as 
attainable, a ttish may be tor 
what IS remote or uncertain, or 
even for what is recognized as 
impossible Croting is stronger 
than hankering, hankering may 
be the result of a fitful and 
capricious appetite, craving may 
be the imperious and rea'on- 
able demand of the whole na- 
ture Longing is a reaching ont 
with deep and persistent oe* 
mand for that which is viewed 

n hopelessness, 
inconsolableness, de*pon- 


Note Discouragrmriit is 
wit of so much repulse or fail- 
le as wears out courage I?ix- 

»» I'M”'”* 

foZ contmo'd may P'"*” ' “ 

settl'd .a.fleamM' Hoptlest- 
Su “s nesan*'. a»d may resnlt 
ffom fSS 

Sh«i“ ”'1 ® 

of Lope Desl>onde»cy rcbxcs 
energy and efTort, and is always 
attended with sadness or dis- 
tress, despatr tray produce a 
stony calmness, or it may lead 
to desperation Desperation is 
energized despair, visoroos u> 
action, reckless of consequences 

Ant.: cheer, confidence, elation, 
hope, trust 

despamng, a hopeless, desperate, 

desperate, a irretrievable, hope- 
less, incurable, remedileu, out- 
rageous. atrocious, ctonstrons, 

desperation, n : despair, reckless- 
ness, hopelessness 

Desperation urged thest on. 
despicable, a., contemptible, ab- 
iect, mean, sile. 

Sueh actions are despieaiU. 
dnpue. V.: coatemii, disdato. 

She despited hypocrisy 

She eontemnei petty gossip. 

She scorned his advances. 

She loathed his presence, 
despiteful, a.: malicious, spiteful, 

despoil, v.i decastate, lay waste, 

Tire country was despoiled of its 

uvspondency, n ; depression, de- 

Despondency paralyses actioti, 
despondent, a.: disheartened, dis- 
couraged, dejected. 

He was too despondent to note it 
despot, n.; tyrant, autocrat 
despotic, a.; autocratic, tyrannical, 
absolute, despotical 

His despotic rule angered them, 
despotism, n.; absolutism, autoc- 
racy, tyranny. 

Such despotism is inexcusable, 
destination, n • bourne, end, goal, 

He hastened on to his d<st{r,atian 

destine v doom, preordain, ap- 
point, foredoom 

You are destined to succeed, 
destiny, n fate, doom, lot, for- 

It was her destiny to suffer, 
destitute, a. devoid, entirely lack- 

We found the family destitute. 
destitution, n.: privation, need, 
want, poverty, deficiency, indi- 

Heal destitution faced them, 
destroy i annihilate, undo, de- 
molish, raze, devour, dismantle, 
exttminaic, ruin 

Do not destroy those valuable pa- 

Akt • conserve, preserve, perpet- 
uate. spare. 

deafcroyer, tv.; iconoclast. anniW- 

Death is a destroyer of happiness. 

The article was destructible. 

Ant : permanent, indestructible, 

deetrvetien, n.: annihilation, ruin, 
perdition, havoc, devastation. 

Such destruction is appalling 

Awr.t conservation, preservation, 

destructive, a ; ruinous, iconoclas- 
tic, deleterious, pernicioni. 
desuetude, n.: disuse, discontinu- 
ance of use or power. 

Those customs have fallea into 

desultory, a : filiul, irregular, cur- 
sory, unsystematic. 

The chatter was desultory 
detach, v.: disconnect, disjoin, 
rever, disunite, isolate, segre- 

The chain can be detached. 
detachable, a.; separable, partible, 

That part Is detachable. 

Akt.: insenarab’e, indivisible, un- 

detaehaent, n : duconnection, sep- 

aration, disunion, isolation, scg- 

I!c felt a sense of detachment 
from the rest of the party 
detail, V • select (for special duty). 

Ten men were detailed to go 
detail, V. particularize, enumer- 
ate, narrate minutely 
He detailed the information he 
had received. 

details, n., pi.: particulars, tnmn- 

Cue u$ all the delatU 
detain, v.- keep, arrest, restrain 
He was detained for a moment 
Do not let us keep you from it 
The thought arrested him 
Nothing restrained them 
Ant aid, impel, incite, release 
detect. V.: discover, uncover, ex- 
pose, ferret out, discern 
The fraud can be delected 
Ant hide, cover, secrete, cloak, 
mask, veil 

detection, n.* discovery, hndmg 


They did not expect deteefion 
The discovery pleated them 
detention, n restraint, custody, 
confinement, arrest 
The detention was only momen- 

deter, v • hinder, prevenl, dissuade, 

Ant prompt, stimulate, urge on, 
abet, aid, countenance, instigate, 

deteriorate, v.* impair, lessen in 
value, degenerate. 

The morale of the army did not 

deteriorated, a • Impaired, degen- 
erated, corrupted. 

deterioration, n : degeneration, 

Delenoraluyn must be avoided 
deterromable, a ■ decided, settled 

The amount is easily determine 

determinate, a specific, distinct, 
limited, definitely 

There was no determinate inter- 

determination, n firm resolve, 
fixed purpose 

determine s purpose, set, settle. 

He was determined to go 
deterrent, a hindering, able to 

There was a deterrent influence 

detest, < loathe despise, abom- 
inate ablior, hate, exercrate. 

He detests subterfuge 
detestable, a abominable, loath- 
some, abhorrent execrable 

It was a detestable scheme 
detestation, n abomination, loath- 
ing antipJthy 

His detestation of it was evident 
detract, v withdraw, take away. 

Nothing detracted from their sue- 

cess . , 

detraction, n slatidar, deUrat- 
tion, depreciation 

It was net meant as a dtiraefien 
detriment, n injury, loss, depre- 

It proved to be quite a detriment 
deUimental. a injurious, hurtful, 

The drought was detrimental to 
theif growth 

de trop (F) too much, not 

He was not de trap- 
deuced, a or adv devilish, ex- 
cessive, extreme 

devastate, v. desolate, sack, de- 
spoil. ravage, plunder 

The village was deiastated 
devastation, n desolation, sack- 
ing, despoliation, havoc. 

The dnnstatien was complete, 
develop. V complete, unfold, ma- 
tarel evolve 

Hii plans developed successfully. 

Plants develop if cared for 

An" ' ropbj, b'ast, b’lght. 

d<Telepment, n.- progression, ero- 
luiion, expansion, growth, en- 

The devtlopmtnl was rapid 
Ant atrophy, undevelopment 
demte, v. swerve, deflect, di- 
gress, stray, wander, diverge 
The vessel dniaied from its 

Ant. : stay, follow beaten track, 
deviation, n swerving, defieclion, 
digression, divergence 
They noticed his dev\otton from 
^established customs 
device, n contrivance, invention, 
expedient, maneuver, artifice, 
trickery, symbol, motto, legend 
The dmee was ingenious 
Note the deiice on the shield 
devilish, a demoniac, fiendish, 
infernal; atrocious, reprobate. 
The dniluh mob seized him 
devil-may-care, a.: reckless, de- 

He had a dntUmay-eare manner, 
deviltry, devilment, n.: fiendish- 
ness, diablerie. 

devious, a,: wandering, circuitous, 
rn^asy, winding, tortuous, round- 
about: erriog; sinful 
The paths were many and dri'T 

devise, v.: contrive, invent, 
scheme, concoct; bequeath 
The plan was carefully devised. 
The money was legally devised to 

devoid, a : destitute, not possess- 

He was not deioid of honor. 
They were in destitute circum- 

Kot possessing the knowledge re- 
quired, he was helpless, 
devoir, n : duty, service, respect- 
ful regard. 

devolve, v.: transfer, transmit, 
cause to pass on. 

It all dtvohes upon na. 
devote, V.: consecrate, dedicate, 
apply wholly. 

He was dnvted to them. 

She consecrated her life to the 

The church was dedicated. 

He applied himrelf wholly to it. 
devoted, a - strongly attached; 
consecrated, dedicated, applied. 

They lived as devoted lovers 

It was a consecrated hour, 
devoted person: devotee, zealot, 
devotion, n • consecration, dedica- 
tion, zeal, allegiance, attach- 
ment; love; worship, adora- 
tion; religion, holiness, devout- 
ness; fetishism, infatuation. 

Such deiotion « commendable, 
devotional, a.’ reverential, devout. 

She assumed a devotional air. 

His mien was reverential. 

A detout prayer was offered 
devour, v.- eat greedily; consume, 
waste, destroy. 

The beast detoured his prey. 

Fire consumed the entire square, 
devour, v.' gaze avidly, look eag- 
erly; absorb. 

She devoured the scene, 
devout, a.: pious, reverent, devo- 
tional, godly, holy, religious 

He is a devout man. 

Ant.: irreverent, irreligious, im- 
pious, unholy. 

dewy, a.; refreshing (Lke dew, 
falling gently). 

dexterity, n ; expertness, skill, 
adroitness, aptitude, readiness 

Kore: Adroitness, from the 
French, and dexterity, from the 
Latin, might each be rendered 
“right-handedness,” but adroit- 
ness carries more of the idea 
of eluding, parrying, or check- 
ing some hostile movement, or 
taking advantage of another in 
controversy; dexterity conveys 
the idea of doing, accomplish- 
ing sonreihing readily and well 
Without reference to any action 
of others. VVe speak of adroif 

ness in fencing, boxing, or de- 
bate, of dexterity in horsemaa* 
ship, m the use of tools, weap- 
ons, etc Aptitude is a natural 
readiness, which by practice 
may be developed into dexter- 
ity Skill IS more exact to line, 
rule, and method than dexter- 
ity Dexterity can not be com- 
ffiuncated, and oftentimes can 
not even be explained by its 
possessor; skill to a very great 
extent can be imparted, "skilled 
workmen" in various trades are 
cumbered by thousands 

dexterous, a. expert, adroit, skill- 

diabolic, diabolical, a fiendish; 

infernal, demoniac, sataoic. 
diabolism, n. deviltry, fiendish- 

Dtaiehsnt characterized thdr ac- 

diicntieal, a.: diitlnguiihtng. dlt* 
tinetire, <lisgno«ie. 

Diacntieal marks indicate the 

The style is dislmetie 

The article was dusgnostte, dis- 
closing the nature of the social 

diadem, a circlet, fillet, crown. 

The diadem was bejeweled. 
diagrammatic, a schematic, 

That IS a dtagrammatie drairing 
dialect, n phraseology, language 

dulogue, n colloquy, inlerloco- 

diametncal, a exactly opposite. 

extremely opposed 
diametrically, adv. in a diametri- 
cal manner. 

The two are diomrlnVaf/y op- 

diaphanous, a.: transparent, trans- 

The material is dwpfiofioM 
diatnbe, n.: invective, tirade. 

He delivered a dtatribe. 
dice, R die, cube 
They threw the dice 
dicker, v trade, barter, negotiate, 

They dickered oser it. 
dicker, n (US) barter, trade, 
exchange, chaffering 
The dicker was soon eompleted. 
dictate, v command, presenbe, 
impose, present forcibly, com- 

The generals dictated the terms, 
dictate, n command, admonition, 
imperative direction, impulse. 
Listen to the dictates of your con- 

dictation n arbitrary direction. 

The reformer defies dictation. 
dictator, n despot, autocrat. 

He was made dictator 
dietatonal. a- imperious, dogmat- 
ical, ovtrbeanng 
Do not be too dietotoevsl 
diction, n language phraseology, 
expression, style, wording, vo- 
cabulary. verbiage 
Note that her dietion ts correct 

Note An author's dirtton is 
strictly bis choice and use of 
words, with no special refer- 
ence to thought, expression re- 
gards the words simply as the 
vehicle of the thought Phrase 
and phraseology apply to words 
or combinations of words which 
are somewhat technical; as, in 
legal phraseology, in military 
phrase Diction is general; 
jtording is limited; we speak of 
the diction of an author or of 
a work, the tivrding of a prop- 
osition, of a resolution, etc. 
(verbiage never bears this 
sense) The language of a 
writer or speaker may be the 
national speech he employs; as, 
the English or French lan- 
guage, or the word may denote 
his use of that language; as. 


tht a'Jlhor’s bnsMoze h TjtU 
(or ill) chosen. Style inclodes 
diclion, expression, rhetorical 
figures such as tneuphor and 
simile, tbs effect of an author's 
prevailing tone of thought, of 
bis personal traits — In short, nl) 
that raaUes up the clothing of 
thought in t-ords; thus, wa 
speak of a figurative tiyle, a 
frigid or an argumenutive 
style, etc., or of the style of 
Macaulay, Prescott, or others 
An author's vocabulary as the 
range of words which he brings 
into his use. 

dictionary, n lexicon, vocabulary, 
wordbook, glossary. 

dictum, n adage, oracular utter« 
ance. proverb 

Such IS the dictum of polite to* 

dido, n. (Coltoq.): trick, antic, 
caper, prank. 

die, V,: expire, perish, decease: 
Wither, fade, depart 

Nort: Die Is figuratively applied 
to anything whuh has the a?* 
peararce of life. An echo, a 
strain of music, a tempest, * 
topic, an issue, dies. Exfire 
(literally, to breathe out) is a 
softer word for die; it is used 
figuratively of things that cease 
to exist by reaching a natural 
limit; 35, a lease expires; the 
time has expired. To pensh 
(literally, in Latin, to go 
through, as in Ergli h we say 
"the fire goes out") is oftentsi 
used of death by privation or 
exposure; as, “1 perish with 

hunger,” «onie- 

times, of death by violecce. 
Knowledge and fame, arts and 
empires, may be said to perish; 
the word denotes ctfer destroC' 
vuL ‘ies3sy . 

.KT : live, exist, be immortal, 
come to life, sur ive. 

die, V.: wane, recede, subside; be« 
come indifferent 
“nils agitation will soon die. 
die. n stake, hazard, dice, stamp. 
The die is cast 
diiTer. v be unlike, disagree. 

We may differ on several points. 

' Differ jr "w ■ IS ujcd in tne sense 
of different from ' to express 
a difference, as, ‘ Gnracter 
differs froii reputation," ‘‘I 
differ from hm in my political 
views” ‘Differ liii/i ' is used' 
to express disazrcemeni by 
ciord of mouth dispute as, 
‘They differ tilth each other 
every time that t!)e> meet' — 
The CoiEECT Uom> 

Akt • agree, concur, 
difference, n dissimilarity, uo* 
likeness, distinction, variation, 
contrast discrepancy, diserim!* 
nation, disparity, diversity, dis* 
similitude. ineeinpatibiLi/, ine- 
quality, heterogeneity, variety; 
dissension, variance. 

Kort A difference is in the 
things compared; a 
tion is m_ our judgment of 
them; a distinction is in our 
definition or description or 
mental image of them, eye- 
ful discrimination ot real dif- 
ferences results in clear distinc- 
tions. Disparity is stronger 
than inequality, implying that 
one thing falls far below an- 
other; as, the disparity of our 
achlcvemeats when compared 
with our ideals. Diinmvlanly 
is between things sharply con- 
traited; there may be a differ- 
ence between those almost 
alike. There Is a discrepancy 
ia accounts that fail to balance. 
Variety involves more thin two 
objects: so. In general, does d>- 
inttcy, twfi/ifin, a 
ence in the condition or action 
of the tame object different 

times. Diiogretmtnt is not hariiire's; co'itrPver$\, dis- 

merely the lack, but the ©rpo- agreement, objection, civil; 

site, of agreement, it fs a mild predicimcnt, quandary, dilcm- 
nord /or opposition and con- mx 

fliet, diff<rt«ce Is sometimes They encountered great di^ruf/y 
used In the same sense m inaiiguraiinj: the movement. 

Aut case, facility, extrication, 
Akt uniformity, sinmlanty, reteaic 
agreement, consonance, corn.- difFidcme, n timidity bashful- 
spondence. indiscntnin a 1 1 on , iiess 
protiiiseuily, identity Her diPiJence was painful 

different, a. disbinuKr, unlike, dil’ident x hashfnl tirn 1. s**''. 
contrary, opposite soniraMel A diflli/rnt air became her iifi' 
vinant, (liversified nniiifidd, diffuse v ■ scatter, dissemimie, 
various, diverse, siimlr) miom- nruldv circulate 
pilible, heteroTcnm Is noiidc- The iimligSt diffused Its beims 
sennt, miicelhneoui, un^lassi- diffuse, a copiom. full, verbose, 
fiable, unique prolix 

Ant similar, like, simc That explanation 5s too di7'«r» 

differential, a • df'criminating. diV diffuseneso. ti copiousness, full- 
tinguishing ness, prolixity 

DtfferenluU duties Mere imposed Such diffu inest detracts f*om 
on the imports the value ol the article 

differentiate, v ■ discriminate con- dig, \ delve, exesviie, scoops 
fracf, tsfiblish a difference thrust, peke, punch, /ahj ex- 

Many words once $\no-ymous home 

are now differeBtiatn/ dig. n (Colloo) tliru-i, punch, 

differentlaticn. n discrimination Ix)! « . grtil (study) 

Careful differentiuiton is neces- digest, v • dissnlse, elcaie prepire 
sary for assimilation 

difficult, a ardtioiM Some foods are easily digested 
plicated, intricate, hard, on- digest, v: codify, «vsiematlre 
comnliant, intractible. perverse. mtlhcdise,' classify 

fastidious, exacting digest, n abridgment, summary 

compilation, pmdttt, coJt, sys 
Nora: Hard may be active or tern 
passive, a thing may be hard The digest of the article was in 
to do or hjrd to belt .‘{rd"ous lercslmg 

is Rlwa>i nclive That which digestion, n eiipepsia, funciior 
is diArvtl may require labor, or mg, preparation for assimilt 
simply sJciU and addresv, as a fion 

diffifu/t problem or poisle That Dtgesti9n was umn’errupted 
which IS ardHOur always re- Ant indigestion, dyspepsia 
quires continued, persevering digging, n ' excavation: exhum 
toil Re«pon«ibility may be cm- tion (digging up). 
frpus even when it involves no dignified, a stately, maiestic, a 
special exertion gust, imposing, decorous. 

dignify, v.s exhalt, grace, hon 
.\nt facile, light, easy. elevate, enroble 

difficulty, n obstacle. Imped!- Ant : undignified, indecorous, 
ment. obstruction; arduousness, dignitary, n ‘ oficer. rnsglstratt 

dignity, n.: exaltation, eminence, 
stateliness, honor, preferment 
digress, v.: deviate, depart wan* 
der, tumaside 

Do not dtsress from lire main is* 

digression, n • deviation, diver* 
sion, divergence. 

Such digression is inexcusable, 
digressive, a : rambling, discur- 
sive, incoherent 

Ant.; coherent consistent log!* 

dihe, n.: levee, embankment 
The dike protected their land, 
dilapidation, n. partial ruin, de- 

V/e noted the general dilapida^ 

dilapidated, a impaired, decayed, 

It is almost too dilapidated to re- 

dilatatien, dilation, n : spreading, 

You are sensible of tbe dilalathn 
of the heart 

^ate, V : distend, expand, swell; 

^He dilated upon the subject 
dilatory, a.: tardy, slow, dawdling. 
It is not necessary to be so dila~ 

dilemma, n.: predicament quan- 
dary, straight 
This IS a senous dilemma, 
dilettante, n.: amateur, dabbler. 

Tbe dilettante accomplished little, 
dilettante, a.: amateurish, noo* 

diligence, n.: industry, perserrer* 
ing effort 

His diligence is to be commended 
Uligent a.: painstaking, indus- 

A diligent search was instituted 
'jllydally, T. (Colloq.): dawdle, 
fritter, dally, loiter. 

Hate, V.: attenuate, reduce, weak- 
en. thin. 

This liquid must be diluted. 

Akt.: strengthen, thicken, con- 

dilation, n.: attenuation, redac- 
tion, thinning. 

This dilution is more acceptable 
to tbe taste. 

dim. a obscured, indistinct dark- 
ened, dull blurred, tarnished 

Aht.: brighi vivid, intense, clear. 

dim, V ' obscure, bedim, darken, 
dull eclipse, blur, tarnish. 

Dissipation dims the understand- 

dimensions n , pi * magnitude, 
bulk, size. 

The dimensions were given in 

diminish, v.: decrease, reduce, 
abate, lessen, contract, curtail 

That diminishes the number. 

diminished, a.: reduced, con- 
tracted, lessened. 

They are cramped by their cf»* 
mtnished reseurcM. 

Ant.: enlarged, usereared, ex- 
tended. swelled 

dimuniUon, n.: reduction, abate- 
ment, decrease, decrement 

The diminution was noticeable. 

diminutive a : minute, small, di- 

It IS too dminulize for gen- 
eral uie. 

dimness, n.: dullness, vagueness, 

Dimness of sight troubled him. 

dm. T.i assail with noise. 

It was dinned into his ears 

din, n.: clamor, noise, uproar, 
clangor, hubbub 

We were disturbed by the tfin. 

ding-dong, n : device; jingle, mo- 
notonous rhyme. 

The ding-dong of the bells tired 

dingy, a.: dark, dusky; as if sul- 
lied, worn. 

This IS a dingy apartment. 

dinky, a. (Colloq.): small, petty; 


dint, n.' force, power, energy, ef* considered from our own actual 

ficacy; dent, depression. or mentai standpoint. I/oy, lit- 

By dint of hard work they sue* orally the road or path, comes 

ceeded. naturally to mean the dirfcltan 

diocesan a . pertaining to diocese, of the road or path , contersa- 

This is a purely diocesan matter. tionaUy, ttvy is almost a per* 

diocesan, n bishop, prelate. feet synonym of direction, as, 

The diocesan is restricted to his which uuy did be go? or, m 

territory. _ which direction^ Beonng is the 

diocese, n.' bishopric, see, terri* direction in which an object is 

tory. seen with reference to another, 

dip, V . lower for a moment, tip; and especially with reference to 

immerse for moment. the points of the compass 

dip, n ' plunge, immersion, a di^ Course is the direction of a 

ping. moyiag object , iRc/inistiOR, that 

diplomacy, n artifice, Anetse, toward which a stationary ob- 

craft, guile, subtlety, ruse ject leans, tendency, the direc- 

Dt^famecy is an art. tion toward which anything 

dire, direful, a awful, calamitous. stretches or reaches out; tend- 

fearful, horrible, terrible. ency is stronger and more ac- 

Aki . commonplace, paltry, insig* tire than inclination, 

direct, a shortest, n ea rest : director, n manager 

straight, undeviitmg directory a containing direc* 

Thu IS the most direct route tiona 

A»t.: indirect, circuitous, round* The clause was merely directory 
about. dirge, n requiem, coronach, la* 

direct, a straightforward, plain. mem, thenody 

unambiguous, candid dirk, n dagner. poniard, stiletto 

He gave a direct answer to the dtrt, n earth so ) squalor, Alth, 
j question foulness 

direct, V control, govern, guide, dirtiness, n squalor, nltn, ioul 
instruct, order, command, lead, ness nastiness 
manage, superintend dirty, a nisty, foul, filthy, 

direct, v • point out conduct; ad* squalid, loileo, begrimed, 

dress, superscribe. gnmv; sordid, grovelling, «Je- 

He directed them aright tpieahle, wle, ihject, coatempti* 

direction, n. address, superscrip* hie . loathsome, <u]Iied 

tion dirty, v soil, begrime, besmear. 

The dirertton was blurred defile, sally, tamish. besrmrth. 

direction, n Rovernment, Ruid* disable, v locipacitate. maim, 
ance, instruction, management, cripple, disqualify, 

oversight That need not disable you 

They worked under his dinelion. diubled, a incapacitated, 
direction, n.. way, course, tend* maimed, crippled, disqualified, 
ency, inclination, aim hors de combit 

The disobted craft was towed m. 
Nort! The dirertwn of an object disabuse, v undeceive, disillu- 
is in the line of motion or of sionue, disenchant, decharm, 
vision toward tc. or the line in Disabuse your mind of such fal* 
which the object as moving, tacies. 


di&ftccord&Qt. discordint, a.: to*- 
harmomons, inccnyruota. 

The ducordanl sounds tired her. 
diudvaotage, n . inconvenience, 
detriment, hindrance, drawback, 

It will be to >our duadiantasr to 

disadvantageous, a., detrimental, 
disadrantageons, unfavorable, 
prejndioal, inexpedient. 

It was a most duadt'oniagediu of' 

dIsaSect, v estrange, alienate. 

The army became dixafftcud 
disaEected, a estranged, alieoat' 
ated, unfriendly. 

The disaffteted people rebelled, 
disaffection, n. alienation, disgust, 
dulvke, estraDZtment. dislt^* 
ty, mutiny, 

Ast frtendlinesj, good-will, af- 
lection, loyalty 

disagree, differ, dissent, con- 
tradict altercate, spar. 

\Ve need not disagrtt. 
disagreeable, a.: supleasaot dis* 
usteful, effensire, contrary, in- 
congruous, fulsome, 
dlsagreemeat, n,: diflerenee; con- 
tention, gturrel. bickering, dis- 
pute, altercation. sparring, 
squabble, controversy, variance, 

The duagrecmmt was serious 
disallow, V.; disapprove, prohibit 
inhib t interdict 

disappear, v,: vanish, evanesce, re- 
cede, be lost to view, 
disappearance, a.: eTauciccoce, 

His duapfearonce was inexcus- 

disappoint, v.: dissatisfy, frustrate, 
balk. foil, bafle. 

Do not disappoint your friends 
diiappointmoit 0.: frustration, 
dissatisfaction, defeat 

The disappointment vraa a lertous 

disapprobation, tt: displeasure, 
disapproval, umbrage, 
disapprove, v.: demur, cavil, com- 
plain, criticire. grumble, 

I duappTcnt of sucb a proeedorc 
disarrange, v. displace, jncible, 
mislay, duturb 

Everything is ditsrrangtd. 
disarrangement, n.: disorder, dis- 
array, disturbance. Utter, con- 

That IS a duorrangemait of my 

disarray, n disorder, confusion, 

disordered dress. 

The troops were in dixarroy 
disatter, n calamity, catastrophe, 
m shap, cauclasa, catacJys-i. 

disastrous, a calamitous, cats- 
cljimic, deplorable, uafonu- 

The failure is a diwtrew one. 
disavow, V.* disclaim, disown, ab- 
jure. renounce. 

Sec deny. 

disband, demobilize, oisorgan- 

Tie regLment ditianaea. . 
disbandment, n.j disorgafttzalion, 

Ttere was a general ifirba"o'"C"t 
disbelief, n.: doubt, distrust, in- 
credulity, skepticism, 
disbelieving, a : skeptical, incred- 
ulous. doubtfuL 

disburden, v,; diseneumber, un- 
load, remove, relieve, 
disbnrae, v.: expend, pay out, beir 
expense (or. 

They disiwtd tic funds, 
disbuiaemcat, n.: expenditure, out- 
lay. . 

The dUbvrjemert was * cmvy 

discard, v.t reject, repulse, repu- 
diate. cast away. 

Old beliefs were discardtd. 
discarded, a.; itjecled, cast off, 


ducem, v.: perceive, distinguish, emission, exudation, excretion, 
discriminate, recognize, descry, voiding, process of discharging 
see. The discharge of gas smothered 


Note. What we dtsetrn we see disciple, n adherent, follower, 
apart from all other ob;ccts; They were his disciples 
what we discnminote we judge dtsciplmanan, n one who main- 
apart, what we dirlinguisA we tains discipline 
mark apart, or recognize by He was a dirci^/inarun of the old 
some special mark or masifest school 

difference We discnmtnale by disciplinary a corrective, em- 
real differences , we dirtmguirh played tn discipline 
by outward signs, an ofBcer is The experience was dtscipltitary. 
readily distinguished from a disaple. n correction, punish- 
common soldier by bis umfoim ment chastisement, submission, 
Objects may be dimly discerned regulation 
at twilight, when yet we can Dtsciphuf effects harmony 
not clearly dutmguish one from Ant laxity, unrestraint, indul- 
another We descry (originally gence 

espy) what is difScult to dis- disclaim, v disown, deny, dis- 
cover aiow repudiate renounce 

Do not disclaim your connection 

discernible, a perceptible, visible, with it 

noticeable, apparent, manifest disclauner, n denial, disavowal. 
The truth is discernible to all negation, refusal 

discerning, a shrewd, sharpsigbt- Ant affirmation, avowal, accept- 
ed, ante, sagacious ance 

diseemmeat, n . insight, peoetra- disclose, v reveal, unmask, dis- 
tion, Judgment, discnminatioa close, uncover, unveil, exhibit, 

Mis discernment is unusual show confess avow, own 

djcharge, v.: relieve, free: th* The sun disclosed the havoc 
solve, aeqnit excnlpate, release; wrought 
exonerate. They disclosed their perfidy 

discharge, V expel, excrete, eject disclosure, n revelation, divulg- 
emit exude, void, unload. raent 

The water was discharged The disclosure was not unex- 
through the conduit pccted 

discharge, v perform, fulfil, pay, discolor, v change color, give 
liquidate false complexion to 

He discharged his many duties The walls were dtscolorei 
discharge, v remove, cashier; discoloration, n changed hue or 
fire, shoot aspect, «pot stain _ 

The employer discharged them. The discoloration shows plainly, 
discharge, n. firing, blast, burst, discomfit, v abash, down, worst, 
volley, fusillade, salvo disconcert, defeat 

The discharge terrified them. He seemed uindti discomfited 

dlsc^rge, n acquittance, exoner- discomfiture, n abashment, dis- 
ation, release, liquidation, pay- concertion, confusion, frustra- 

ment two defeat 

They secured his discharge. His discomforiare was BOticeaole 

discharge, n ejection evacuaboo, to the rest of the party. 


Tt was a complete discomfiture of 
the plans. 

disconfwt, n uneasiness, dis- 

Discomfort was added to ininry 
discomposure, n agitation, per- 
turbation, confusion, 
disconcert, v embarrass, confuse, 
disturb, unsettle, abash 
The attack disconcerted them, 
disconcerted, a embarrassed, per- 
plexed, disturbed 

disconnect, v detach, disjoin, dis- 
se\cr, separate. 

disconnected, a detached, sepa- 
ate, isolated, incoherent 
He rambled on in a disconnected 

disconnection, n detachment dis- 
union, separation incoherence. 
The disconnection was noticeable, 
disconsolate, a inconsolable, 

She was disconsolate cner the 
loss of her position 
She was tneonsolable oscr the 
death of her child 
Her toNcr's desertion left bet 

discontent, n disotisfaeiion. dis* 

Her discontent was mmifest 
discontented, a disRrunlled. dis- 
sati'fed, malcontent, restless, 
discontentment, n.: dissatisfaction. 
Discontentment showed in her 

discord, discordance, n.: disso- 
nance, discordance, inhannony, 
tanance, dissensioa 
Ant : harmony, agreement, coif 

discordant, a * inharmonious, dis- 
sonant. jarring. unmeTodioos, 
strident; at variance, contradic- 
tor>', repugnant, absonant 
lie struck a discordant note, 
discount, m: deduction, allowance, 

The discount was allowed. 

discountenance, v.: oppose, dis- 
courage. disfator, disapprove. 

He disccuntenonced such actions. 

He offosed their mirriage. 

He disfavored the enterprise 

He duapfroved of her com- 

discourage, s dishearten, deter, 
dispirit, depress, dampen, un- 
nerve, oppose, dissuade 
discouragement, n depression, 
dejection, opposition, dissua- 
sion, intimidation, determent, 
damper, obstacle, diSculty, bar- 

discouraging, a depressing, dis- 
heariening, dissuasive 
discourse, v converse, talk 
formailly, express one’s self; ut- 
ter, express 

He discoursed upon philosophy 
discourse, n disquisition, address, 
dissertation, oration, harangue, 

The discourse was edifying 
discourteous, a uncivil rude, dis- 
re«pcctful, abrupt, unmannerly, 

discourtesy, n. rtidtpess, incivvl- 
ify, inurbanity, impoliteness 
discover, t.' ascertain, delect, un- 
earth, descry, discern. di«clo«e. 
ferret out. 

Nott: Of human actions or char- 
acter, detect is used, almost 
without exception, in a bad 
sense; dvirovfr may be used n 
either the good or the bad 
sense, ofiener in the good; he 
was delected in a fraud; real 
merit is sure to be discovered 
In scientific language, detect is 
used of delicate indications that 
appear in course of careful 
watching; as, a slight fluttering 
cf the puUe could be detected 
We discozer what has existed 
but has not been known to us; 
we tjiirnf combmations^or ar- 
rangements pot before in use; 


Columbus discovered America; 
Morse tmented the cleclnc teU 
egraph fitid is the most gcn« 
eral word for every means of 
coming 10 know what was not 
before certainly known A man 
finds in the road some strang- 
er s purse, or finds his own 
which he is searching for. The 
expert discovers or detects an 
error in an account 

discovery, n ascertainment, de- 
tection, unearthing, disclosure 
discredit, n descsteem, disrepute, 

It was no discredit to them 
discredititable, a dishonorable, 
disreputable, disgraceful 

The action was dtseredilable 
discreet, a prudent, wary, judi- 
cious, circumspect 
discrepancy, n variation, differ- 
enee, contrariety 

There was a discrepancy m the 

discrete, a disconnected, distinct, 

It was composed of discrete par- 

discretion, n prudence, circum- 
spection, wariness, choice, lib- 
erty, will 

She showed great discretion on 
that occasion 

Ant : indiscretion, imprudence, 
constraint, coercion 
discretional, a optional, discre- 
tionary, elective 

He exercised his discretional 

Ant compulsory, obligatory 
discriminate, v discern, dis- 
tinguish, contrast 

You may easily discriminate 

discriminating, a distinguishing, 
diflerential, discriminative 
discrimination, n. distinction, dif- 

discriminative, a discriminating, 
noting diflerences 
Those are discnminalne signs 
discursive, a digressive, digres- 
sional, rambling, desultory, ra- 
tionciiiative non-miuitivc 
Tlie talk was discursive 
discuss, V ilrliate argue canvass, 
agitate, moot, delibcnte 
discussion, n ikhaie, argument, 
canvass, agitation, considera- 
tion, symposium, forensic 
Further discussion settled the 

disdain, n scorn contumely, su- 
perciliousness, contempt 
Her look was full of disdain 
She met his olTer with scorn 
fic expressed his disapprobation 
of their methods 

disdainful, s.: contemptuous, 
scornful, contumelious, super- 

A disdainful woman met them 
disease, n ailment, riisonler, mal- 
ady, complaint. alTeetion, dis- 
temper, plague, pestilence, pest; 
epidemic, endemic 
Kore Disease is the general term 
for any deviation from health; 
disorder and affection are rath- 
er partial and limited, as, a 
nervous affection, a disorder ol 
the digestive system We speak 
of trifling ailmrntr, a slight in- 
disposition, a serious or deadly 
disease Complaint is a popular 
term which may he applied to 
any degree of ill health, slight 
or Severe Infirmity denotes a 
chronic or lingering weakness 
or disability, as blind.-iess or 

Ant health, robustness, sound- 
ness. vigor 

diseased, a morbid, unhealthful. 

That IS due to a diseased mind, 
duembark, v land, unload, put 

The troops were disembarked 


disembodied, a.: incorporeal, dis- 

The disembodied spirit is free 
from corporeal limitations 
disembodiment, n incorporeality. 

Is complete {tiiemfiodiment possi- 

disenchant, v disillusionize, de- 
prive of fascination. 

They were soon disenchanted 
disencumber, v release, disbur- 
den, disembarass 

The estate was disencumbered. 
disencumbrance. n riddance, re- 
lease, deliverance 

The .disencumbrance was com- 

disengage, v extricate, disembar- 
rass, disentangle, detach, dis- 

He will soon b< duengased 
disentangle, v.. disravcl, unfold, 

Can you disenlaneU it? 
disenOnll, v rescue, free {torn 
thraldom, disenslave. 

He was disenihralled from evfl 

disfavor, n disapproval. 

She viewed it with disfavor. 
disfigure, v deface, mar, blemish. 

A blemish dis^gured her face, 
disfigurement, disfiguration, n.: 
disfiguration, defacement; blem- 
ish, deformity. 

The disfgurement was noticeable, 
disgrace, n.. abasement, reproach, 
discredit, dishonor, shame, in- 
famy, degradation, disrepute, 
ignominy, obloquy, odium, op- 
probrium, scandal, debasement. 

Capital punishment is a disyraee 
to the state that inflicts it. 
disgrace, v.- dishonor, humthate, 
shame, degrade, debase, abase, 
discredit, tarnish, sully, 
disgraceful. a : mnomintoos. 
shameful, dishonorable, discred- 
itable, opprobrious, scandalous, 
disreputable, infamous. 

The affair was disgraceful 

disgruntled, a. (Colloq.): dissatis- 
fied, displeased. 

disguise, v. mask, dissemble, dis- 
simulate, cloak, shroud, mas- 

Why disguise the fact* 
disguise, n mask, blind, cloak, 

The disguise was perfect 
disguised, a veiled, masked, in- 

The disguised youth passed in. 
disgust, n aversion, abhorrence, 
repulsion, repugnance 
Her disgust was evident 
disgust, V revolt, offend, nause- 

disgusting, a ■ fulsome, revolting, 
loathsome, repulsive 
Anv * appreciation, approval, 
pleasure, abhorrent hateful, re- 

duheartened, a - discouraged, de- 
spondent dispirited, dejected 
She was a disheartened individ- 

dishearten, v,: discourage, dis- 
pirit depress, deject, daunt 
He disheartened them, 
dishevel, v ; disarrange, jumble, 

He was disheveled and unkempt 
disheveled, a • disarranged, dis- 
orderly, uncombed, frowsy 
Her disheveled locks covered her 

dishonest a. unscrupulous, cor- 
ruptible, deceitful, fraudulent 
The dishonest man fled, 
dishonesty, n.: improbity, unscro- 
pulousness, fraudulencv, cheat- 
ing, indirection. 

Dishonesty showed in his face, 
dishonor, n., disrepute, discredit, 

They brought dufionor on him. 
diahonor, v.: disgrace, insult, hu- 
miliate, degrade; seduce, be- 


He has dishonored his fanul/'s 

The class was disgraced. 

They insulted the flag 
I do not wish to huniUalt hitn 
He has degraded himself by such 

Evil companions seduced him 
from the path of honor 
He betrayed his country 
dishonorable, a discreditable, dis- 
graceful, unscrupulous, un- 

He was a dtskonorabU mao 
dishonorably, adv basely, mean- 
ly, Ignobly, discreditably 
_He acted dishonorably 
disillusion, disillusionire, v dis- 
enchant, disabuse, deeharm 
She was speedily disillusioned 
dismclinatton, n distaste, reluct- 
ance, aversion 

She showed a strong dtsinelina- 
tion for it 

disinclined, a reluctant, unwill- 
ing, indisposed 

They seemed duinclmed to go 
disinfectant, a cleansing, purify- 
ing, detergent 
The disiiifeetant saved them 
disingenuous, a designing, artful, 
subtle, wily, deceitful, under- 

Ills conduct was disingenuous 
A>t frant^ sincere, candid, opeiv 
honest, ingenuous 
disintegrate, v.: crumble, become 
Rocks disintegrate 
disinter, % enhume, disentomb, 
bring to light 

disinterested, a • impartial, un- 
biased, indifferent, neutral, mag- 
nanimous, unselfish 
He was quite disinieresled 
disjoin, V disconnect, sunder, 
keep apart 

You cannot disjoin them 
disjoint, V dislocate, luxate, dis- 

He disjointed his elbow 

disjcunted, a incoherent, ram- 
bling, desultory, loose, discon- 

The remarks were quite dis- 

disjunction, n separation, sunder- 
mg, disconnection us have no dii/unction 
dislike, V disapprove, hate 
He disliked him exceedingly 
dislike, n aversion antipathy, dis- 
relish, disapproval, hatred, dis- 

Her dislike of it was manifest, 
dislocate, v disjoint, luxate. 

He dislocated his finger, 
dislocation, n luxation, disjoint- 

The dislocation caused great pain 
dislodge, V remove eject, dis- 
place, drive out, displace 
He dislodged the enemy 
disloyal, a apostate, perfidious, 
unfaithful, false, treacherous, 
treasonable, traitorous 
disloyalty, n perfidy, unfaithful- 
ness, treachery, treason, apos- 
tacy, faithfulness, inconstancy. 
Disloyally is inexcusable, 
dismal, a. dreary, gloomy, cheer- 
less, joyless, sombre. 

That IS a dismal room, 
dismantle, v raze, demolish. 

They dismantled the cottage, 
dismantled. a . dilapidated; 
stnj^d, divested 
The dismantled rooms were cheer- 

dismay, v : alarm, daunt, apall, 

He was dismayed 
dismay, n consternation, alarm, 
fear, chagrin 

Dismay made him speechless 
dismember v mutilate, dislimb. 

liiey dismembered the beef, 
dismemberment, n mutilation 
There was danger of dismember- 

dianuss. v discharge, cashier; 


Thjy dumisscd h'm at once 
dismissal, n discharge, di$mis> 
Sion, removaL 

They waited lor dismissal, 
dismount, di-place, remoTc; 
throw down, unhorse. 

The gun was dismounted 
disobedience, n.' contumacy, dere- 
liction, undiitifulness, defiance, 
insutmission, noncompliance, in- 
doal’ty, insubordination. 

His disobedience cost him dear, 
disobedient, a contumacious, tn- 
submis»UT, undutiful, decant, 
remiss, indocile, insubordinate, 

The disobedient pupU left the 

disobey, v transgress, violate, 
disregard, defy, infringe. 

Do cot duobey Uie law. 
disorder, n : confusion, disarray, 
disarrangement, disorganization. 
}nnble, chaos, litter, irregular- 
ity, disturbance, turmoil, tu- 
mult, Tioi, Bedlam, fracas, pan- 

The duofder was unavoidable, 
disorder, v * disarrange, confuse, 
jumble, disorganize, tousle, de- 
range, discompose. 

Do not disorder my plans 
diso^ered, a.: confused, deranged, 
jumbled, littered, disarranged. 

The disordered stomach resumed 
its functioning. 

disorderly, a . unmethodical, un- 
systematic, lawless, confused: 
riotous, chaotic, tumultuous 
disorganization, n : disorder, de- 
rangement, demobilization, dis- 

DiJor£anisation of the party fol- 

disorganize, dissolve, disband, dis- 
order, demoWIize, disarrange. 
. The army became disorganised. 
disown. V.: disavow, deny, repu- 
diate, disclaim, renounce, re- 

He Juou-ned any knowledge of 
the affair. 

dlsownment, n. •’denial, disavowal, 
disclaimer, repudiation, renun- 
cution, rejection 

disparage v belittle, decry, de- 
depreciate. derogate from, dis- 
credit, underestimate, urderate, 

Note' To decry if to cry down, 
in some noisy, public. Of con- 
spicuous manner A witness or 
a statement is discredited; the 
currency is depreciated, a good 
name ts dishonored by un- 
worthy conduct, we underesti- 
male m our own minds; we 
may underrate or undersalue in 
statement to others These 
words are used, with few ex- 
ceptions, of things such as Qual- 
ities. merits, attainments, eta 
To disparage is to belittle by 
damaging comparison or sug- 
gestion; it is used only of 
things A man’s aehieveireru 
are disparaged, Ms motives *• 
predated, his profession dii- 
credited, he himself is calamci- 
ated, slandered, etc. 

Ant.: See praise. 

disparagement, n.: detraction, der- 
ogation, decrial,^ defamation, 
dispraise, vilincation 

Disparagement only weakens your 

disparaging, a • derogatory, un- 
favorable, detractory, defama- 

He made a dlsparagirg remark. 

disparity, n ; difference, inequal- 
ity, dissimilarity. 

'There was ipiitc a disparity of 

dispassionate, a • calm impartial, 

He was entirely ditpassior.ale. 

dzsjiatch, n ■ haste, speed, celerity, 
expedition; message, telegram. 


Thty attended to the matter wttb 

dispatch, V.: send, transmit, for' 

They dwfotehed their message 
dispense, v deal out, apportion, 
distribute, administer, execntfr 

I can dispense with all that 
disperse, v dissipate, dispel, scat' 

The children dispersed to their 

dispersion, n scattering, dissipa' 

The dispersion of the mob war 

dispirit, V.; discourage, depress 
unnerve, dishearten 

They were quite dispinted 
dispirited, a melancholy, dc' 
pressed, hypochondriac. 

A dispirited soul accomplishes 

displace, v remove, disarrange, 
supplant, supersede, unsettle, 
misplace, mislay, derange, jum- 

Note Objects are displaced 
when moved out of the place 
they have occupied, they are 
misplaced when put into a place 
where they should not be One 
may know where to find whar 
he has misplaced, what be baS 
mislaid he cannot locate 

Ant. See arrange, 
displacement, n removal trans- 
ference, dismissal, discharge 

A displacement of the stone was 

display, n. exhibition, parade, os- 
tentation. show 

The display was a brilliant one. 
display, v exhibit, evince, expose, 
parade, fiourish 

Why display anger’ 
displease, v.‘ offend, anger. 

It displeased them 

displeasure, n. disapprobation 
disLke, dudgeon, disapproval, 
resentment, vexation, umbrage, 

He vented his displeasure on 

disport, v entertain, play, deUght, 
amuse, recreate 

They disported on the sands 
disposal, n. disposition, arrange- 

The disposal of the goods was 

dispose. V arrange, settle, adjust, 

dispose, V. incline, direct the 

mind to 

disposed, a inclined, minded. 


disposition, n temperament, 

mood, nature, willingness, read- 
iness. inclination 

That accorded with his itspon- 

disposition, n arrangement, dis« 
posal. propensity, inclination, 
proclivity, bias, bent 

They made a satisfactory disposi- 
tion of the matter 
dispossess, V dislodge, eject, 
oust, evict, dispropnate, dis- 
seize. remove, depose. 

He dispossessed them, 
dispossession dislodgment, evic- 
tion. ejection, ousting, divesti- 
ture, ouster 

The dispossession discouraged 

dbproportion, n inequality, dis- 
parity, unevenness 

There was a disproportion there, 
disproportionate, a : excessive, 

The price is disproportionate to 
the cost 

disproof, n confutation, lefuta- 

The evidence is a d^proof of that 
disprove, v. confute, refute. 

Can you disProte it? 


disputable, a.: controvertible, 

That IS rot du/wfiiiiif 
disputant, n controversialist, 
comrovcrtist, dissenter, dis- 
pLier, argucr 

The disfuiat Is were ‘ilenced 
disputation, dispute, n debate, 
argument, conirovers', forensic 

The dist’ulohon was prolonged 
disputatious, a pr lemical. conlen- 
tiou', argumentative, quarrel- 

He was disfuiaftous. 
dispute, V argue, contend, gain* 
saj% controvert, altercate wran- 
gle, impugn, bicker, spar, squab- 

You can dispute it if you wish 
disqualiiicatiion. n unfitness, tn* 

The disqu^ltfiealion was retnoved. 
disqualified, a incapable, tneoin* 
petent, unfit 

Are you disquahfiedf 
disquiet, disquietude, n ' disturb* 
anee, pertubation, agitation, un- 
easiness, anxiety, Riiigiving 

The disquiet soon spread 
disquisition, n speech, discourse, 
dissertation, essay. 

It was a learned disquisition. 
disregard, n • indiftercncc, sbght. 
neglect, disesteem, inattention, 

He treated him with disrsgard. 
disregard, v • slight, ignore, con- 
temn, overloolc disobey 

Do not disresard instructions, 
disregardful. a • oblivious, heed- 
less, unmindful 

He was disreoardful of her com- 

disrelish, n dislike, aversion, an- 

disreputable, a disgraceful, dis- 
creditable. low, mean. 

That IS a disreputable transaction 
disrepute, n : disesteem, unpopu- 
larity, disgrace, odium. 

It brought them only into disre- 

disrespect, n.: discou'tesy, dis- 
honor, incivility 

His disrespect for autliontj was 
m rkeii 

disrespectful, a di'courteous, un- 

His attitude was disrespectful 
disrupt, V sunder, rend, split, dis- 
unite, bur«t 

It threatened to disrupt the or- 

disruption, n breach, rupture, 

A complete disruption of the or- 
ganization followed 
dissatisfaction, n disapproval, 
discontent, discontentment, dis- 

dissausfied. a displeased, discon- 
tented. res'less, malcontent, im- 
patient. disgruntled 
dissection, n analysis, examtnt- 
tion. MviseetioR, callisection, 
senlisection, anatomy 
dissector, n . prosector, anato- 

dissemble, v,: disguise, masle, 
hide, conceal, cloak, veil, feign, 
dissembler, n. hypocrite, cheat, 
deceiver, pretender, 
dissemmation, n.' propagation, 
spreading, circulation 

DisstmsMlion of the truth pro- 
ceeds slowly 

dissension, n.: feud, quarrel, fray, 
aflraj, brawl, contention, con- 

The seeds of dissension have been 

dissent. n.‘ dissension, variance, 
disagreement; nonconformity, 

There was no dissent. 
dissenter, n . nonconformist, sep- 
aratist, sectary, schismatic, re- 

He was known as a dissenter. 
dissentious, a ' contentious, dispu- 
tatious, litigious, quirrelsoTc, 

Disscnitous opinions prevailed 
throughout the assembly 
dissertation, n disquisition, dis- 

The pleased them 

dissever, v part, sunder, disso- 
ciate scparaie, disconnect 
dissidence, n dissent, dissension, 

dissimilar, a heterogeneous, di- 
verse, unhomogeneous, dilTer- 

Those are dunmilar aims 
dissimilarity, dissimilitude, r di- 
versity, dissimilarity, unlike* 

dissolvent, n.- solvent, men- 

The dusohent soon did its work, 
dissonant, a harsh, inharmoni- 
ous, rancous, strident, discord- 
ant, cacophanous 

Dttsonant sounds reached them 
dissuade, v deter, divert, change. 

lliey soon dissuaded him from 

dissuasion, n dehortation act of 
deterring exhortation contrary 

Dtssuanon had no effect on him 
dissuasive, a discouraging, deter- 

She felt the dissuasiie influence 

dissimulate, v pretend, feign, 

dissimulation, n deception, du- 
plicity, imposition, hypocrisy, 
pretense, sham 

dissipate, v disperse, dispel, scat- 
ter, separate 

He disnfales his strength 
dissipated, a. dissolute, proHigate, 
licentious, fast 

dissipation, n dispersion, scatter- 
ing, disoluteness, profligacy 
dissociation, n disunion, separa- 
tion of elements 

DiJteeiahon must first take place 
dissoluble, a * dissoUable, separ- 
able into parts 
The substance is dusolublf 
Ant insoluble, indissoluble, in* 
dissolvable, inseparable 
dissolute, a dissipated, licentious, 
debauched abmdoned 
He 1$ a dissolute person 
dissolution, n analysis, dissolv- 
ing, liquefaction, solution; de- 
composition, resolution 
Dissolution took place slowly 
dissolvable, a dissoluble, soluble, 

It IS easily dissolivble 

Ant indissoluble, mdissolvable 

distance, n remotenes>, interval, 
intervening space , reserve, 
aloofness, unfriendliness, cere- 
moniousness, alienation 
distance, v outdo, outstrip, sur- 

distant, a far-off, uneordial, re- 
mote, reserved, cold 
The distant hills were hid in fogs 
Ant See near 

distaste, n aversion, dislike, dis- 

They showed their distaste for it 
Ant taste, liking, relish 
distasteful, a offensive, unpleas- 
ant, repugnant, unpalatable, dis- 
agteeaWe, unsavory 
distemper, n ill humor, morbid- 
ness, disease, disorder 
distend, v expand, dilate, en- 


distended, a bloated, turgid, di- 
lated. tntumescent, tumefied 
distention, n dilation, dilatation, 
expansion, inflation 
distiU, V drop, trickle, drip. 

“Summer suns dutiU showers.” 
distillation, n trickling, vapori- 

distinct, a rlear, expl cit, un- 

equivocal, discernible, uncon- 
fused, disconnected, standing 

dissolve, v liquefy, melt,, mace- apart 

rate, fuse, disorganize, disband This is quite distinct from the 
disperse, disunite, sunder other 


distinction, n.: eminence, celeb- 
nty, ^ Tcnown, repute, fame, 

He gamed great dislmetion 

Ant.: indistinction, mdiscrimina- 
tioHj promiscuity, obscurity, 
distuictiori, n. discrimination. 


You must make a dtstinclion here 
distinctive, a distinguishing, 

characteristic, discriminative 

This is a distinctive trait 
distinguish, v, discriminate, dif- 
ferentiate, discern, recognite; 

You can distiHg^ish some differ- 

distinguish, a special, marked 

He uas received with ditiin- 
Slushed politeness 
distinguished, a eminent, illus- 
trious, famous, celebrated, re* 
noumed, noted: transcendent, 
extraordinary, supreme, con- 

The distmcuisked officer arrived 

Ant undistinguished, common* 
place, inconspicuous, humble 
ditUnguishing, a : peculiar, dis* 
crim native, distinctive, eharac* 

That is a distinguishing mark, 
distort,, V.; pervert, misinternrct, 
falsify, misrepresent, deform, 

His View of the situation is iis- 

distortion, n.: perversion, crook- 
edness; falsification, deformity 

Such distortion of the truth is in- 

distracted, a.: raving, crazy, fran* 
tic, frenzied. 

distraction, n : despair, frenry, 
amu'cment., diversion; confu- 
sion. mysti'ication, bewildcr- 
nert; tumult, hurly-burly, com- 

Ant : calm, serere, placid, undis- 
turbed. tinnilTled, imperturbable, 
upmosed, cool, composed. 

distrait, a.: absentminded. ab- 

distraught, a * confused, bewil- 
dered, distracted 

distress, n. torture, sorrow, grief, 
anguish, agony, misery, advers- 
ity, aflliction, disaster, calamity, 
misfortune, poverty, destitu- 
tion, indigence, straits, 
distress, v. pain, gneve, wound, 
afUict, distrain. 

distressing, a grievous, distress- 
ful. painful, afllictive 
distribute, v. allot, apportion, 
deal out. dispense; assort, 
group, classify 

distribution, n allotment, appor- 
tionment. dispensing, partition, 
division, dole; grouping, ar- 
rangement, disposition, classifi- 

district, n precinct, region, prov- 
ince, quarter, circuit, locality, 

distrust, n.: suspicion, mistrust, 

distrustful, a : suspicious, 
disturb, v.r perturb, annoy, mo- 
lest. disquiet, agitate, nilile, dis- 
arrange, incommode, derange, 
roust, unsettle, excite 
disturbance, n . derangement, mo- 
lestation, disquiet, disorder, per- 
turbation, inquietude, agitation, 
uneasiness; turmoil, commo- 
tion, tumult, uproar, riot, 

disunion, n ' separation, sever- 
ance. rupture, breach 

The disunion was easily efTecled. 
disunite, v. sever, rupture, sep- 

The links of the chain became 

disuse, n : discontinuance, obso- 
^ letenes!^ desuetude, insuetudc, 

ditch, n • trench, moat, fosse, 

Assocatto Woecs: scarp, para- 

pet, ^afTase, escarp, counter- 

ditto, adv. likewise, also, as be- 

ditto, n the aforesaid, a substi- 

diurnal, a. daily, pertainm? to 

divaricate, v diverge 
dive, V plunge, go deep, become 

diverge, v radiate, divaricate 
Our paths diterge here 
Ant converge 

divergence, n. variance, disagree- 
ment, radiation, divancation, 

This means a ditergence of our 

divergent, a ‘ diverging, radiat- 
ing, variant, different 
These lines are dntrgent 
divers, a. sundry, several, van- 
ous, many, numerous 
There were dntrj reports 
diverse, a ' dissimilar, different, 
heterogeneous, divernlied. vari- 

These are essentially daerse 
diversiffeation, n * variety, varia- 

The dtvernUcahon was pleasing 
diversify, v. vary, give variety to, 

The landscape is divcrsiHtd 
diversion, o amusement, snort, 
recreation; turning aside; re- 

See that you get the necessary 
dit ers\on 

diversity, n.‘ dissimilarity, differ- 
ence. variety, multiformity 
There was a ditvfnfy of plans 
divert, v • turn aside, withdraw, 
deflect, abstract draw off 
They dtierted the funds to their 

divert, V amuse, entertain. 

They diifrted themselves with an 
evening oot 

divemsement, n amusement, re- 
laxation, diversion 

It was their most agreeable <fi- 

divest, V deprive, strip, dispos- 

He was divested of the title. 

Art invest, possess, 
divestiture, n removal, depriva- 
tion. dispossession 

Such a dnestilure of honors is 

divide, V disnnite, part, separate, 
sunder, split cleave, sever, dis- 
soaate, detach, disintegrate 
disconnect demarcate 
divide, V apportion, distribute, al- 
lot assign, parcel out, make 
discordant disaffect alienate 
estrange, part 

dnrtnaboit n augury, prophecy, 
sootbsaj'ing, pred etion 

Her power of dn^notion is im- 


diviae. ft cheologisfl, minfsteg 

He IS an eminent ditsne 
dmne. v presage, surmise, eos- 
jecture truly 

He dntned the cause of her dis- 

divisible, a dividable, separable 

It is ditvaifr into its const tuent 

division, n separation, partiuoo, 
demarcation, dimidiation 
division, n disunion, alter ..tion, 
schism, vanance dissension; 
apportionment allotment dis- 

He found dissatisfaction ard ds- 
tvnon everywhere 

The rfifwion of the spoils argered 

division n constituent, piece, 
portion, section, pa-ticle, ‘eg- 
meat part, compartne-t por- 
tion, canton, category, group, 
topic, point bead 


dimlge, >.• revea!, disclose, ex- 
pose, lapart 
You nuit not divulze it- 
diarintss, n vertigo. 
dizzy, a. vertiginous, giddy, 
do, v." accomplish, consummate, 
discharge, work out, achieve 
tinrig about, complete, efTect, 
execute, fulfil, perform, finish, 

..Koix A man may io good or 
evil, commit, as applied to ac- 
tions, IS 0 ed or!/ of those that 
are bad, whether grave or triv- 
ial, ptrftUait IS used chiefly 
of 2 ggr,i\atcd cnmes or, lomj- 
what hu-noroasly, of blunders 
A man nay do wrong, comir.u 
a sir, a ire«pass, or a murder; 
perpelratt an outrage or a fel- 

do, V. perpetrate, commit, fare, 

do, V. (Colloq ) cheat, defraod, 
swindle, serve, be sntncient for. 
do away with: abolish. 

We can do ca-ay with that prac- 

docile, a. tractable, teachable, 
gentle, jisMing. obedient, pli- 
ant, ccTpliant, atrbmisiive. 

Kott: One who is docile is easily 
taught; cue who is tractible is 
easi'y led, one who is phort 
is easil/ bent in any direction; 

eotnphani repre*ert3 one as in- 
clired o- persuaded to agree- 
irent with anather’s will 

Am,: deterrrined, dogged, obso- 
nate, opinionated, resolute, self- 
willed, s'ubborn, wilful, cn- 
yieldi'g, n^exlb'c, intractable, 
docility.^ n : tractableness, «nb- 

Atrr.: indocility. intractablencis, 
doggef'ness, obstinacy, resolu- 
tion, fmness. 

dock, r : deduct from, lessen, cur- 

He was docLed a week’s pay. 
doct:; n,: wharf, pier, jetty, 
dock hand, n.. stevedore, 
doctor, n physician, medical 
praaitioner, homeopath, allo- 
path, mteme: exteroe, savant, 
doctor, V repair, treat, 
doctnnaj, a instructive, positne; 
dogmatic, opm onated, dicta- 

Those are doctrinal tenets, 
doctrine, n belief, dogma, faith, 
precept, principle, tenet. 

NtTTE Doctrine primarily signi- 
fies that which IS taught; fnn- 
ctpU, the fundamental basis on 
which the teaching rests A 
doctrine is reasoned out. and 
nay be defended by reasoning; 
a dogma rests on authonty, as 
of direct revelation, the deei' 
Sion ol the church, etc. A doc- 
trine or dogma is a statement 
of tome one item of belitfj a 
creed is a summary of doctnntt 
or dogmat Dogma has com* 
monly, at the present day, an 
o^ensive s gnmeation, as of a 
behe! arrogantly asserted. 
Terei is simply that which is 
held, a.nd is applied tO a ling'e 
Jteai of lehej: it is a neutral 
word, neither approvmg nor 
condemning; we speak of the 
doctnnet of our own church; 
of the fenelj of Olhtri. A pre- 
cept relates not to belief, but 
to conduct. 

A»t.: action, conduct, deed, do- 
ing. duty, fact, operaoon. per- 
foTtranct, praaice 
document, n.: record, memoir, 
chronicle, annals, 
dodge. V.: avoid, evade, 
dodge^ n.; evasion, Itsjning aside; 
trick, artifice 

doff, V.: take off, remove 
doge, n : (elective) chief rr.agii- 
trate, ruler. 


dogged, a obdurate, persistent, 
sullenly stubborn 
Ant docile, compliant, gentle, 
pliant, submissive, manageable, 

doggerel, n trivial verse 
doggish, a sullent, surly, churl- 
ish, synical, morose 
dogma, n tenet, doctrine 
They held to the ancient dogtita 
dogmatic, a arrogantly positive, 
magisterial, dictatorial, imperi- 
ous, doctrinal, systematic, au- 
thoritative, categorical arro- 
gant. domineering, overbearing 

Note Dogmatic is technically ap- 
plied in a good sense to that 
which IS formally enunciated by 
adequate authority, doctrinal to 
that which is stated in the form 
of doctrine to be taught or de- 
fended Doginohc theology, 
called also dogmatics" gives 
definite propositions, whiui it 
holds to be delivered by author- 
ity, tysfemaHc theofo^ consid 
ers the same propositions in 
their logical conneaion and or- 
der as parts of a system, a dor- 
trinal statement is less absolute 
in Its claims than a dogmuiic 
treatise, and may be more par- 
tial than the tern tyttematic 
would imply Outside of iheol- 
ogv, dogmatic has generaify an 
offensive sense, a dogmatic 
statement is one for which the 
author does not trouble himself 
to give a reason, either because 
of the strength of his convic- 
tions, or because of his con- 
tempt for those whom he ad- 
dresses; thus dogmatic IS, m 
common use, allied with arro- 
gant and kindred words 

dog-sUtr, n : Sinus, Canicula, 
cams Majorts. 

doings, n , pi. proceedings, ac- 
tions, deeds, acts, performances, 

dole, n alms, pittance, appor- 
tionment, distribution, share, 
portion , grief, sorrow 
doleful, a dolorous, sorrowful, 
plaintive piteous, lugubrious, 
woe begone 

Ant blithe, happy, cheerful, 
bouyant, cheery, enlivening, 
gay, joyous, jocund, lively, mer- 
ry, sprightly smiling, sunny 
dolente, a and adv (music) 
plaintive plaintively, sadly, gent- 
ly, (Mus ) 

dolor, ti grief sorrow, suffering, 
anguish, pain 

dolorous, a pathetic, distressing, 

It was a dolorous tale 
domam. n sovereignty, domin- 
ion, territory realm, province, 
dome, n cupola 
domestic, a household, family, 
home, domesticated, tatre; 
(ond ol home . not foreign 
domesticate, v tame, reclaim, 

domieil. domicile, n home, place 
of dwelling 

domicil, domicile, v domiciliate, 
provide or establish home 

\Ve were domiciled at the hotel 
dominant, a prevailing, predom- 
inant. predominating, para- 

That IS the dominant note. _ 
dominate, v sway, predominate, 
rule, control, govern, surmount, 

They dominated the region 
domination, n dominion, gov- 
ernment. rule, supremacy, au- 
thority ascendancy 

The domination of the party is 

dominator, n ruler, controlling 

domineer, v tyrannize, swagger, 
lapor. bluster 

dommeenag. a tyrannical, dicta- 
torial, overbearing, imperious, 


An't rrcek. apologetic, mirinR 
deminioa, n sovereignty, sway, 
supremacy , realm, empire, 
kingdom, domain 

Her foreign dotnxmons have been 
wrested from her 

donate, v. give, contribnte, be- 
stow, grant 

You may donate it to the cause, 
donation, n benefaction, gift, 

That was a liberal donation, 
done for (Colloq ) used up. tired 
out, spent, collapsed, exhausted 
done up (Colloq ) worn out 
wrapped up, exhausted 
donjon,: tower, keep, stronghold, 
donor, n. giver. 

The donor was not known 
do-nothing, a. idle, inactive, lazy, 
fabian, slothful 

doom, n judgment, judicial sen- 
tence, destiny, death 
door, n portal, entrance, gate: 

postern; porch, portico 
doorkeeper, n porter, concierge, 
ostiary, tyler. 

dormancy, n. quiescence, inactlv- 
ity, abeyance, torpor, lethargy, 

The r daj of dormancy is past 
dormant, a quiescent, inert, la- 
tent, inactive, abeiant torpid. 

The buds are still dormant 
dose, n draught, dram, potion, 
dot, n." period, point, speck; 

dotage, n • decrepitude, senility, 
amlitj : fondness, affection (ex- 
rcifi'r or eteofc). 

He had reached his dotasc. 
doting, a fond, losing, affection- 

dotted, a • spotted, speckled, 

double, a • duplex, twofold, bi- 
fold, binate, equivocal, Janos- 
f.iced, deceitful, insincere, per- 

doable, s • duplicate, fold, plait 

double, n. duplicate, counterpart; 
duplication, plait, doubling 

You are his double 
doable, n circuit, shift, artifice, 
stratagem, maneuver, trick, 
double-dealing, n dissimulation, 
duplicity, trickery, Machiavel- 

Do not be guilty of double-deal- 


double-faced. Janns-faced, deceit- 
ful perfidious 

double-headed, a. bicipital, bicip- 

double-hearted, a deceitful, per- 
fidious, treacherous, insincere 
double-minded, a irresolute, un- 
settled. V acillating undeter- 

doublet a waistcoat, one (of a 

doubling, dubling, n : duplicating 
doubt V. suspect mistrust, sur- 
mise. distrust 

Note To doubt is to hek eon- 
nction Incompleteness of CTi- 
dcnce may compel one to doubt. 
or some perverse b-as of mind 
may incline him to Diffrujf 
may ex’press simply a Jack cl 
confidence; as, 1 distrust my 
own judgment; or it may be 
nearly equivalent to sus/'eet; as, 
1 distrusted that man from the 
start Mistrust and susfieet im- 
ply that one is almost assured 
of positive evil; one may dis- 
trust himself or others; he sus- 
tests others flfutrurl is now 
rarely, if ever, used of persons 
but onl} of motives, intentions, 
etc. Distrust is alwavs serious; 
»ntrtrntf IS often used pl^fully 

Akt • believe, confide in, depend 
on, depend upon, rely on, rclj 
upon, trust 

doubt, s. question, be undecided, 
query, hc'itate (to accept as 

\Ve doulf the truth of the state- 


Ant., fctlieve, are assured of, ac- doubt Scruple relates to mat. 

cept, give credence to, credit, ters of consc.ence and duty 

trust, rely upon 

doubt, n uncertainty, indecision, Ant ■ assurance, belief, certainty, 
vacillation, irresolution. Query, conviction decision, detennina- 

hesitancy, quandary, perplexity turn resolution, resolve 

Ant conviction, credulity, con- doubtful, a undetermined, unset* 
fidence, decision, assurance, cer- tied, wavering, precarious, un- 

tainty decided, irresolute, question- 

doubt, n distrust, misgiving, sns- able, dubious, involved, ambig- 

picion, disbelief, unbelief, per- uous, enigmatical, problematical, 

plexity, incredulity, skepticism equivocal, vague, indefinite 
Tbe outcome is doubtful 

Note Doubt may refer either Ant certain, implicit, sure, un- 
to matters of belief or to mat- questionable, unwavering 
ters of practice As regards be- doubting, a incredulous, sus- 
lief, doubt IS lack of convic- picious, skeptical 
tion, dtsbehef is conviction to doubter, n unbeliever, skeptic, 
tbe contrary; unbeiie/ refers douceur, n gift, present, Jargess, 
rather to a settled state of mmd, offering 
generally accompanied with op- doughfaced, a weak, irresolute, 
position of heart Perplexity t$ pliable 

active and painful, doubt may doughty, a fearless, redoubtable, 
be quiescent Perplexity presses valiant, bold 
toward a solution; doubt may He is a doughty warrior 
be content to linger unresolved dour, a obstinate, sour, hard 
Any imjirobible statement Her face was dour and forbid- 
awakens incredulity In theo- ding 

logical usage unbelief and skep- douse, v duck, immerse, dip, 
ticum have a condemnatory plunge, souse, submerge 
force, as implying wilful rejec- He was doused m the pond, 
tion of manifest truth As re- dove, n pigeon 
gards practical matters, uneer- dovecote, ti pigeonry, pigeos- 
lointy applies to the unknown house 

or undecided, doubt implies dovelike, a columbine, gentle, 
some negative evidence. Sue- loving 

pense regards the future, and is dovetail, v jom 
eager and anxious; «i»rer/amty He dovetoiled the joint 
may relate to any i>enod, and dowdy, a slovenly, untidy, slat- 
be quite indifferent ilisgtv"ig temly, frowsy 

is ordinarily in regard to the dower, n endowment, portion, 
outcome of something already down, v subdue, floor, over- 
done or decided, hesitation. •»»- throw, prostrate, conquer. 
decision, and irreroluiion tave He could not be downed, 
reference to something that re- down, a sloping, downward, do- 
mains to be decided or done, scending 
and are due oftener to infirmity Here is a down grade, 
of will than to lack of knowl- down, n soft plumage, pubes- 
edge Distrust and suspicion cenee 

apply especially to the motives, downcast, a dejected, discour- 
character, etc. of others, and couraged. gloomy, despondent, 
are more decidedly adverse than dispirited 


downfall, n.: descent, reverse, 
downcome, abasement, humtlta- 

downhearted, a. despondent, dc* 
jected, discouraged 
downright, 8 . direct, positive, un- 
ceremonious, undisguised, abso- 
lute, tmmixed, straightforward 
downy, a. pubescent, flocculcnt. 
dowry, n : portion 
doie, V • sleep lightly, pass time 

draft, n draught, drawing, bill 
of exchange; delineation, cur- 
rent of air, sketch, conscript, 

drag, V haul, trail, poll, break, 
tug, harrov. 

drag, n. dragnet, dragging, har- 
row, skid; clog, impedimcftt, 

This has been a serious drag. 
dragon, n monster, vimged ser- 
pent; fierce person, 
dragoon, v. rule despotically, ha- 
rass, coerce 

dragoon, n. cavalryman, 
drain, n : gutter, channel, treneb, 
ditch, sewer. 

drain, v.i empty, exhaust, deplete; 

drama, n • play, composition, 
drapery, n classical attire, 
drasde, a. severe, efiective. 

Those are drastic measures, 
draught, n dose, dnnk. 
draw, V.: depict, draught, sketch, 
trace, hmn, delineate 
draw, V.: drag, haul, tug. tow; at- 
• tract, entice, allure, lure, induce, 

Note: One object dravs another 
when It moves it toward itself 
or m the direction of its own 
motion by the exertion of ade- 
quate force, whether slight or 
powerful. To attract is to exert 
a force that tends to draco, 
though it may produce no ac- 
tinl motion; all objects are of- 
r'-tf 1 trd toH ard the earth, thougii 

they may be sustained from fall- 
ing To drag IS to draxv against 
strong resistance, as, to drag 
a sled over bare ground, or a 
carnage up a steep hill To 
full IS to exert a draciing force, 
whether adequate or inade- 
quate, as, the fish fulls on the 
line, a dentist fulls a tooth To 
tug IS to draw, or try to draw, 
a fcsi'-ting object with a contin- 
uous straining motion, as to tug 
at the oar To haul is to 
drirv somewhat slowly a heavy 
object, as, to haul a seine; to 
haul logs One vessel lows an- 
other In the figurative sense. 
attract is more nearly akin to 
iBWi»ie, draw to induce We are 
attracted by one’s appearance. 
draum to his side 

Akt ' alienate, estrange, repel, re- 

drawback, n.- hindrance, defect, 
disadvantage^ tmperfection; re- 
bate, deduction, discount 
draw back: shrink, retract; flinch. 

recoil, withdraw, wince, 
drawer, n.* till (money drawer), 

drawing, ti.t hauling, traction, 

drawing, n • sketch, draught, dia- 
gram. picture, limning, repre- 
sentation ; graphics, diagraph- 
ks. delineation 

drawling, a.- monotonous, pro- 
nouncing lazily 

drawing back; shrinking, flinch- 
ing, recoiling, withdrawal, 
wincing: retraction, 
drawing off: abstraction, with- 

drawing out: protraction, stretch- 
ing, extension; eduction, ex- 

draw off: withdraw, abstract 
draw out; extend, protract 
stretch, elicit educe, extract 
draw up: draught, write, com- 
pose; array, arrange 


dread, n : apprehension, fear, 
alarm, anxiety, venerahoo, 

dread, a awful, terrible, awe, in- 

The dread day arrived 
dread, v. apprehent, fear, antici- 
pate (with horror) 

He dreads their approach 
dreadful, a terrible, fearful, for- 
midable, dread, awful, dire, 
direful, frightful 
It was a dreadful sight 
dream, n illusion, vagary, wild 
conceit, revery, romance, fancy, 
iantasy, hallucination, vision, 
trance, day-dream 

Note. A dream occurs during 
sleep, a wion when one is 
awake, and in clear exercise 
of the senses and mental pow- 
ers, a Iranee is an abnormal 
state, which is different from 
normal sleep or wakefulness 
A reverie is a purposeless drift- 
ing of the mind when awake, 
under the influence of mental 
images, a day-dream that which 
passes before the mmd in such 
condition A fancy ts some 

image presented to the mind, 
often in the fullest exercise of 
Its powers Hallttctnalion ts the 
seeming perception of non-ex- 
istent object! as in insanity or 
delirium In the figurative 

sense, we speak of dreams of 
fortune, visions of g!orJ^ with 
little difference of meaning ex- 
cept that the tnston is thought 
of as fuller and more vivid We 
speak of a trance of delight 
when the emotion almost sweeps 
one away from the normal ex- 
ercise of the faculties 

Ant • certainty, fact, reality, 
realization, substance, verity. 

AssoaATED Words : Morpheus, 
Morphean, oneiroscopy, oneiro- 
scopist, oneirocntic, oneiroman- 

oneirology, oneirocriticism, 

dreamer, n enthusiast, visionary, 
castle-builder, John-a-dreams 
He was a dreamer of dreams 

dreamy, a unreal, vtsiOTtary, il- 
lusory abstracted, drowsy, ab- 
sent minded 

Ant practical, real, substantial, 
acientive, awakened, intense, 
active energetic 

drear, dreary, a cheerless, dis- 
mal, drear, lonesome, wean- 
some dull, monotonous, lifeless 

dregs, n pi refuse, sediment. 
Ices, draff, riffraff, mob 
He drank the dregs 
They represented the dregs of 

dress, n clothes, clothing, gown, 
toilette, robe, raiment, gar- 
ments, attire, garb, habiliments, 
apparel, habit, array, costume, 
logs, toggery, vesture 

Noie Clothing denotes the en- 
tire covering of the body, taken 
as a whole, elothes and gar- 
ments view it as composed of 
separate parts Clothes, eloth- 
titg, and garments may be used 
of inner or outer covering, all 
the other words m the ,list 
(with possible rare exceptions 
in (he case of raiment) refer 
to the outer garments Array, 
raiment, and vesture are archaic 
or poetic , so, too, is habit, ex- 
cept in technical use to denote 
a lady's riding-drrw The word 
vestments if now rare, except 
in ecclesiastical use Apparel 
and attire are most frequently 
used of somewhat complete and 
elegant outer clothing, though 
Shakespeare speaks of “poor 
and mean attire " Dress may be 
used, specifically, for a woman’s 
gown and in that sense may 
be either rich or shabby: but 
in the general sense it denotes 
outer clothing which is meant 

to be elesant, complete, and ap- 
propriate to some social or pub. 
lie occasion, as, full dress, court 
dress, c'cning dress, etc. Dress 
has no'v largely displaced ap- 
forel afld altire Carb denotes 
the clothing characteristic of 
some class, profession, or the 
like; as, the garb of a priest. 
Costume is diicfly used for that 
uhlch befits an assumed char* 
acter, as, a theatrical costume, 
vit sometimes speak of a na* 
Uonal costume, etc. 

Avt : bareness, disarray, disha- 
bille, nudity, undress, naked- 
ness, exposure 

dress, v. deck, drape, clothe, ap- 
parel, robe, array, attire. 

Am : undress, disrobe, divest, 
strip, expose. 

dress, v ' align, adjust, curry, 
smooth, plane, finish 
dress gaudily: bedizen, prank 
dressing, n * forcemeat, stufling, 

dressing, n. (Colloq ) chastise- 
ment, scolding, castigation, 
whipping, flogging 
dressmaker, ti : modiste, tnantau- 

dribble, v,: drip, trickle 

drier, n : desiccant, desiccative. 

desiccator, cxsiccant, exsiccator, 
drift, n.; direction, bearing, 
course, tendenc)', aim, inten- 
tion, design, import, intent, 
meaning; accumulation, heap, 
bank, pile, diluvium. 

I caught the drift of the con- 

A great pile of drift accumu- 

dniting, a.: adrift derelict; aim- 
less, desultory. 

drill, n.* practice, exercise, action, 
drill, V : pierce, bore, perforate; 

tran, discipline, exercise, 
drink, v.; sip, quaff, imbibe, slake 
one’s thirst sup, tipple, tope, 
guzzle, booze. bou‘e, be intem- 

perate. absorb, drink up, stttk 

dnttk, n beverage, draught, 
dram, potation, drench, 
drmking, n. potation; tippling, 
bibaoty, drunkenness, carousal, 
guzzling, intemperance 

Am temperance, nephalism, ab- 
stnence, toototalism. 

AssociATm WoEns . bibacious, 
bibulous, bibitory, dipsoniania, 
alcoholism, thirst nectar, hob- 
nob, bacchanalian, inebnint, po- 
tatory, omomania, symposium, 
crapulence, supernac^um, con- 
vivial, conviviality, tankard, 
beaker, cup, stem, canteen 
drinking-bout, n.‘ bacchanals, 
orgies, carousal, revel, rnclfy. 
wassail, saturnalia, debauch, 
spree, carouse, joU-fication. ex- 

drip, V.- trickle, dribble, dfOP- 
dripping, n trickling, dribbling 
dnpplng iron the cavei: 

drive, V.- impel, propel, 
compel, push, repulse, repfb 
flnenee, thrust, urge on 

Nett; To drive is to move an 
object With some force of vio- 
lence before or away from one- 
self; It is the direct reverse of 
draw. lead, etc A man leads 
a horse by the halter, dmfr him 
with whip and rein We dme 
in a carnage, ride upon a horse. 

Ant. • draw, haul, pull, 
drive at: purpose, aim, intend, 
drive away: dissipate, di'peh <!'*• 
perse, scatter, 

drive back: rebuff, repulse, repel 
drivel, n; twaddle, driveling; 

That is mere dritel 
drive out: banish, expel, dismiss, 

driver, n.: coachman, charioteer, 

dnvmg, a : impelling, impellent, 
violent, forcible; propulsive, im- 

driving, n.: guiding by wheel or 
reins ; impulsion, propulsim, 
compulsion, forcing 
driving back: rebuff, repulse, re- 
pulsion, repercussion, repel- 
lence, recussion 
driving out: expulsion 
dnsale, n : mist, mizale, misle 
droll, n • comedy, farce, bur- 
lesque; jester, buffoon, merry- 
Andrew, bany, harlequin 
droll, a • comical, ludicrons, 
laughable, facteious, funny 
drollery, n pleasantry, v/aggery, 
buffoonery, facetiousness 
drone, n • lounger, sluggard, idler, 
drool, V.: drivel 
drooler, n driveler, 
droop, V.. faint, languish, grow 
faint, sink; bend, drop hang, 
slouch; fade, wilt, wither 
drooping, a ' fading, languishing 
drop, n.. globule; pendant, de- 
scent, fall 

drop, V.' fall, let fall; distill, drib- 
ble, trickle 

drop, V, discontinue, discard, dis- 
miss, intermit, remit, relinquish; 
communicate incidentally, utter 

drop, V, (Colloq)' to kill, cause 
to fall, bring down 
drop-light, n : pendant 
droppmg, n : trickling, distilla- 
tion, dribbling, falling, stillicide 
drop-shaped, a.: globular 
dross, n scum, refuse, dregs, 

drought, drouth, n dryness, arid- 
ity, dearth, scarcity 
The drouth killed the vegetation 
drove, n • flock, herd, crowd, com- 

There was a large drove of cattle 
The people came in drones 
drowm, v submerge, flood over- 
whelm, inundite, deluge 
drowning, n submersion inun- 
dation, demersion, noyadc 

drowsiness, n. sleepiness 
drowsy, a sleepy, dozy 
drudge, n hack, slave, menial, 
scullion, fag 

drudgery, n service (menial) 

drug, V dull, stupefy, deaden; 
surfeit, hocus 

drug, n narcotic, ingredient 

Associated Words pharmacol- 
ogy. pharmacologist, pharmacy, 
pnarmacognosis, pharmaceutics, 
pharmacodynamics, pharmaco- 
poeia, pharmacography, spatula, 
mortar, pestle, cribration, phar- 
macopolist pharmaceutical 
drum, n base-drum, kettle-drum, 
tabor, taborme 

Associated Words reveille, rap- 
pel, chamade, ruff, tattoo, ruf- 
fle. roll, rataplan, drummer, 
drumhead, drumstick, 
drum, V thrum, strum 
drummer, n (Colloq): traveling- 

drunk, a drunken intoxicated, 
full, inebriated tipsy, boocy, be- 
sotted, maudlin, muddled, over- 
come sottish, the worse for 
liquor, under the influence of 

Note Drunken may immediately 
precede the noun which it qual- 
ifies. while drunk cannot; thus 
the man was drunk, or, he made 
him drunk a drunken man. 
Drunk, xnebriated, intox\eated, 
etc . denotes actual condition at 
some one time, drunken may 
denote habitual condition or 
character, or whatever is caused 
or characterized by drunken- 
nc's as an idle, drunken 
wretch, a drunken quarrel, a 
drunken speech S'ottif/i always 
refers to established habit or 
character Figuratively, we mav 
speak of a persecutor as drunk 
with blood or of a conqueror as 
tntoxtcalcd with success 


Ant : absicmiou*, abstinent, as- 
cetic, sober, steady, temperate 
drunkard, n : toper, sot. tippler, 
inebriate, carouser, cipsoman- 
iac, wine-bibber, bacchanal, bac- 
chanalian, debauchee 
Ant. abstainer, ascetic, nephalist, 

drunken, a drunk, intoxicated, 
sottish, maudlin, fuddled, mel- 
low, erogBy. disguised 
drunkenness, n incbnety. inebri- 
ation, ebriety, intoxication, de- 
bauch, excitement, freney, in- 

Ant • sobriety, temperance, ab- 

dry, a desiccated, dried, exsic- 
cated, evaporated . and, parched . 
anhydrous, barren 
This IS a dry climate 
dry, a uninterestinn. jejune, lile- 
less, prosaic, tame, unembel- 
Iished, sapid, quamt. shrewd, 

dry, s,' desiccate, evaporate, ex- 
siceate, aref), insoUte (dry in 
the sun), torrefy; tnfutnate 
(dry in smoke), 
dry-goods: textile fabrics. 

Associated Word mercer 
drying, n • desiccation, exsicca- 
tion, evaporation, lorrefaction, 

Assocatio) Words • disiccator, ex- 
siccator, desiccaiivc, evaporator, 

drying, a : desiccative, exsiccatWe, 
desiccant, desiccatory, exsic- 
cant, evaporative 

dryness, n ; drought, aridity, des- 
_iccation, exsiccation 
dubious, a : undecided, undeler- 
mined, doubtful ; equivoca!, 
questionibIc._ vague. 

That is a duHour compltment 
dubiousness, n.* uncertainty, 
vagueness, doubtfulness, equiro- 
calness, ambiguity 
Ant • clearness, indi«pat3bilit>, 
obviousness, perspicuity 

duck, X.: dip, plunge, souse, Im- 
merse; dive; dodge, ennge 
duck, n ; drake (male); teal.; pi, 

ducking-stool, n. castigatory, 
cucking-stool, tumbrel 
duct, n canal, tube, pipe, chan- 
nel. conduit 

ductility, n pliability. 

This wire has great duc/i/iJy 
dude, n fop. coxcomb, dandy, 
swdl, popmjay, exquisite 

Ant sloven, guy 
dudgeon, n. anger, resentment, 

She was in hiph dugcon 
dudish, a foppish, dandified, cox- 

Akt slovenly, «eedy, unkempt 
duds, n , nt. (CoUoq ) fripfery 
(old clothes) ; clothes, efleets. 

due, a. unpaid, payable, appropri- 
ate, becoming, proper, renlar, 
appointed; owing, a<tTibablc. 
due. n debt; duty, right, 
duel. n.‘ combat, encounter. 

There was no dwrf. 
dugout, n.: excavation. 

The ducfiui was their only home, 
dulcet, a ; melodious, agreeable; 

dull, obtuse, unintelligent, 

solid. loggerheaded, insensate, 
unfeeling, callous; dolti'h, bee- 
tle-headed, blockish, slow, in- 

dull, a stupid, unexciting, tedi- 
ous, prosaic, wearisome; matte, 
lustcriess. lacMusier 
dull, a. blunt, obtuse, dulled, 
dull, V • blunt, benumb, stupefy, 
deaden, asuige, alleviate, mock, 
tamish, obscure, dim. bedim 
dullard, n.: ignoramus, dolt, 

dullness, n • stupidity, phlegm, 
apathy, in«ensibihi>, sluggish- 

Ant : cleverncM, brilliancy, keen- 
ness. alertness, acuteness. 


dumb, a : mute, silent, speechless; 

dumbness, n muteness, speech- 

dumb show: pantomime 
dumfound, v.* astound, amaze, as 
tonish, confound 
dummy, n model, sample 
dumpish, a moody, moping, dull, 
dejected, gloomy, despondent 
dumps, n, pi depre^'^m. mclan- 

mcnt has m itself no author 
ity, the signatures, as well as 
other matters, may be copied, 
a dttflicate is really an original, 
containing the same provisions 
and signed by the same persons, 
so that It may have in all re 
spccts the same force and ef- 
fect, a transcril>l is an official 
copy, aulhcniicatcd by the sig 
nature of the proper officer, and 
by the seal of the appropriate 
court While strictly iheie 
could be but one duplicate, the 
word is now extended to an in- 
definite number of exact copies 
Reproduction is chiefly applied 
to living organisms 

Ant archetype, model, original. 

ips, n, pi depre»*'' 
choly, despondencj 
dunce, n dolt, dullard, n., nskull 
willing, blockhead, coot, lack- 
brain, ninny, mooncalf, ignora 
mus, booby, simpleton 
duncical, a doltish, witless 
dupe, V hoodwink, mislead, dc 
ceive, cheat 

dupe, n gull, gudgeon, victim ■ — • - -.' v..,,. 

duplicate, a double, twofold, du- ,***‘*,*^"’ *^ 

, ’ duphcaling, n doubling 

lupEc,,,. n lacmJ,, count,,. A»c ” 

rlf. IS ^ - 

w^edy hre^he'o'rigm“(,''a mI- ^,*'=^„anteed 

^°e”ntTusf “a ^P«-nent. lasting. 

plicate IS the same as the otig- H« ^s n epoch, era, 

Inal in substance and effect, a 

of the Declaration of ° be of short rfurofiim 

independense is not a duplicate ' restraint, fet 

A fj«i.«i/e of a key mSght be ' 

quite useless, a duplicate wil held in duress 

open the lock A „ nVghlfall, twilight, even- 

cxaetly corresponds to another ^ 

object, but perhaps without dc* wg . 

sign, while a eopy is ‘"‘'”‘•'^91 ^u-w a obscure, darksome, dim, 
An imitation is always thought ],ghied. swathy 

of as inferior to the ^.gmaU «ere duJty ^ 

as, an tmifafmn of Milton A in* . j remains, ashes. 
replica is a copy of a work of 

art by the maker of the original P® mills) 

In law, a copy of an instru- «»«'• 



Assocjate» Woeos* pulveruabic, 
puherabic, pulveraicnce, palvcr- 
jze, puhcriration 

dust stora: simoon, (in India] 
sbaitan, devil, peesash; dust 

dusty, a * powdery, pulverized. 
puIvcrJent, pulverous 

dutilul, a. duteous, obedient, sub- 
missive, deferential, docile. 

duty, n incumbency, responsibil' 
it>, accountability, service, bus- 
ness, work, (unction, office, oV 
I Ration, righteousness, right 

Note Etymologically, duty iS 
that which IS owed or due > 
obligeiion, that to or by which 
one IS bound, rtghl, that which 
is correct, straight, or in the 
direct line of truth and good- 
ness , retpomibihii, that fo^ 
whi^ one must answer Duty 
and r«patui&i{t(> are thought 
of as to some person or per* 
ions, right IS impersonal. One's 
duly may be to others or to 
himself: one's obhgattont and 
retponribiluies are to others 
Duty arises from the nature of 
things; obhgtflwn and f<fpon«* 
liUty may be created by cir- 
cumstances, as ^ one's own 
pTomiie, or by the acceptance 
of a tmst, etc. We speak of » 
parent's duty, a debtor's obliga- 
tion, or of a child’s duty of 
obedience, and a parent's rt- 
spontibility for the child’s wel- 
fare Ktghl IS that which ac- 
cords with the moral system 
of the universe. Righleautnett 
15 right incarnated m action 
In a more limited sense, right 
may be used ci what one may 
rj?hlly claim, and so be the 
coniefse of duly It i« the 
ertd tor’s nghi to demand pay- 
men*. and the debtor’s duty to 

AssiXTATra V.'osps ; ethics, deon- 

tology, casuistry, ethology, mor. 
als, ethicist, ethically, superero 
gate, supererogation 
duty, n. toll, excise, custom, tax, 

dsvarf, n. pygmy, manikin, 
gnome. Lilliputian, elf, midget, 
runt, Tom Thumb, hop-o-my- 

dwarf, V atrophy, stunt, 
dwarfish, a undersized, diminu- 
tive, Lilliputian, Pigmy, pyg- 
mean, runty, undeveloped, tiny, 
stunted, atrophied 
dwell, V.. live, reside, abide, lin- 
ger, tarry, pause, expatiate, 
dweller, n. resident, denizen, so- 
journer, inabitant. habitant 
dwelling, n residence, house 
abode, domicile 

dwindle, v.: dimmish, shrink, de- 

dwindling, n.' diminution, shrink- 
age, decrease. 

dye, V . imbue, color, stain, tinge 
dye, fl. coloring fiuid, sum 
dying, a : expiring, mortal, per- 
ishable, moribund; coming to a 
close, failing 

dynamic, a t powerful, efficient; 
motive, producing activity. 

Ills powers were djKOim'f. 

Dinamtc forces were at work. 

Ant : static, quiescent, weak, 
dynast, o.: monarch, sovereign, 
hereditary ruler. 

dynasticisen. n.: sovereignty, (he- 

dynasty, n : era (of uninterrupted 
djnastic rule). 

The dynasty .of the Bourbons 
finally toppled 

dyotheism, n. theistic dualism, 
dysnomy, n.: anarchy, bad legis- 


each, a • one of two, either, every, 
apiece, individually, separate- 
ly. distribulively. 

Each man shall receive an equal 


Ant • collectively, en masse, to- 
gether, unitedly 

each, pro. every one, one of two 
See every. 

eager, a ardent, earnest, annous. 

desirous, intent, 
fervent, zealous 
Ant : apathetic, careless indi^er- 
ent, Regardless, unconcerned, 

eager, a • excited, vehement, in- 
tense, impetuous, importun- 
ate, yearning, animated 

surety token, sincerity, seri- 
ousness good faith 
The pa>inent of earneil is some- 
times required 
He spoke in real earnest 

avid, earnestness, n ardor, fervency, 
sincerity, seriousness, intent- 
ness, unLtion 

Your earnestness is convmang 
earnings, n pay, wages, compen- 
sation hire salary 
He banked hi. earnings 
camng, n pendant, eardrop, 

Note: One is eager for the grat- eait^ n world, globe, terra fir- 
ification of any appetite or pas- ma, ground, soil, land 
Sion; one is earnest in eonvic- earthborn, a terrigenous, human, 
tion, purpose, or character base groveling, abject 

Eager usually refers to some earthenware, n pottery, crock- 
specific and immediate satisfac- ery stoneware, porcelain, 
tion, earnest to something per- Delftuare 
manent and enduring, the pa- earthling, n mortal, tellurian, 
triotic soldier is earnest in his tellunst 
devotion to his country, eager earthly, a carnal worldly, grovel- 
for a decisive battle. ing. sordid, lerrestial lerrine, 

temporal, conceivable, possi- 
eagemess, n impatience, zeal, ble 

avidity, fervor, intensity, em- His earthly goods were few 
pressement, heartiness, in- earthly-minded, a worldly-mind- 
tentness, impetuosity, areney, ed sensual groveling, unspir- 
ardor. itual 

earlier, a antexedent, previous, eart^uake, n earth tremor, 
former, prior, anterior. shock ..... 

An earlier hour was set for the earthwork, n enbankmetit, forti- 
meetmg fication. 

earher, adv. before, previously The troops threw up earthuores. 

You must leave earlier than that earthworm, n dewworm, ang e- 
early, a. timely, seasonable, pre- worm, lumbnc 

mature earthy, a terrestial. earthly. 

He took an early tram gross, groveling, carnal, low 

early, adv. seasonably, prema- It is of the earth, earthy 

turely. ear-trumpet, n auricle, soniter. 

He rises Mr/y. otophone 

earn, v.; gam, get, procure, merit ease, n facility, readiness, knack, 

earnest, a unfeigned, sincere, ar- 
dent, impassioned, fervent, 
eager, zealous, intent, enthu- 

He IS an earnest w^ker 
earnest, n : bail, /gage, pledge. 

Note Case may be either of 
condition or of action, faeility 
IS always of action, readiness 
IS of action or of expected ac- 

tion One lives at <iJ« 'who 
has no pressing cares, one 
stands at ease, moves or speaVs 
with ease, when wholly with- 
out constraint Factluy Is al- 
wajs active, readiness may he 
active or passive, the speaker 
has /cfi/ity of expression, reorfi- 
fjess of wit Case of action may 
Imply merely the possession of 
ample power, fanhiy always 
implies practise and skill, any 
one can press down the Keys of 
a typcwTiler with ease, only the 
skilled operator, works the ma- 
chine with fartlily Canness 
applies to the thintr done, rather 
than to the doer L'x/terjnej* ap- 
plys to the more tnecbamcal 
processes of body and mmd. 
we speak of the readiness of 
an orator, but of the expert 
ness of a gymnast. 

Ast • annoyance, awlcwardntss. 
(h^tculty, discomfort dis<iuie(. 
irritation, perplexity, trouble, 
uneasiness, vexation, woiry 
ease, n repose, comfort, tran- 
quilitv, tjuiescencc. contentment, 
serenity, peace; abandon, unre- 
straint, informality 
ease, v.‘ alleviate, appease, as- 
suace. allay, mitigate, soothe, 
palliate, releaso, relax, mol- 
lify, relieve; facilitate, lighten, 
set free. 

easiness, n.: ease, facility, readi- 

east, n.: cardinal point. 

They came from the far Cast, 

AssoaATro Words; orientate, 
orientation. Orient, Orientalism, 
Orientalist, orienfatire, oriental- 

eastern, a orient, oriental, ortivc- 
easy. a.- untroubled, ijuiet, com- 
fortable, tranquil, credulous, 
gullible, facile, submissive, 
compliant, tractable. 

easy, a • facile, slight; smooth, 
fluent, unconstrained, 
easy-going, a.’ ease-loving, mild- 
tempered, unenterprising, in- 
active. happy-go-lucky 
eat, V feed, bolt, gulp, devour, 

Akt abstain, diet, fast, starve, 

eat. V consume, erode, fret, cor- 

eatable, a comestible, edible, 

AvT inedible 

eaten away: fretted, eroded, 

eating, n repast, feeding, (excess 
tn eating) gluttony, gormand- 
ism, gulping, bolting, supei- 
atimentation, browsing 

AssoaxTEp W'oRDS aristolegy, 
gastronomy, gastronome, gas- 
tronomer, ep/eure, epicurism, 
diet, dietetics, dietary, com- 
mensal, dietartan, gastronomic, 
gourmet, gormand, coymerant; 
glutton, omnivofous, appetite, 
hunger, hungry, gustatory, pan- 
tophagisf, pantophagous, pan- 

eating, n.: erosion, corrosion; 
fretting, canker. 

eating-house, n : restaurant, 

fhophouse, cafe, bulTct. 
eating-roora, n.: refectory, dining- 
^ room. 

eating together; commensalism. 

eau, n . pi.: eaux; water; perfume; 

eaves, n , pi.: projecting edge; 

The eai'et were dripping moisture, 
eaves-drop, v.- listen 
eaves-dropptr, n.' listener, 
eaves-trough. n,: gutter, cullis- 

ebb, n • wane, decline, dc'erioia- 
tion, reflux, retrogression 

There was an ebb m the con- 


ebb, V • recede, retire, return, de- 
cline, deteriorate, wane, decay 

His life ebbed slowly away 
ebbing, a • falling, refluent, reced- 

The ebbing waters slowly sub- 

ebullient, a.: bubbling, overflow- 
ing, overdemonstrative. 

His ebullteni spirits inspired 
them to action 

ebullition, n. bubbling, violent 
bursting forth 

It was in a state of ebulithon 
eccentric, a.: erratic, unconven- 
tional, irregular, whimsical, 
idiosyncratic, odd, freakish, 
eccentricity, n erraticism, un- 
conventionality, whimsicality, 
idiosyncrasy, oddness, freakish- 

eeelesUst, ecclesiastic, n : chorch- 
tnan, offleial. 

ecclesiastic, ecclesiastical, a 

echo, n • reverberation, 
echo, V • resound, reverberate 
eclat, n.' applause, renown, splen 

eclectic, a.' liberal, broad 
eclipse, n : obscuration, extinc- 
tion, occultation, conceal- 
_ ment, outrivaling 
eclipse, v.- outshine, surpass, out- 
rival, overcast, obscure 

This presentation eclipsed her 
former effort 
ecliptic, n : path. 

economic, economical, a frugal, 
provident, saving, thrifty 

Economic buying was the basis 
of theiij fortune 

Ant • wasteful, improvident, 
prodigal, shiftless 

economics, n , pi economy (of 
production, distribution, pre- 

He has made a study of eeon- 

economist, n : manager, specialist 
in economics 

The economist must study his 

economue, v save, husband, re- 

economy, n thrift, management, 
administration, frugality, 
thrift I ness, retrenchment, 
practical system adjustment 
ecm, a unbleached 
ecstasy, n bliss, happiness, de- 
light rapture, joy 

It awakened ecstasy in his soul 

Ant distress, sadness, tribula- 
tion, woe 

ecstatic, a rapturous, blissful, 
joyful, beatific, transporting 

Their joy was ecstatic 
ecumenic, a general, universal 
eddy, V cause to circle or whirl, 

The water eddied and iwirlea 
eddy, 0 whirlpool, vortex 
edge, n verge, border, margin, 
extremity, brink, nm, lel- 

v®8e . . 

edge, n cutting portion, inten- 
sity, sharpness, aesi, poig- 
nancy. sting 

It gave rest and edge to their 

edge V fringe, border, nm, 
hitch along, sharpen, make 
keen or eager, incite. 

Ant dull, quiet 
edjnng, n border 
edible, a eatable, esculent, co- 

These are edible fruits 
edict, n dec^e^ mandate, procla- 
mation. manifesto, ordinance, 

ThVedict was promulgated 

edification, n upbuilding, enlight- 
enment. education. 

That was said for his edincation, 
edifiM, n building, structure. 

cdify-r** enlighten, educate, up- 

edij'v conduct, direct, prepare 
for use 


edition, n.: publ:shed form; re- 

editoria], n.. leading article, Icad- 

educate, v.' instruct, teacb, 
school, nurture, enlighten, 

They seek to educate the young, 
educated, a learned, versed, eru- 
dite, scholarly, enlightened, 
schooled, instructed, trained, 
v/ell-informcd, literate. 

Sort. In speaking of one as /rfit- 
cated, we imply, not merely 
that he has acnuired knowledge, 
but that his mental powers have 
been developed and disnplined 
to efftcuve action A graduate 
of a common school is fairly 
educated, a college graduate is 
liberally educated, a rriaste£ of 
saence is learned; a diligent 
reader is uelUnformed 

Akt boorish, Ignorant, illiterate, 
uneducated, unlearned, unlet- 
tered, unskilled, untaught, un- 

education, n.* culture, schooling, 
learning, tuition, scholarship, 
enlightenment, literacy, nur- 

educe, v.: draw out, call forth, 
evoke, evolve. 

The truth was finally educed. 
eduction, n.: inferring, deduction, 

eductive, a.: drawing out. 
efface, v.: obliterate, expunge, 
erase, eradicate. 

Do not efface the*e tracks, 
cffaceable, a.: cradraMc, erasable, 
effacement, n.: obliteration, ex- 
tinction, erasure, removaL 
She suffered complete effacement. 
effect, n.: outcome, conseguence, 
result, issue; tenor, meaning, 
purport, intent, import; va- 

effect, n.: effectuation, achieve- 

ment, fuiriment. execution, 
performance, realization; en- 
semble, imprc'sion. 
effect, V * accomplish, effectuate, 
achieve, realize, consummate, 

He effected a change in the pro- 

They accomfUshed the work. 

Victory has been achieved. 

He will effectuate the purpose of 
ins party 

He will soon reatiae his ambi- 

The revolution may then be ren- 

She will finally compats her end. 
effective, a. effectual, efficient, 
cogent, availing, potent, pro- 

The reprimand was effective, 
effectiveness, n . efllcicncy, po- 
tency, cogency. 

effect!^ n., pi. goods, chattels, 
effects, possessions; wares, 
commodities, merchandise. 

They moved their effects. 
effectual, a.: effective, efficient, 
efficacious, availing, success- 

The measure was effeelMl. 

fuir.-. unavailing, inefficient, b- 
efficadous. ineffectual 
effectuate, v.: effect, 
effectuation, n : bringing about. 

The cffrfmQlion of the treaty was 
finally brought about, 
effeminacy, n.: un manliness, 

effeminate, a.: unmanly, woman- 
ish. cockney. 

Hii manners are too effeminate. 
effervesce, v.: bubble up, give off 

The liquid! tffenesced.^ 
effervescence, n.:_ ebullition; irre- 
pressible excitement. 

The continued, 
effervescent, a.*, bubbling, 
effete, a.: exhausted, unfruitfus 
wasted, infccund, barren. 

Tlic effete soil was incarablc ef 
yicMmg crops. 

cfTicacious, a., potent, produclwc, 
effectual, clTective 
This measure will prove efRet>- 

erncacy, n.‘ potency, produclivc- 
ness, elTcclivcness, efTiciency. 
They tested its eneacy. 
efficiency, n productiveness, elfi- 
cacy, potency, 
lies efTtcteneji was apparent 
Ant • inemcaey, impotency in- 

efficient, a.: capable, competent, 
proficient, potent, clticacious. ef- 

This clerk is e/fieietit 
effigy, n.; imaRc, figure (Pfov. 
stuffed figure). 

The effigy was artistically carved 
effioresce, v.: blossom 
effioreseence, n. blossom, flower, 
bloom, florescence 
The tfHortsetitee was much ad- 

eflluenee, n,: emanation, flowing 
out; elilu'c. 

It was an tfHuenee of all fine na- 

effluent, a ■ flowing, issuing 
eflluvium, n , (pi effluvia) invis- 
ible emanation, noxious exha- 
lation. ^ 

They suffered from the emt'xJ 
efflux, n.. eflluvium 
effort, n • attempt, endeavor, es- 
say, exertion, strain, struggle, 
trial, venture 

effrontery, n : assurance, bold- 
ness, brass, audacity, impu- 
dence, shamelessness, inso- 
lence, hardihood 

NoTt: Audacity is a reckless 
fiance of consequences, which 
becomes sometimes, by its veST 
excess, a means of safety C/- 
frontery defies all propriety and 
personal honor Ilardxhooa 

judgment of men Impudence 
disregards what is due to su- 
periors, shamelessness defies 
decency Boldness is forward- 
stepping courage, spoken of 
with rcfcrenie to the presence 
and obscrvaiion of others, 
boldness, in the good sense, is 
courage viewed from the out- 
side the word fmiuenily indi- 
cates i lack of proper sensitive- 
ness and modesty 

Ant bashfulness cojness, diffi- 
dence inodisly, sensitiveness, 
shrinking, shyness, timidity 
effulgence, n radiance, brilliancy, 
brightness refulgence 

The effulgence was blinding 
effusion, n outpouring, shuck, 
disijuisition, rhapsody, ellu- 

The effusion tired them 
effusive, a gushing, demonstra- 
tive. ebullient, lentiniental. 

Ihs manner was too 

Assotimi. Words oology, ool^ 
gist ovology. oviferous, yolk. 
cUif. albumen, embryo, em- 

bnology. oviparous, OMposit, 

ovVs'f'O". vifellus, 
impregnate, impregnation, _ e- 
cnndity, clutch, vitelline, vita- 
S oviduct, ov.para, ovula- 
tion ovuhst. tread, 

I. ind.v.dral. r,»t 

^«"«Dtism n self-conceit, 

,d OT...-'.."'”. 
denc, nnity. 

jronrrry ucties ail proptiw - t. "r> 

personal honor Ilardxhooa oe- rgoism is giving the i 

fies and disregards the rational r* 

undue supremacy in thought; 
egotijm IS giving the “1” undue 
prominence in speech. £g£>tiii» 
IS sometimes used in the sense 
of egofcfm, or supreme regard 
for oneself. Self-auerlmn is 
the claim by word, act, or man* 
rer of what one believes to be 
his due; self-coniett is an ottr- 
esUmate of one’s own powers 
or deserts Conceit is a bnefet 
expression for self'Conctit 
There is a worthy self-^oa~ 
fidencc which springs from 
consciousness of leeiitude and 
of power equal to demands 
Self-cujertion at times becomes 
3 duty: but stlf-eonmt is al* 
ways a weakness Stlf^cot^- 
scioMsnest is the keeping of one’s 
thoughts upon one<elfi with the 
constant anxious question of 
what others will think yentty 
IS an overweening admiration 
of self, craving equal admsra* 
lion from others Stlf-ttUttn 
is more solid and better founded 
than ttlf-eon:ett 

Akt.: bashfulness, deference, dif- 
fidence. humility, modesty, seH- 
distruit, self-forgetfulness 
egotistie, egotistical, a.: conceited, 
self-conceited, self-important, 
opinionated, overweening, 

He is very egolUhcal. 

ANr : bashful, dilTident, humble, 
modest, self-forgetful, self, dis- 

tgtegtioos, a,', remaikable, distin- 
guished, extraordinary (often 

It was an ef^egious mistake, 
egress, n.: exit, issue, going ost, 
Eirtss was difficult 
egret, n.i tuft, plumicorn, heron's 

Egrelj are ured as omamerts 
Egyptian dancing girl: alme, 

Egyptian peasant: fellah. 
Egyptian ruler: Khedive, 
eight, n . cardinal number. 

Associated Woacs. octonary, 
octopede, octant, octave, ocete, 
octad, octameter. 

right-angled, a. octangular, octa- 

eightfold, a. octuple, 
eight-sided, a actagonal, octahe- 
dral. octangular, 
right-sided figure, octagon, 
eight-sided solid: octahedron, 
right tones; scale. 

Associated Words diatonic, dia- 

eight years; octennium. 

Associated NVobds octennial, 

etkon. n icon, image. 

The eiton is sacred 
either, a indifferently, indeter- 
minedly, one or ether. 

Lifher one may go 
e)acu)ate, v,: exclaim, call, uUtt 

ejaculation, n.’ exclamation, 
eject, V. discharge, void, evict, 
dislodge, oust. 

He was ejected from the building 
ejection, n.: discharge, voiding; 
ousting, dispossession. 

They insisted upon his ejection. 
eke. V. extend, 

elaborate, v.’ develop in detail, 
finish with painstaking, im- 

They have elaborated the scheme 
elaboration, n.: perfect finish, de- 
tailed completeness; an elab- 
orate effect- 

The elaboration was perfect 
elapse, v.: quietly terminate, glide 
or ahp by. 

Several years have elafted since 
the event. 

eUttic, a; springy, resilient, ex- 
tensible, rebounding, tensible, 

dasticity, n • resiliency, extensi- 
bility, ductility, springiness 


Ant mcluticity, irresiliencc 
elate, v. itisiunt, exhilarate, over* 

They were elattd over the re- 

elation, n bouyancyi exaltation, 


lie showed great elaltOK over the 

elbow, V push, punch, above 

He elbtmed his way through the 

cider, a senior, previously born 

He IS the elder of the two. 
elder, n deacon, church digni- 

He IS an elder m the clmrch 

The deacon has charge of the 

The church digmlariet soon en- 

elderly, a somewhat old, ap- 
proaching old age 
elect, a chosen, (TUeot.) act 

He IS (lie semwr e/cc( 
election, n voting, selecting for 
olTice: discretion, responsibil- 

The rlrffion proved it 
electioneer, v canvass 
elective, a optional, discretional. 

This IS an tlechve study 

Ant compulsory, cocfcive ob- 

electric, a inspiritinp: electrify- 
ing, magnetic, thrilling, stimulat- 

The cflcct was electric 
electricity, a • 

AssociATfu Words electron, volt, 
voUagi;, ohm, liilowatl, ampere, 
amperage, armature, current, 
amperometer, battery, dynamo, 
motor, voltaic, magnet, charge, 
coil, induction, conductor, non- 
condiietor. insulate insulation, 
farad, electrology, electric, elec- 
trician electrify, electrification 
elcetrifiable. clectrition, elec- 
triration, elcctruer, electrocute. 

electrocution, electrodynamics, 
eicctrodynamometcr, electro- 
Ifierapcutics, electrolysis, 
electric ilghf incandescent light, 
arc light, electrolier (lamp or 
electron, n 

elegance, n beauty, grace, luxu- 
nousnesf, richness, sumptu- 

elegance, n polish, courtliness, 
j-raif/ulncss, rchnemenf. 
ifis manner was elegance itself. 
Ant boorivhness, vulgarity, 
cosrsciiLss, grossnes! 
elegant, a sumptuous, luxurious, 
courfly, ricli, refined, select, 
dainty, cxiiuisite 
The surroundings were eleganl. 
elegiac, a mournful, tad, plain- 

The poiTis are elegiac. 
elegiac, n plaintive poem. 

lhat elegiac is a noted one. 
elegy, n lyric poem, funeral 

Tins tleg^ IS classic 
element, n part, ingredient, con- 
stituent, component 
elemental, a elementary, rudi- 
menial, constituent 
He has a good tlenienlal eduea- 

elementary, a elemental, rudi- 
rocnlal, constituent, primary; 
simple, uncompounded 
elements, n , pi rudiments, first 
principle--, basic ideas 
elevate, v advance, aggrandize, 
promote, exalt, raise, hit. 

[fc was elevated to the presi- 

elevate, v cheer, animate, in- 
fpire, revive, ennoble, dig- 

elevated, a. raised, lifted up; 

Ills thoughts are elevated, 
elevation, n advancement, ag- 
grandizement, promotion, ex- 


ahation, dignity; hill, emi- 

elf, n.: sprite, fairy, imp, fay, 
Enomc, urchin. 

elfish, a.* impish, v.eird, mischiev- 
ous. clf-iike. 

elicit, V.. draw out. educe gradu- 
ally. bring to light 

Thei finally eluited the informa- 

eligibility, n endowment, ability, 
capaW't>, fitness 

Her f/igibihty was never ques- 

eligible, a qualified, competent, 
capable, suitable, fit 

lie If fligihle to the office 
elinunate. v abstract, remove, 
separate and expel. 

You <■ n not climmole it 
elimination, n elimination, cxpul- 

Sl' 11 

Elit’ii itioH must follow 
ilite, n chosen part, pick, flower, 
uppir ten 

Thei were the elite of the town, 
elixir, r cordial, invigorstor. 

She took the <ltxef 
ell, n wing, extension; measure, 

7he> built on an ell 
elliptical, a ' oblong uith rounded 
ends, shortened, characterized 
by ellipses 

elongate, v.- extend, lengthen; to 
crow longer. 

elongation, n protraction, iength- 

elope, V.: run away or flee se- 

elucidate, v.* explain, make locsd, 

The point u-as easily elucidated 
elucidation, n. explanation, mak- 
ing lucid, illustrating. 

The flMtirfation took time, 
elucidauve, a,: explanatory, tend- 
ing to elucidate. 

The circumstance is eluadathe. 
elude, T.: evade, dodge; keep clear 

He eluded them 

elusion, n.; avoidance , evasion; 
(specif.) prevarication, fraud. 

There was little chance lor rlu- 

elusive, a evasive, tending to slip 

It was an tlusixe dream 

His answer was naexve. 

elusory, a elusive, tendency to 
escape, hence lending to de- 
ceive, untrustworthy. 

Such phantasms are elusory 

Clyuan, a blissful, supremely 

Ely&ium, n paradise 

emaciate, v make excessively 
lean, ihm 

emaciation, n excessive lean- 

emanate, v originate, uke rise, 
flow forth 

emanation, n issuing forlh, ef- 
fluence, efflux. 

The fragrant cmonalton from the 
flowers filled the room. 

emancipate, v. free, liberate, re- 
lease, enfranchise. 

The slaves were emantlfated. 

lie has freed the prisoners 

Tlie captives were Uheratei 

They were releated from ijuaran- 

The jouth of our country are duly 

emancipation, n.* liberation, en- 
franchisement, freeing. 

Kfnannpalion from evil desires is 

emasculate, v : weaken, make ef- 

Luxury euissrulalrt the body. 

embankment, n . levee, dike; ter- 

embargo, n.’ restraint, injunction 

An er>ilargo was placed on cer- 
tain articles 

They opposed any retlrainl upon 

He gave strict ix/umtion/ as to 
future privileges 


embody, express or exhibit in 
concrete lorm, incorporate; 
aggfct;ate or collect. 

This will embody our \icws 
embolden, v encourage, make 
bold, abet 

He was emboldened by iheir ap- 

embonpoint, n plumpness, cor- 
puiance m moderate degree 

Zmbonpotrtt did not become her 
emboss, V cover, stud with 
bosses, cause to stand out 
embrace, v clasp, caress, hug. 
infold, enclose, take in. com- 
prise, comprehend. 

They embraied her 
embrace, v adopt, avail oneself 
of, accept willingly* 
embracing, a encircimg. encom- 
passing, comprehensive, thor- 
ough, widely inclusive 
embroidery frame*, tabouret, 
erabfoll, V. involve, disturb gnev- 
ously, entangle 

They were toon embratled m 

embryo, embryonic, a undevel- 
oped, rudimentary, incipient. 

The movement is m an embry- 
on'ie state 

embryo, n rudimentary form; 
vitalized germ, rudimentary 

The embryo of the thought was 

emend, v • alter, make corrections 
or amend (as result of criti- 

emendation, n.t correction, im- 
provement (especially of doc- 

emerge, v.: rise, come forth, issue; 
come into view. 

They emerged from the shadow 
emergence, n.: coming forth, com- 
ing into view. 

The emergence of the race from 
barbansm was accomplished 
emergency, n.* crisis, exigency, 
strait, sudden occurrence, per- 

plexing circumstances, 
emersion, n. coming forth, rising 
out of 

emigrant, n emigrator 

The emigrant left his native 

emigrant, a migrating, migra- 
tory, moving 

They were an emigraiif people, 
emigrate, v remove permanently. 

JvoTx immigrate migrate To 
migrate is to change one's 
dwellmg-place, usually with the 
idea of repeated change, or of 
periodical return, it applies to 
wandering tribes of men, and to 
many birds and animals Emi- 
grate and smmigroJe caryy the 
idea of a permanent change of 
residence to some ether country 
or some distant region, the two 
words apply to the sane per- 
son and the same act. according 
to the side from which the ftc* 
non IS viewed A person tmi- 
grates from the land he leaves, 
and immigrates to the land 
where he ukes up his abode, 
emigration, n ■ migration, exodus; 

eminence, n. distinction, fame, 
repute, honor, elevation, hill, 
eminent, a, diilinguiihcd, re- 
nowned, illustrious, fanons, 

emissary, n.; TtpTCsenlatWe, dep- 
uty, nelegatc, envoy, vicar, 

Vou are appointed as our emU~ 

emission, n. discharge, throwing 
out, issuing 

"The emission of heat was con- 

emit, V.; discharge, utter, give 
vent to, send out; issue author- 

"The fountain emits water. 
emoUiate, v,: soften, render effem- 

Inactivity tmoUiaies ore. 

«molum«flt, n profit, benefit, re- 
muneration, compensation, per- 
quisite, salary, fee 
lie received no emolumenis 
emotion, n strong sensation; 

perturbation, passion 
emotional, a impressible, mobile, 
excitable, easily alTeeteil 
emphasis, n accentuation, stress, 
forciblencss, distinctness 
They placed great tm/thasts on 
that point 

emphasize, v accentuate, maVe 
impressive or obvious 
You have eiitfliasised that point 
emphatic, a forcibly, vivid, 
striking, positive, earnest 
That IS an emphalie denial 
employment, n occupatinn, voca- 
tion, ealhng, business profes- 
sion, trade, job, use, service 
Ills ei)if>/oymriif is congenial 
emporium, n large market, chief 
mart, uaraar 

empower, v auhonre formally, 
delegtte power to, permit 
lie was empawertd to proceed 
empressement, n demonstrative- 
ness, animsted earnestness ar- 

It wns announced with empress^ 


emptiness, n sacuum, soul sa- 
cancy. hollowness, mockery, 
frivolity, triviality, senseless- 
ness, inanit) 

empty, a destitute unfarnislied, 
unsupplied unfed, unsatisfied, 
vacant, void, unfilled, unten- 

The shelves were empty 
TTiey were desUMe of means 
The room was tinfurmsheJ 
They were umupphed with the 
necessaries of life 
empty, a hollow, unreal unsub- 
stantial; senseless, mane, eon- 
temptiblc, frivolous 
empty, v unload, deplete, ex- 
haust. unburden, evacuate; dis- 
embogue, deflate 

The treasury was empty, 

emptying, n depletion, evacua- 
tion, exhaustion, discharge, va- 

empyreal, a aerial, celestnl; lit- 
erally, fiery, formed of fire or 

The eagle soars to empyreal 

empyrean, n cosmic space, tipper 

emulate, v vie with, strive to sur- 

emulation, n rivalry competition, 

Ant carelessness, contentment, 

emulous, a ca^er. aspiring to ex- 
cel, competitive 

enact, v decree, accomplish, per- 

enactment, n law. decree, edict, 
ordinance, statute 
The enactment of the law occu- 
pied time 

enamel, v decorate in enamel; 
(fig) adorn, variegate 

enamor, v charm fascinate, in- 
fatuate. bewitch, captivate 
Ant dfcharm, disenchant, repel. 

encage, v imprison, coop up, 
shut up 

encamp, v camp, lodge in camp, 
pitch tents 

encampment, n camp, body of 
men enctmped 

enchant, v liewitch, hscinate, in- 
fatuate, chirm enrapture, cap- 
tivate. enravish, delight, Irans- 

The music enchanted her 
Her manner be-iilchrif him 
They were faictnaled by her 

The man is infaliiated 
Wc were charmed vvilh her voice 
We were enraptured with her 

They were enraushed 
The entire household were de~ 
hglited at the plan 


sht xaj trotiit-orted with joy. 
enchanting, a fasonaljn?. cbarm- 
j-'g. ca;;t]Tati-g, enfavahjr? 
The ffscl-artir.g norr^tJ foca 

enchaatjnent, n wi'ch^ry. fj‘o- 
nsno*', chai—i, gl^on*, illa- 
I'jcn: «orcCT}, conjaratwa, 

■»r.::hcT2tt. i;>dL 
Aist. <livt”ch4ntr“-srt, 

cachaatrci. n i-amora'a cbam- 
cr, jTtn, tcrcerei*, »Jtch 
encircle, ^ e-iMron f^fro«n«J. ea- 
cc-i;>iil, gjrd, circa—'cgjhe. en- 

endrcUng, a turrourdm/, «a* 
ccir';rai’;sf, enyifcni-JZ. 

The e«f«rfh>ig irc«=iajsi ffo»ne-l 
e>cn Bs 

enelcte, isclote, t. ervelo;*. «• 
O'— yatf, csfrean-i; wrap, en* 
ete, it'-ert wnbci. 
etielcte, v. pat n eate or wrrap' 
t<r, iniert w.ih-n. 
eBsIenre. n enelos'-J ol/ject cr 
fpace, e©*. p«i. corral, 

eacodatt, n et-Jog-it, panfg>- 

ti’i, f'aiief, 

enocdaitic, x.- ecJogi«t)e, lacda- 
tc^, adalatojy, pan-pricaL 
enccJniBss, n, prasje, e*j'-ogy, 
laada^OT, z/ic^'Icn. 
enccKnpati, r, lurrcc-d, eacJrcI*, 
errelcp, eaTircn, 

cncoBster, n • r-*»!ng. coinilon. 
rc-cco-tcT, co"teit, con'hct, cn* 
xlazjght, a-tacls; UttJe. 
enecBfagc, r.* n'-ite, cp''‘>M, a»- 
t ‘t. ai'l, r?a»rare, e~»- 

tc’-fe-i. jn'p-rjl, rjrrslate, re-, fa*5r, fctartcn. 

Let cs tKfo^rage fc'ni in fcl* ef- 

IIji 2*'9rjatet vere arni^eJ of 
eWlUng b:m in tbe p'ot 

IJe jou to aid h:si b 

olami-g the part/ 

V/e will do all »c can to rear* 
/«re h n a--l hearten jox 

I reastured b "o tl;ai I *oali fctlp 

He •was emboldened by Im irilUl 

App-c** aiion u alwayi tmpyiiirx. 

The r-'^ici-e eiimulated Hsi ail 
he tyri relit fd 

He will ererntally rtUy coa- 

He wax heartened by the good 

A*?! d.'enhearlcn, LafTe, ccn- 
foa—t d*-vrj'ice, d'ter, diiap- 
prore, ditconrag, oh'treet, is- 

eacooragrnent, n ' rea'furaflce, 
inecniTe, titnvJMhn, jtistels*. 
patronage, coa''t«:an:e, en* 

A'ST • diiionragent't, depftv 
ij'-n. diibeartr'n'Tt. 
eneoaragutg, a., ntpinting, rea** 
t-T:’'7, chterL-g, aitarirg. 
eneroath, v : trct,oat», Intrcde, «a* 
trenth, I'rfrbge, tftnch, hrade, 
eswroachr-^t, n. I'ntrujjon. irc»- 
pa*’, htresthn'tt, fnirisge* 
n-nt, Hrasr-n, broad, 
enccstber, load, hanl'i. Ui% 
jr~p*d'. neigh down, hinder. 

He It ereumlered with caret. 

He nat haded w.ili ho^ori. 

He wat bvrdtred with d'bt._ 

The I’^ip wat laded wj*h frc'ght- 

Hi* p'or'cj wai impeded by b* 
ai hea’lh. 

He rai teeigked down with tor- 

Hit lore of iportt hindered fci* 

tcrtL pfogreit 

Thii wil incite fcim to farther cnccishrince, load. bardeOJ Irndrance, t—p^dj-^t. 

V.'c do not i/fhold hL-n la fscb a end, r.. t^ririrate. 'iniih. ifop, 
pchcy, ceaie, co-dsde, clot^. aV/iih. 

He ft eiHeiinz ei wth cnr wori. end, n.; terninsi, tenrisatjon, ter- 


fTtiml r\trrttiiiy, bonnet; 

clo^c, hnatf. concliii on, finis, 
ccMitioii, nuic, rc^iiU consc* 
f|ticnce scfjiicl, fonclmlon, per- 
oratiorij piirpo^f, intention, tic 
sirn. aim, poal object, intent, 
death, extermination, anniliila 
lion, (Jrstrucitoii, <Lirceasc 

Norr 'I he tnd is the termini! 
pan of a material obteti tint 
ius Iriiylli, (he trtrttnily is 
di>(iiiaively the termini! fumt 
and liny thus be but part of 
tlie fxd in the Reneral lensc of 
llut ivnrd, llie txtrttntly is 
virned as that hIiicIi is most 
remiiie from lorne center, or 
rnme mean 05 standanf posi- 
tion, the loiithern end of Soiitli 
America includes all I'ataronia 
the southern Mlrcmiiy or /oinl 
11 Cape Morn Tip has nearly 
the same tneamnR as txiremiiy. 
but is iai<l of small or sbem 
and laperinj; objects, as. the 
tip of tnc fincef; point in itieU 
connections is iai<l of that 
winch IS drawn out to exceed- 
inj:; fineness or sharpness, as 
the point of a needle, a fork, 
or B sword; exir/tmly is said 
of lomellimtT eonsiJerable; we 
do uot sneak c( the erirrmftji 
of n needle 7 'rrmmwr Is chiefly 
used to (IcsiRnate the tnd of 
a line of travel or transporta- 
tion rpecirically, the fiirihrr- 
most slilion in any direction 
on a railway, or by extension 
the town or villaftc svherc It 
is situated Ttrmmaiion K the 
ijlin and more formal word 
for the Saxon end but Is ehiefly 
used ol time, words, undertak- 
inRS, or abstraelions of any 
kind I xpiralion sis'iifles the 
cominjj to and end in the nat- 
ural foiirsc of IhinKj; as, the 
expiraliOH of a year, or ol a 
lease: u Is used of thincs of 
20 ) 

Boisic eonsffiucnce, we do not 
ordinarily of the expira. 

tun of ail hour or of n day 
Ltmil implies Slime clieck to or 
restrain! upon further a<lvanec, 
ripht. or privilege, as the /i»>i- 
tlt of an cstite (lonl is an tnd 
sought or striven for, as hi a 

Am S«< begin 
end, n 

endanger i iiiiprril 
cndearlnp, 4 laresimp 
endeavor, v strive attrmpl es- 
say, underuke, try 

Nott To allempi expresses a 
single act to endeavor, a con- 
tinuous exertion we say I ssilf 
endeovtir (not I will attempt) 
while I live To allemhl is 
with the view of srcomplistiing, 
to/rray. with a view of testing 
one own powers To iiurfertiiife 
IS to seerpt or lake upon oneself 
as an obligation, as some busi- 
ness, Jsbor, or trust, the svord 
often implies complete assiir- 
anee of aticeess. as I will sir- 
drriate to produce the witness 
To xtrif'e suggests little of the 
result, much of tnd, strain, and 
contest, in seeking it 1 will 
siriie to (idfil your wishes. s e, 

I will "psre no labor snd exer- 
tion to do It Try Is tlie most 
comprehensive of lliesc words 
The ortgiml liica of lesling or 
experimenting is not thoiie'ii of 
when a msn says ' I wilt try ” 
To alleinpi suggests giving tip 
if the thing is not accomplished 
at a stroke, to iry implin ii-mg 
other means and sliidvlng cut 
other wa>» ti not at first stic- 
cesxful / iirfeai or is more mild 
and forms! . the pilot m the 
biirntng pilot-house does not 
lay “I will endeavor^ tie "I will 
allenrpi to hoM tire ship to her 
conrie," but *T’II fry. •if!"— 

Atit : Abandon, dismi's drop, 
pive np let po, neplect, omit, 
overlook, pass by. throw away, 
throw over, throw tip 
endeavor, n attempt, exertion, 
effojt, essaj, strupple. trial aim. 

Note The oiw is the direction 
m which one shoots, or some- 
times that which is aimed at 
The fwffrh js that at which one 
shoots the ^oal that toward 
which one runs \11 alike indi- 
cate the direction of ended or 
The end is the point at which 
one would close his labors the 
object that which he would 
prasp a* the reward of his la- 
bors AsfieaUnn, design en- 
decior refemnp to 

the mental acts hs which the 
aim IS attained, are often used 
as interehanpeable w ttb aim 
/fjfiratien applies to what are 
Slewed as noble aimj. endeavor. 
dCftpn, intention, Aur/^ofe, indif- 
ferently to the best or worn 
<4#/>:rafien has less of decision 
than the other terms, one may 
aspire to an ob;ect, and yet lack 
the fixedness of purf'ost by 
which alone it can be attained 
Purtetc IS strorpcf than inten- 
tion Design especially denotes 
the adaptation of means to an 
end; erdeavnr refers to the ex- 
ertions bv which it is to be at- 
tained One w hose atmt are 
worthy, whose aspirations aye 
hiph, whose designs are wise, 
and whose purposes are stead- 
fast. nay hope to reach the 
goal of his ambition, and will 
surelv win some object worthy 
of a life's endeotor. 

Act : aimlessness, avoidance, 
eareles'ness, heedlessness, nep- 
lect neplipcnce, oversicht. pnr- 
poselessnc's, thoughtlessness 
endinp. n.: termination, concln- 

endless, a • infinite, interminable 
illimitable, limitless, tirlimited, 
boundless, uninterrupted, con- 
tmuous, continual, perpetual, 
unendmp, eternal, cverlastinp 
endorse, s indorse; (fip) ap- 
prose pive sanction to 
endow, V furnish, equip 
endowment, n prant, donation, 
bounn bequest faculti, talent 
endurable, a sufferable, toler- 

Act unendurable, insufferable 

endurance, n continuance, per- 
manence persistence, abidance, 
continuation sufferance, pa- 
tience fortitude forbearance, 
resipnation, toleration 
endure, s underpo, suffer, expe- 
rience. stand, brook, hear, al- 
low, permit, put up with,_toier- 
ate, submit to. endure, abide 

Note: Allow and permit involve 
larpe eoneesston of the « ill i 
vp viih and tolerate imply de- 
aded aversion and reluctant 
withholdinp of opposition or it^ 
terfercnce, whisperinp is o'* 
lotted bv the school-teacher 
who does rot forbid nor cen- 
sure it, one puts up vnth the 
presence of a disapreeable vis- 
itor; a state tolerates a relupon 
which it would be plad to sup- 
press Endure is nearer to the 
latter than to the farmer seme 
One may choose to endure the 
pain of a surpical operation 
rather than take aneslhrtics; he 
rnniti the thinp to come which 
e must brace himself to en 
dure when it comes Pear i* 
the most penerJ word for ^'1 
the'v meanirps To aford i* 
to be equal to a pecuniarv d*- 
mand To l-rook is quietly _to 
put up vith provocation or in- 
sult Abide rnminnes the sense* 
of a wait and endure; as. I wJI 
a^ide the result 


Avt break, break down, droop, 
fail, faint, falter, give ujs gne 
out. sink, succumb 

Ant succumb falter, yield, juj- 
render, break down, give up 
endure, v continue, remain, per* 
stst, last 

endunng. a lasting, durable, per- 
manent, imperishable 
enemy, n foe, adversary, oppo- 
nent, antagonist, rival, competi- 
tor, hostile 

Note An adversary is ordinar- 
ily one who not only opposes 
another in fact, but docs so with 
hostile spirit, or perhaps out of 
pure malignity, as, the great 
Adversary An anlaeonut ts 
one who opposes and is opposed 
actively and with intensity of 
effort, an oppanitii, one in 
whom the attitude ol resistance 
IS the more prominent, a r^m- 
ptMor, one who seeks the same 
object for which another is stri- 
ving, antagonists in wrestling. 
eempetitors in business, oppo- 
nents in debate may contend 
with no personal ifl will, mots 
in love, ambition, etc, rarely 
avoid inimical feeling An 
enemy in private life is one who 
IS moved oy hostile feeling with 
active di<position to injure, but 
in military language all who 
fight on the opposite side are 
called enemies or collectively 
“the rneinj,” -where no personal 
animosity nia> be implied, foe, 
which IS rather a poetical and 
literar) word, implies intensely 
hostile spirit and purpose 

Ant abettor, accessory, accom- 
plice ally, friend, helper, sup- 

Associvtedworbs Ho<tiht}. fend, 
enmity, inimical, antagonism 

Ant ally, friend, helper, abettor, 

energetic, a vigorous, forcible, 
potent, cogent, active, strenu- 
ous, effective 

energuing. a invigorating, po- 
tent, vitalizing, alacnfying. 
energy, n force, power, potency, 
vigor, zeal, strength, effective- 

enervated, a weakened, ex- 
hausted impaired m vitality, 
enervation, n lassitude, langor, 
debility, weakness 
enfeeble, v weaken, debilitate, 

enfold, V encircle, infold, sur- 
round, gird 

enfolding, a enveloping, encir- 
cling. circumambient 
enfranchise, v exempt, liberate, 
release, emancipate, free from 
political disabilities 
engage, v bind, pledge, commit; 

betroih affiance, plight 
engage, v occupy, engross, em- 
ploy busy 

engaged, a occupied, employed, 

engagement, n affiance, betroth- 
al. betrothment, contract, 
pledge, stipulation, promise 
engagement, n encounter, com- 
bat fight, conflict, action 
engaging, a fascinating, absorb- 
ing, attractive, charming, win- 
some, winning, lovely 
Her smile was rngoging and heS 
manner /arrinofing. 
lie had an absorbing interest in 
the work 

She has rharming and oUraetive 

A lovely face and vnnsome smile 
won her many friends 
engender, v bring forth, pro- 
duce, cause to exist 
cngil4 V gild brighten 
engine, n locomotive mogul, 
traction engine 

engineer, v manage skillfully, 
not through plan 

engird, V gird, encompass, sur- 


tden, broaden, ex* 

AssoaA.Tn> WORDS AnRlomaniac, 
Anjrlomania, Johnny lIuJl, Grcnt 
Britain, anglicize, anglmzalion, 
Anglophobe, Anglophobia. 
English, 3 British, Anglican. 
Englishism, n Anglicism, Briti- 

English legislature Parhament 
Englishman, n Britisher, Bnton 
engrailment, n • indentation, scf* 

engrave, v carve, chisel, grave, 
cut, imprint, infix, impress, 

engraving, n carving, cclaturc. 
graving chiseling plate, stip- 
pling, stipple 

engross, v • copy, transcribe, ab- 
sorb, occupy, monopolize, en- 

engrossing, a absorbing, enguU* 
mg, monopolmtig 
It was an e»grwn«g occupation 
enguU. V engross, absorb, swal- 
low up, overwhelm, bury. 

He was engulfed in his work 
He is engrossed in business, 
enhasce, v.: increase, augment, 

enhancement, n advance. In- 
crease, augmentation 
enigma, n riddle, puttie, ambig- 
uous sajing 

enigmatic, enigmatical, a ; ambig- 
_ uous, obscure, putiling. 
enjoin, v. command, order, di- 
rect, bid. 

He was cn/oincd to be dibgent- 
They commanded him to stop 
He ordered the work done. 

They iverc dtrecSed to continne 
the work 

They bade him to go 
enjoyable, a : delightful, pleasur- 
able, felicitous 

enjoyroeit, n : pleasure, dcngbl, 
gratification, delectation, felic- 
ity, fruition. 

enlarge, v.: magnify, amplify, 
augment, increase, extend; di- 
late, descant, launch out, exja* 


enlarge, v. w 

enlargement, n extension, aug- 
mentation. expansion, develop- 
ment, growth, dilation, increave. 
enhancement, amplification, en- 
noblement, dilation cxpaliation 

The c«/arge«ienf of the plant wav 

An extension of time w as granted 

The oujwienJalion n bulk is no- 

Zxpansxon of this department is 
necessary for our best develop- 

The grovth was marvelous 

The dtlaiton of the organ was ah 

The increase in value* pleased us 

A few repairs would mean the 
enhancement of the value of his 

AmpMcohon of the present text 
IS desirable. 

roTther txpaUat\o% on the sub- 
ject will be of no avail , 

Ennoblement of eharaeter is some- 
times elTecied through adversitj 
enHghtcn. v.; instruct, teach, be- 
stow mental or spiritual light 
enlightenment, n.* wi«dom, ad- 
vancement, vapience. 
enlist, V.* enroll, list, record, 
enlist, V.: gam interest, secure aid 
enlvven. v.* entertain, brighten, 
give life to, quicken, s’lmulate 

They were enhienrd by his pres- 

en masse, adv ■ altogether, en- 
semble, in the aggregate 
enmesh, v • entangle, ensnare 
ennutjr, n hostility, lU-wtll. un- 
friendliness. opposition, antafo- 
nism, animosity, malignity, ha- 
tred, malevolence, rancor, bit- 
terness, anger, antipathy, feud 

Kom* idniinojiij denotes a feel- 
ing more active and rebemeit. 
but often less enduring and de- 
terniined. than enmtiy Ewwilj 
distinctly recognizes I’s object 

an tiicniv, to I'e mrt or «traU 
«ilh ftiwttliuKli ili‘shht>i U 
r>*'>iih lo nition; tU? Irrm 
lililv I'ftwrrn tialioi\« Ornoir* 
a^liint arnirJ roltxlon t'ttitr 
nrst i« rt rt^rntful trriini; an 
no; (ri Ml a )<r1irl Itui onr liai 
I rrii i\ ii.rim<n\ i« i 
kMiilrtil (rrlnn; l‘<il lirri'rr anil 
iiu'Ce rmiilrnl, ami may aiiar 
friMii thr iro'iiiiK ol onr « 
wiilira or plin« W aiu'thrr 
iilirri MO lolinliir «>i \v r« IK i' 
frlT -<M| mil i\«t 

niltioMl fli riiMMMi tiltrrnrfi <>i 

r'lHitIv ai i'rtwrrii l»o loniprl 
Mil; aiiiliori or inrnlimi' 

\kt flkrrrmrMt alnmr oil 
toril, (iipmUlilii, liiniioiii kiml 
liiiro kiiulM«i<, rri;ir<l «>iii 

rnnol'lf. v firvatp. raah 

pnormity, ii lirlnoMinraa attm 
llv (ijijrniir), (Iri'ravitv 
rnorntoiia. a moutttoiH iol»* 
aal, Kiisanllr, tiuniiiioili. Iuikp 
I' rivlik’loui, lirlMoni atroiliiii. 
iiflirlMii*. tlacranf llii:i(ioii« 
enouRli, II t>1rnt). aiilihiriuy, 
fl lf<|ii 11 V nl iiMihiuo 
\nt ilfliilfuiy, liiiilriiiiiii, »iir 


fnciu>>i, aili aiinnlriiih, a<tr 
< 1 iialr 1 i, fully 

riiiiiii, M wcnrliirti failkor 
liMRiiiir hKltiiilo 

riiraEr, v liurnir aiiKor ofiriiil 
Ktr.illi lifiinilr iiimIiIiii 
rn rapport: In *>i<ipiiii> ivliii 
rnrantiirr, i ifntiii iraM«|Hiii 
ilrlKlil liilrMirli 

cnravlali. i rornj'liirp, lltrow In- 
to roliiy ol ilrlkl't 
rn rrnte in <lur oritir 
rnTicIi, V rMil >iv IrrIlU/r, ailorri. 

t r inlifi rnit rlli<li 
enrlclimrnl. n rml mmriit Irr- 
liti'itii'ii, rMiI>y|tiitMiiriit. ilrrn 
UtiMM. a lonMiifMl 

rnroll, x rriri'lrr, rntlil iintflc- 

iil itr, ImI, irioril 

rnrollmrnt, n ui iirIviiUlion, 
ipfcUtralU n riilMlmnit . ffwla- 
Iri inonl ri iiir 
rn route on tin wai 
em. 11 tpl fiitl^' nitili, rxhi- 
t II > t r iK 

rnaaiiipte, ii pasiiiplf liulaiice, 
eiivatibulne, v luirir 
rn«ioiiie i <rlili li\ irinrrlv, 
en»rniWe ii iiiiuil nppfaiaiicf. 

|> It- I »l I 1- II III l> (IMIII ) I 

Him II of < loi-li ami i li '(ui in 

rnalitine. * Lrrp lairril 

eii«tiroiiii \ loinrnl 

rn«l£n. ii •IuuIjiiI, rotori, flai;. 

ot lit iiiiint c iifjloM, t>.tiuli:r''lp 
rnatavr i mil iiiitalr, ruttirall, 

enaUvrmriu. n «iil liiiiallon rn- 
(lalliiiyiit mit'jriti ii, lomli|,i>, 

enanacr, i puiiap rntiiiiile, tii< 

iiivV <1 hill 

riiaiip, I mu I ml atirnil at ie« 
t|ilill<t Ii lloM 
rnaiiUe inainlr* 
rimire, % Inmiry iriurr, Roar* 


entail. ^ liiMilir, iirirrrllalet 

Inn irlilr 
entail n ntntr 

eniaiiRle, \ mtiii'lkale, inter* 
n< ivt, tiiKli luvolir, eiinirih, 
•mil liuMiir piuily 
eiitaiiRlement, ii Intitiarv, cinio 
pill III II an III I 111 Ir. enilnr- 
r iianinit I "I ' >i II » 
enter, v ppiloruti, priiftmte, 

lliiie emliiii. in eiiliil In, in- 

enteipilae. ii iiiulrrtiiklni; pro- 
lilt aillvlli 

enterprUliiK. a enerpptlr, active, 

alirrlii)- vriilMmnii r 

entertain, a ilivrrt iiiiMar. plcaie, 

iiiiiket. l-ri-Mltr, illipi it. clieec, 
f-iil veil lMlrir-1. o.xup> , I ic|>;r. 

Iiarl or 

Nine \\ e ^y• H*'y a wr iry li ’lit, 
thtrr llip itr-i' m Iriit ifi /il |1 p 

pre-orcrpicd, cuhrcfi a dnH 
evening o' conpanj, !:roltfi onr 
friend'’ ui'ht'; ei icrtoin, tnler- 
rst, flcn'f 2 listenirti audfcnce, 
cecity idic time, dutcrt onr* 
‘eU« uhen mem.*, recreate 
Ti>en ivcm xvith to.l We 
cmuic our^eUcs or others settH 
vhatc'er pVa'antU pa««.es the 
tine tt tfiojf 'pecial exertion, 
each accoT'iir'K to h s ta'te 
‘The emperor Domitian e?Ru.fe<f 
hm'elf with killnj flies, the 
emperor hero drertfd himself 
hy app*an*’g before his sjbjects 
m the ehiracters of ijladiator 
a^d char’oieer Sofr'tes enter- 
tjired himscli b\ di rri’TstnErmi 
the dat of his e-reeutio'i mth 
his fne-ds on the immortalitj 
of tVe sojV" CtsES Eneuth 

Synonimi 4>"iij< js now bree- 
ly U'*d for thu n’^ich excites 
laughter or mernmert, as, an 
owKJing story 

Avr arroy bore, hu«i. disquiet 
di'tract disturb tire, ^earj 
entertaining, a.' diverting, amus* 
inp interesting 

entertainment n diversion, 
amusement, fecreation. pastime. 
pla\. divertissement, banquet, feast, collation 

Stsowjfs cheer, delight diver- 
sion. enjoj-ment frolic, fun. 
mernment, pastime, plcasuit. 
recreati'i'i, <port Amusmert 
and fotUme are nearly equiva- 
lent the latter probably the 
1 chier «ord; rnanj slight things 
r'av he pistimcs •wbkh vie 
•'■ojld hardlv dignify by the 
ra-re of ai nsementf Erter- 
t^finent and recrealicn imply 
t^-oiia'-t a-'d mental occupatiOT, 
tho-jgh in an agreeal’e, refresh- 
i-p v.-av; thev are therefore 
words of a high order. En- 
*ert3'nmert is almost esclj'ive- 
h ncrtal; rerresitcn ri3> s^d 

U'nalls does, combine the nen- 
tal with the phis*cal Storts 
are almost whollv on the phj- 
sical plane, though intcilring a 
certiin grade of mental action; 
fox-buim''g. hnrse-raeng, and 
biseball ire <t t /leer may 
\e'> qu ft as the i! rcr of a 
bright fire to an a-'d traveler; 
wiemmeii is wi h Iiie’incss and 
laughtiT fti« and frohr are apt 
to be boisnprous ^mujeirffiJ 
IS a form of e»i;ct*rerj. bat en- 
icvnent mai be to"* keen to be 
ca’ied airtumncnf See cou- 

^NT enitii fat g-e labor lassi- 
tude, foil, weannc'-s norL 

enthrall, v crslase subjugate, 
hold under o\em3*’cnrg in- 

enthrone, s to male preemTcnt. 

entbuse. s (CoIIoq i to display 

enthusiasm, n rage-ness, earnrst* 
ness, inters’l'. ardor, detcition, 
ftrsor, tsrtass, extitement, lesl. 
sehemenre, insp ration, passion, 
repose, fervenn, sene, em- 
pressmen, unction, real, 

Kort- The uid tneanmg p( rn- 
ikuticim j'nplifs a psyudotn- 
ttiratien, an alno't frantic er- 
trrvsanre in b'half of ‘ome- 
ihing supposed to be an erptes- 
Sion of the d % ne -ftiU This 
sense remains as the controlling 
one H the kindreJ roun eillu- 
JMJ/ Enthurijim has now 
chiefly the rneamg of an earn- 
est and co'"mendab’e d/-otien 
or an enger interest Agarn't 
the lindrarccs of I’-e world, 
rot^mg great and good can be 
ca-ned w thoJt a certain fer- 
' pv. niffTiT-'i, — 1 1 t fhtmrnef; 
these joined * ih faith, cocrage. 
aril linnefulne's make enihnn- 
rtrt 7er\ is barm-" earnest- 
f c'r, a'waj s tendi-g to slcor- 

ous action with all the Jetohon Smc Futraiue refers merelv to 
of tnlhtisicutn, though often the fict of pusinj from wiih- 
without Its hopefulness «ut ti withm sone enclosure; 

tjMiijiion and oJititf/jncf refer 
Ant calculation, calmness, cau i> enterinj by or with some 

tion coldness, sleadness dul s>iie« coi-cnt or it lea't to 

ness, indifference, luVewarm- upp rtuiiit> iiT>rlcd by some 

ness polio prudence, ttmiditj oie* art or neclc t We may 

wiriticss tlTcit or firie in i-'itruiK-r, but 

enthusiast, n fanatic, zealot de- "«t id'uitinii f or c/mi«ion; 

voter partisan «h 'e pam procure obtain, 

enthusiastic, a eaKer, zealous, 
faiiaiicil, fervent, tmpassionesi 
entice, V persuade, seduce, allure, 
jiuei.cle wheedle, tempt 
enticement, n • temptation, seduc- 
tion ilkiremcnt, bait, lure de 

The place had no eBti.cmcni for 

Several uidintmrots were held 

out to Iiim 

The lemftaUon was too great 

He felt the tfiiuftioii of her smile 

ife jtfWed to the alluffittfitit o/ 
the cit> 

The detectives threw out a bcif to 
catch hint 

The turt of the amusements drew 

The hunters used thcig ^<st( and 
detoi! freely 

enticing a,‘ setluedve, alluring, 

entire, a complete, undivided 
entirety, n completeness, integ- 
ritv. totilitv, wholeness 
entomb, v • bury, hide, secrete, 

'Ciure ssin IJiiii/* i;ir c refers 
to place, admtssi m refers also 
to position privilege, favor, 
friendship etc An intruder 
miv gam ad»rii//jnce to the hall 
of a s,xiet>. who would not 
be allowed admusxon to its 
membership / ntranct is at‘o 
used liguntivclv for selling out 
upon some career, or becoming 
a member of some orgamta* 
tioii as we speak of one's e«- 
leon.c upon college life, or of 
/ninnif into iJie ministry See 

AhT departure egress ejection, 
exclusion exit expulsion, re* 
fusvl rejection, wiinlrawal 
entrance, v fascinate, transport, 
ravish with ilelighl enclnnt, in* 

entrap, v decoy entrammeJ, en* 
tue. entangle snare 
entreat. \ plead, press, urge, im- 
plore beseech, solwit suppli- 

entreaty, n appeal, supplication, 
petition urgent soluitation 

entombment, n burial, interment. 

Sepulture, inhumation 
entourage, n • environment, sur- 
roundings. (collect) compan- 
ions issocivtcs. followers 
entrammel, v ■ entice, decoy, fn- 

llis cnrrccify was Ignored 
entrte, n entr> act of entering; 

privilege of entering, admission 
entrie n side-dish (Mus) in- 

entrust, V eommit with confi- 
dence relegate, consign, confide 

entrance, n ingress, access, ac- trust 

cession, admission, admittance, entry, n entrance, access; ha'' 
entree, enlr) portal, inlet, gate, vestibule 

door doorwav, gateway, tntro- entry, n memorandum, minute, 
duction, opening, penetration record 


enun^rate, v : calculate, reckon, eavifon, v.t surround, enclose, 
compute, spcctfy singly. eompass 

enunciate, v. announce distinctly, eawronment, n conditions, en- 
start formally, speak, articulate tourage. 

enunciation, n.* articulation, »t* environs, n., pi • outskirts, sub- 
terance, definite statement orbs, surroundings 

envelop, v.. suffuse, surround, en» envoy, n diplomat, diplomatic 
circie, encompass, inwrap, in- agent 

close. envy, n covetousness, selnsh ill- 

Smoke enveloped the building mil, object of envy. 

Her face was juffiiied vMth smiles eon, aeon. n. cosmic cycle, meal- 
"niej’ were surrounded mth lux- culable period, age 
ury eoniao. a • eternal, everlasting, 

Boults ards encirelt the city lasting for or pertaining to 

Dangers encompassed them on eons 

e«ry side ephertneral, a. transient, tempo- 

Tbe peaks were mwapped in tary, evanescent, roomenta0. 

cloud® short-lived 

Hills inclosed this charming re- epic, n poem (narrative and de- 
treat sctiptive), formal verse 

envelope, n. wrapper, inclosnre, epicure, n. gastronome,, gout- 
capsule, case, sheath mand. gourmet,, ‘ensualist, vo- 

enveloping, a surrouoding. en- luptuary , s> barite, epicurean, 
folding, circumambieni. enoicl- epicurean, a . sensual, voluptuous, 
ing luxuflou^ sybaritic, 

envious, a.*, jealous, suspicious. epicurism, n.: epicureanism, neo- 
onum, eudamonism; sensuality, 
Kote* One is emtous of that luxury; gastronomy 
which IS another's, and to which epidemic, a.: hfectioos. coata- 
he hiffl«elf has no tight or gious 

claim, he IS /mioue olintruslon epigram, n ; pithy phrasing. 

upon that which is his own. or shrewd observatioa 

to which he maintains a right epigrammatic, a* pithy, pointed. 

or claim An entsoHs spirit is witty, antithetic 

alr.ajs bad; a /eolOMS spirit may episode, 0.; incident, event, oc- 

be good or bad, according to its currence 

object and tendenc) A free epistle, n formal letter, commu- 
people most be jealous of their nicaaon. 

liberties if they would retain epithalamium, n: marriage song, 
them. One is jvj^icious of an- prolhalamion 
other from unfavorable indica- epithet, n.; phrase, adjective. 
tions or from a knowledge of epitome, n.; compendium, ab- 
wrorg in his previous conduct, stract, digest, synopsis 
tr even without reason. Coro- epitoRUze, v.: summariic, con- 
pare synonyms for douct, «. dense, peduee, make in minia- 


Avt • cciueited, friendly, satis- epoch, n. point of time; series of 
fed trustful, well-disposed, year®, interval of tine, dcfinsie 
kind'i. period . 

enricusly, adv.: grudgingly, sus- It was an important e/or/i in his- 
piciou'lj, jealoJsW lory 

equable, a even, regular, uniform, 
equal, a tantamount coordinate, 
aiuivalcnt, corresponding, iden- 
tical, proportionate, ecwimcnsn- 
ratc, adequate, sufficient, equa- 
ble, uniform, equitable, even 
equal, n peer, mate, compeer, 
match, coordinate 
Ant inferior, subordinate 
equality, n uniformity, coordina- 
tion, parity, agreement 
equanimity, n * composure, calm- 
ness, steadiness 
equerry, n officer, 
equestrian, a.' equine 
equiLbrtum, n. equipoise, balance; 

equip, V furnish, accouter, fit out. 

equipage, n equipment, turnout, 
carriage, suite, tram, retinue 
equipment, n. paraphernalia, ap 
paratus, accouterments, rigging, 

equipoise^ n.: equilibrium, coun- 

onderance, n.: equipoise, 

equitable, a just, honest, equable 
equity, n justice, right, 
equivalent, a ■ tantamount, equal, 
commensurate; interchangeable, 

equivocal, a dubious, ambigu- 
ous, doubtful, indefinite, inde- 
terminate, indistinct, question- 
able, suspicious. 

Note A statement is ambiguous 
when It leaves the mind of the 
reader or hearer to fluctuate 
between two meanings, which 
would fit the language equally 
well. It IS equivocal when it 
would naturally be understood 
in one way, but is capable of a 
different interpretation, an 
equivocal expression is, as a 
rule, intentionally deceptive, 
while an ambiguous utterance 
may be simply the result of a 

want cither of clcir thought or 
of adequate expression That 
IS doubtful which is fairly open 
to doubt, that is dubtoiu which 
has become the subject of 
doubts so gravu as scarcely to 
fall short of condemnation, as, 
a dubious reputation Ques- 
tionable may be used nearly 
in the sense either of dubious 
or of doubtful, a questionable 
statement is one that must be 
proved before it can be ac- 
cepted A questionable char- 
acter IS one in regard to which 
all questions are likely to re- 
ceive an unfavorable answer 
Equivocal is sometimes, though 
more rarely, used in this sense 
A suspicious character gives 
manifest reason to be sus- 
pected, a suspicious temper is 
inclined to suspect the motives 
and intentions of others, with 
or without reason 

Akt Sec definite 
equivocate, v prevaricate, fence, 
evade, dissemble 

era. n beginning of a period, his- 
torical period 

eradicate, v. extirpate, extermi- 

eradication, n extirpation, exter- 

erase, v obliterate, cancel, ex- 
punge. cff’ace, rub out, delete. 
The figures have been erased 
The writing was obliterated 
The charge has been cancelled 
Th« memory of the offense has 
been expunged 
The impresion was effaced 
The stain was rubbed out 
The report was deleted 
erasure, n expunging, erasion, 
erect, v build, raise 
erect, a upright, vertical, raised. 
Ant honiontal, recumbent, 
prone, inverted, oblique 


erect, £ undaunted, hold, endis- 

Am crinping, wincing, crouch- 

erection, n building, raising, con- 

crectness, n uprightness moral 

erenute, n hermit, anchorite 
eroding, a corroding gnawing 
erosion, n corrosion eroding 
erotic, a amorous, amatory 
err, \ sm, go astraj , misjudge, 
mistake, blunder be incorreei 
errablLty, n weakness fallibility 
errancy, n erring failing 
errand, n mission commission 
errand, n (ColloO ) short trip, 
errant, a roving wandering er- 
ratic, wajward, erring 
errata, n . pi errors, 
erratic, a unusual, eccentric, fan* 
ciiul, nomadic, wandering 
His actions were erratic, to say 
the least 

It was an t,iiusua! thing to do. 
She IS serj ecceufrie. 

Her ideas are fanaful 
This p'ant is noiuadif m its tend- 

It is a zi'cndermg species 
eerifts, a peccable, sinful; fall- 
ible, we k 

erroneous, a. untrue, false, in- 
correct, mistaken wrong, mac- 

error, n blunder, mistake, inac- 
curaci, misapprehension, fal<i- 
itj", misconception 
The errrr was not discovered for 
several dajs 

errors, n., pL' errata; sing, er- 

erudite, a.: scholarly, scry 

erudition, n.: learning, scholar- 
si. p 

eruption, n.* outburst. outbreaV, 
exanthema, rash, efilorcsccncc 
escapade, n.- prank, frolic. 

escape, \ .* elude, flee from, evade, 
run awaj , elude noticc- 
escarpment, n steep slope, abrupt 
dccln itj 

eschew, s. shun, avoid, abstain 

escort, n. attend, follow, join, 
contov, usher, conduct 

He rvottrd us to the partj. 

She will attend the hcturc. 

He fotlfi'wcd us wheicver we 

He finillj jnmed with us m the 

The ship' were cam eyed through 
the d inger rone 

We wert titl.rrcd into the front 
<n;3 s 

He personally conducted them on 
the trip 

escritoire, n writing-desk, secre- 

escalent, a edible, eatable 
escutcheon, n surface, heraldic 

Eskimo, n Husky or Kuskie. 
Eskimo house: topek. igloo. 
Eskimo language: Husky or 
Husl ic 

esoteric, a occult, mystical, ab- 
struse actoamatit 
espionage, n ofTensive surveil- 
lance spying 

esplanade, n promenade, open 

espousal, n betrothal, 
espousal, n adoption, assumption 
of interest. 

espy, a., spy Sec discover, 
essay, n dissertation, article, dis- 
tiuisition thesis 

essay, n.* cfTort, trial, attempt, 
essayist, n writer; experimenter, 
essential, a.- real, actual, inten- 
tional. inherent 

essential, a.- indispensable, nec- 
cessarj, requisite 
Akt nonessential, superfluous 
establish, v.: substantiate, verify, 


establish, v. Institute, found, or- 

establishznent, n founding, or- 
ganization. institution. conGr- 
mation, verification, substanti- 

The eslabltshmciu of a permanent 
fund effected 

The foundine of the college was 
a great event 

The organiMUon of the sonety 
was completed 

The tnsliiution of the investiga- 
tion was accomplished 

A cenfirmalion of the firm’s order 
IS necessary 

yenficalton of the rumor was 
soon received 

They asked for a subjiantiation 
of the charges 

estate, n property, possessions 
esteem, v ’ respect, value, honor, 

esteem, v rate, reckon, estimate 

Note calculate, consider, deem, 
estimate, hold, regard, think, 
value £rrrri'i is less precise 
and mercantile than eaUulaK 
or tstmate We estttm a lewel 
precious, we ertimufe it to be 
worth so much money This 
sense of esUew is now chiefly 
found in literary or oratorical 
style, and in certain conven- 
tional phrases , as, 1 rslttm tt 
an honor, a favor In popular 
usage esttem expresses a union 
of respect and kindly feeling 

See admire; appreciate; like, 
esteem, n respect, honor, regard, 

Note Regard Is more personal 
and less distant than esteem, 
at'd adds a special kindliness: 
respect is a more distant word 
Jhan esteem Respect may be 
wholly on one side, while re- 
gard 15 more often mutual; re- 
spect m the fullest sense is 

given to what is lofty, worthy, 
and honorable, or to a person 
of such qualities, tve may pay 
an external respect to one oi 
lof^ station, regardless of per- 
sona! qualities, showing respect 
for the office 

Akt abhorrence, antipathy, 
aversion contempt, dislike, 
hatred, loathing, repugnance 
esthetic, a artistic, fastidious, 

estimable, a meritorious, worthy, 
deserving, excellent 

Am unworthy, undeserving 
estimable, a calculable, comput- 

Axr inestimable, incalculable, 

esunftke, v appraise, value, rate, 
prize, compute, calculate, reck- 

esttmate, n 

estimation, n esteem, respect, 
honor, valuation, estimate, ap- 

estrange, v alienate, disaffeet. 

False rumors estranged them 
estranged, a alienate, alienated 
estrangement, n alienation, dis- 

Their estrangement was a sur- 
prise to us 

estray, n stray, waistret 
estuary, n mouth (of river), 
eternal, a self-existent, infinite; 
cndles, aeonian, deathless, ever- 
lasting, ever-hving, fadeless, 
immortal, imperishable, intel- 
minable, never-ending, never- 
failing, perennial, perpetual, 
timeless, unceasing, undying, 
unending, unfading, unfailing, 
without end 

Note Eternal strictly signifies 
without beginning or end in 
which sense it applies to God 
alone, ezer/asllng applies to 
that which may or may not 


have beginning, bu{ can never 
cease, eterral js also used in 
this more limited sense, end- 
less, without end, m its utmost 
reach, is not distinguishable 
from everlasting, but endless 
is constantly used m inJcrior 
senses, especially in metlianics, 
as in the phrases an endless 
sefew, an endless chain Lver- 
lashng and endless arc both 
used in a limited sense of pro* 
traded, indcrmire, but not in- 
finite duration, as, the ever- 
lasting hills; endless debates; 
so we speak of lutermtnabJe 
quarrels Eternal holds 
strictly to the vast and sacred 
meaning m which it is applied 
to the Divine Being and the 
future state EvrlasUn^, end- 
less, and eternal may be applied 
to that which has no life, as. 
ftfr/aili«g chains, endless 
night, eternal death; tntmoriol 
applies to that which now has 
life, and is forever exempt 
from death Tuneless carries, 
perhaps, the fullest idea of eter- 
nal, as above and 'beyond time, 
and not to be measured by it. 

eternity, n • infinite duration. 

ethereal, a airy, exquisite, subtle, 

ethical, a,: moral, right, dutiful 

ethics, n , pi. philosophy, moral 

etude, n.: study, musical compo- 

eugenics, n. stirpiculture, breed- 

eulogist, n : panegyrist, encomi- 
ast, prai'cr. 

eulogistic, a.: pancgj'rical, lauda- 
tory, encomiastic. 

eulogize, V,. panegyrize, laud, 
praise, extol 

eulogy, n.i panegyric, encomium, 
laudation, praise 

euphonious, a.* melodious, eu- 
phonic, dulcet, rhythmic 

Ant unmelodious 
evacuate, v. vacate, abandon, 
evade, v. avoid, shun; elude, foil, 
parry, baffle , prevaricate, equiv- 
ocate. dodge, quibble 
evanescence, n evaporation, 
evanescent, a transient, fleeting, 
becoming impercepuble 
evaporate, v vaporize, evanesce 
evaporation, n vaporization, 
evanescence, exhalation 
evasion, n eluding, evading, es- 
cape; baffling, foiling, prevari- 
cation, equivocation, sophistry, 
tergiversation, subterfuge, 
dodge, excuse 

evasive, a equivocal, indefinite, 

His answer vva» evasive. 
even, a level, flat, plane, flush: 
smooth, uniform, equable, un- 

everdng, n twilight, nightfall, 
dusk, gloaming, even, eventide. 

AssoaAiiD Woans • vcspertinal, 
vespertine, crepuscular, erepus* 
culous, soiree, vesper 
evening prayer: compline, 
evening serviees evensong, ves* 

evening star: Venus, Vesper, lies- 
per. Hesperus 

evenness, n smoothness, uni- 
formily, equableness, cquanim- 

event, n case, chance, circum' 
stance, consequence, outcome, 
contingeno, end, episode, fact, 
fortune, incident, issue occur- 
rence, possibilit>, result, sequel 

Note Dymologically. the tnri- 
dent IS that which falls in, the 
event that which conies out, 
exent is thus greater and more 
signal than incident, we speak 
of trifling incidents, great 
etenis, tneidenls of daily life- 


events of history. Ctrmm* tive any, each, and every are 
stance agrees with inridcRf in distributive Any makes no se- 
denoling a matter of relatively lection and may not reach to 

slight importance, hut implies the full limits of all, each and 

a more direct connection with etery make no exception or 

the principal matter, “circnm* omission, and must extend to 

stantial evidence' Js evidence all all sweeps m the units as 

from seemingly minor matters part of a total, each and every 

directly connected with a case, proceed through the units to 

mcidcnlal cMdence' would be the total A promise made to 

$<Kne evidence that happened a// omits none, a promise made 

unexpectedly to touch it An to *i«> ma> not reach all, a 

ocfurrenre is, etymologically promise made to etery one is 

that which we riin against. so made that no individual shall 

without thought of Its origin, fail to lie a« are of it , a promise 

connection or tendency An made to each is made to the 

episode is connected with the individuals personally, one by 

main course of events, like an one Lach is thus more indi- 

iRfidfuJ or cireumsianee. but is vidual and specific than etery 

of more independent interest nery classifies each mdividual- 

and importance. Ouieome is ues £arh divides, unites , 

the Saxon, and nent the Latin »f a certain sum is given to 

for expressing the same original eaeh of two persons, both (te- 

idea Conseciuenee or residt gethcr) must receive twice the 

would express more of lopcal amount, both must b« aware of 

connection, and be more com* what ha* been separately com- 
prehensive The end may be mumcatrd tu each a man may 

simple cessxtion, the event is fire beih barrels of a a 

what has been accomplished, single movement, if ne fires 

the event of a war h victory each barrel, he discharges them 

or defeat, the end of the war separately Liiher properly de- 
ls reached when a treaty of notes one of two mdefinitely, 

peace is signed Since the fu* to the exclusion of the other 

lure is contingent event comes TTie use of either in the sense 

to have the meaning of a eon- of eaeh or both, tho sustained 

(in^oicy, as, in the nenr of his by good authority, is objection- 

death the policy wsH at once able because ambiguous His 

fall due friends sat on either side of the 

room would naturally mean on 
everiasttng, a perpetual, eontia- om side or the other, if the 

ual, interminable, unceasing, meaning is on both sides, it 

endless, incessant, eternal. would be better to say so 

never-ending, immortal, aeon- 

lan deathless, imperishaMe every-day, a commorj, custom- 
(Colloq) continual constant. ar>. commonplace 

everlasting, n immortelle; etcr- every now and then- repeatedly, 
„,t\ frequently, occasionally 

every, a all, any, both, each, everywhere present: ubiquity, 
jjjfjjr omnipresence, ubiquitous, om- 


Nott All and bath are collec- evident, a apparent, clear, con- 

spicuous, discernible, disti’ict, 
o^ert, palpable, patent, percep- 
tible, plain, glinns. mdubiUbte, 
manifest, obiious, open tangj- 
ble. transparent, unmistakable, 

Kote Tbat IS fl/iparenf nhich 
cleatl) appears to the senses or 
to the mind as soon as the at- 
tention IS directed toward it, 
that IS eiidtii/ of which flic 
TOind IS madi. sure b\ some m- 
ference that supplements the 
facts of percffJtJon the marks 
of a Jiru^t’e were af-parent in 
broVen *hrubU-ry and trampled 
ground, and the finding of a 
mutilated bod) and a rifled 
purse made it litdcni that rob- 
ber/ and wtirder bad been 
comniitted Tliat is manifest 
which we can h) the band 
upon, manifest i$ thus stronger 
than mdent, as touch t$ moro 
absolute than sight, that the 
picture was a modern cop> of 
an ancient work was rtident. 
and on comparison with the 
original its inferiority was 
manifest That is ehtnous 
which is direeily in the way so 
that It can not be missed, as. 
the apfhcalion of the remark 
was oHtous. I’lsiWe applies to 
all that can be percentd b> the 
sense of sight, whether the 
noonday sun, a ship on the hori* 
ron. or a microscopic object 
DveernihU applies to that 
which IS dimly or faintly vis- 
ible, requiring strain and effort 
in order to be seen : as. the ship 
\/ai diieernii/e through the 
mist That is eonspicuoui which 
stands out so as necessarily or 
stnloERly to attract the atten- 
licm. Palpable and lantjiVIe ex* 
press more emrhaticalJy the 
thought of manifest 

Ant : concealed, covert dark, 


hidden, impalpable, unpenet'a- 
ble, imperceptible, mvisille, 
latent, obscure, occult, secret, 
undiscovered, unimagmed, un- 
known, unseen, unthought of. 
evil, a immoral, sinister, un- 
nghtetus, sniul. pernicious, 
viciou» pernicious (See bod) 
evil, n depravit), s n, pernici- 
oo<ness, iniquit), wickedness, 
ISelial , <Iis3‘ter, unrighteous- 
ness, misfoTtune. reverse, 
calamit) . injustice, damage, in- 
jurv, reverse, mischief, wrong 
evil-doer, n malefactor, culprit, 
offender, Mnner dilmquent 
evil-mmded. a malignant wicked. 

dtpraved. malicu-us 
evoluoon. n unfoldmcnt devel* 
opmoit, evoKement unloMms 
exact, a accurate, true, literal, 
precise, punctilious, undevat* 
ing. rigid, method cal, rigorous, 
severt, strict 

exact, \ extort, wrest, demand, 

He exorted the payment of the 

ife extorted the money by threat* 
enmg hi$ victim. 

His authority was urested from 

The people demanded their rights. 

The teacher enforerd the rules 
exacting, a harsh, oppressive, 
severe, peremptory 
exacbon, n oppression, extortion 
exactness, n . accuracy, strictness, 
precision, correctness, cxac*i- 
tude, scrupulousness, 
exaggerate, v overstate. 

The story has been greatly exag- 

exaggerated, a • colored, over- 
statrd. hj-perbolical 
exaggeration, n. hyperbole: ovef- 

exalt. V dignify, ennoble, ag- 
rrai'hre, elevate, extol, ap* 
othco'ire, magnif) 

exaltation, n. aggrandizement. circumsUnces In its applica- 

loftmess, elevation, apotheosis turn to a person or thing ex~ 

exalted, a elevated, lofty, grand tmphr can scarcely he dis- 

sublime, dignified tmguished from example, but 

examination, n autopsy, scrutiny, exainpL is most frequently 

inquiry, investigation, tnspec* used for an act or course of 

lion, inquest, audit, inquisition, action for whuh exemplar is 

recension, probing, reconnois- not used as one sets a good 

sance, review (or a bad) erample An rx- 

examinc, v scrutinize, audit, in* emphfieation u an illustrative 

spect question, heclcle, review, working out in action of a 

reconnoitre search, investigate, principle or law without any 

catechise, probe reference to its being copied or 

examiner, n investigator ques- repeated an example guides, 

tioner mquirer, inspector, cate- an illustrates or 

chiscr, reviewer, inquisitor, c’<p)aii)» fnJiiiMple is the same 

auditor, recensionist, censor as examph but practically ob- 

example, n specimen, sample; soletc outside of Scriptural or 

model, pattern, prototype, arche- theological language 

tj-pe. exemplification, copy, ex* 

emplar, illustration, instance, <Mspera‘e, ' irritate anger, pro* 
case, precedent voke incen,e imbitter, ag* 

Associated Wows exemplary, gravate intensify 

exemplification, e xempfify, exasperation, n irritation offend- 
praxis "^S prif\ocauon aggravation; 

exacerbation anger 

Kote From its original sense of exceed, v transcend, surpass: 
sample or specimen (L eiem- outdo excel outvie, predomi- 

plum) example derive* the nate. preponderate 

seemingly contradictory mean- exceeding, a surpassing 
mgs on the one hand of a pat- excel, v outstrip surpass, outdo, 
tern or model, and on the other eclipse outrival, outvie, exceed, 

hand of a ■warning— z sample transcend 

or specimen of what is to be excellence, n transcendence, su- 
followed, or of what is to be periont> preeminence, emi- 

shunned An example, how- nence probity, goodness, merit, 

ever, may be more than a integrity, virtue 

sample or specimen of any excellent, a . meritorious, good, 
class. It may be the very arehe- estimable choice, worthj 
tipe or prolotipe to which the 

whole class must conform as Note Strictly that which is ex- 
when Christ is spoken of as eellent excels but an object that 

being an or leaving an is tahiatU or a man who is 

example for his disciples Ex- tiorlAy so far excels the tnajor- 

ample comes nearer to the pos- ity of persons or things that 

siblc freedom of the OTodr/ than these absolute words have be- 

to the necessary exactness of come close synon>-m3 for ex- 

the pattern, often we can not, eelUnt 

in a given case, exactly imitate 

the best example, but only excess.n superfluity, redundancy, 
adapt Its teachings to altered redundance, superabundance; 


surplus. surp'us3"c, overplus, 
remndcr. re*. due, rampanej. 
exuberance inmodeTalion, ce- 
orLitance overdoing, dissolate- 
ness, intemperance, debaucheo* 

Kern. Bscess is mo'e than 
enough of anjthing, and, since 
this m icr> manj eases indi- 
cates a lack either of judgment 
Of of self-control, the word is 
used {requentl> in an unfasor- 
able sense Careless expendi- 
ture in exctti of income is ex- 
iraiafjance we maj haie also 
exlratvoance of language, pro- 
fessions etc As extroiagaiue 
is exetst in outlay, exorbitance 
is excess in demands, and espe- 
cially m pecuniary demands 
upon others. Oterf'lus and 
nterabundanee denote in the 
main a satisfactory*, and #i»prr- 
fmiy an undesirable, excess 
fntjhnrss and /fo/unon, a 
generous, bountiful, or amiable 
excess, as, a profusion of fair 
half, /ittirliRfxf of hospitalits 
Surf'lus IS neutral, haiing none 
of the unfaiorable meaning that 
often attaches to excess, a snr- 
flus IS that whicli remains oier 
after all demands are met. Re- 
dundance or redundancy refers 
chiefly to literary stjJc, denot- 
ing an excess of words or mat- 
ter. Excess h the moral sense 
is expressed by dtssifaiton, 
prodigality, intemperanee. etc. 

Ast * dearth, defect, deficiency, 
furgality, inadcquac), tnsuS- 
ciency, destitution, economy, 
failure, lack, need, poserty, 
scantiness, sbortcoming, wanL 
excessive, a . exuberant, super- 
ainindint. superfluous, dispro- 
portionate; unreasonable, ex- 
orbitant. inordinate, outrageous, 
fabulous, immoderate, exlrasa* 
gant, extreme. 

exchange, s barter, commute, a- 
le'chargc, trafT.c, trade, recip- 
rocate. permute, Lacdy 
exchange, n trade, barter, traffic, 
tnterchange. coicmuution, re- 
ciprocity . bourse, permutauen; 

excitable, a. sensitise, £uscept.ble, 
impressible, eraoucinal. mobile; 
diolenc, trasab'e. passionate, 
irritable, fiery, ssa'pish. 

uncxcitable. lfnpe^tu^batl^ 


e*cite, s arouse. sti.'**Lla!e, pro- 
soke, itsflame, incite, agitate, 
perturb, discompose, distract, 
unsettle, disconcert, 
excited, a disconcerted, pcf- 
lurbed, agitated. 

\vT calm, serene, uapq*ajl, nca- 

excitement, n pcrturbaiion. com- 
r'otion, furore, agitation, sen- 
sation, furore, flurry, n^ne- 
tilde, tumult, ebulli'ion; ttuoa- 
Its. incitement, airaLenng. 

Ast calmness, non^lsnce, 
serenity, impcriarbalion. 
exciimg, a.’ rousing, ttimulating. 

sensational, stirring, 
cxclaun, v.* shout, vociferate, ejac- 

exclamation, n • sociferation. out- 
cry, interjection, ejacula'icn. 

exclamation point: ecphoneise. 
exclude, v ; preclude, omit, ex- 
cept, expel, eject; debar, 
exclusion, n : preclusion, dsbar- 
mecl; omiss on, excep’ion; ex- 
pulsion, ejection. 

excrement, n • stools, dejections, 
faeces; ordure, durg. 

Associato Woios. latoJogy. 
eecnnology, faecal, cxcremerti- 
tious, \oid, defecate, defecation, 
excusable, a.: pardonable, jcstiS- 
able, icnial. 

Ast.: Sec inexcusable. 

excuse, v . forgive, pardon, ab- 
sohe, palliate, exonerate, exten- 
uate, justify, acquit, exculpate, 

excuse, n apology, plea, justifica- 
tion palliation, exoneration, ex- 
tenuation , evasion, pretext, 
subterfuge, makeshift. 

See apology 

execute, u administer, carry out, 
do, enforce, perform 

Note To execute is to follow 
through to the end put into 
absolute and final effect in ac- 
tion , to adminiiler is to con- 
duct as one holding a trust, as 
a minister and not an origina- 
tor, the sheriff executes a wm, 
the trustee admixi-tferranestate. 
a charity, etc , to enfoeee is to 
put into effect by force, actual 
or potential To edimmster the 
lavrS IS the province of a court 
of justice, to execute the laws 
is the province of a sheriff, 
marshal, constable or other 
executive officer, to administer 
the law IS to declare or apply 
It, to execute the law 15 to pot 
St in force, for this enforce is 
the more general word, execute 
the more specific Kroiw sig- 
Mfjing to superintend official^ 
some application or infliction, 
odniiiiijffr passes by a natural 
transition to signify iiiftiet mete 
out dispense, and Wows medi- 
cine etc, are sard to be admin- 
istered a usage thoroughly 
established and reputable in 
spite of pedantic objections 
Enforce signifies also to pre- 
sent and urge home by intel- 
lectual and moral force , as, to 
enforce a precept or a doty 
execution, n effectuation, con- 
summation, performance, ac- 
complishment, perpetration 
executioner, n hangman, 
exercise, n act, action activity, 

exertion, occupation, operation, 
application, drill, employment, 
performance, practise, use 

Note Exercise in the ordinary 
sense 1$ the easy natural action 
ol any power, exertion is the 
pultmg of any power to strain 
and tax An exerctse-dtret for 
a horse 1$ so much as will de- 
velop strength and health and 
not appreciably weary But by 
qiidliiying adjectives we may 
bring exercise up to the full 
sense of exertion, as, violent 
exercise Exercise is action 
taken at any time with a view 
to employing, maintaining, or 
increasing power, or merely for 
enjoyment, practise is system- 
atic exercise with a view to the 
acquirement of facility and skill 
in some purmit. a person takes 
a walk for exercise, or takes 
lime for practise on the piano 
Practise is also used of putting 
into action and effect what one 
has learned or holds as a the- 
ory as the practise of law or 
m^irine a profession of re- 

ligion IS good but the practise 
of It IS better Dnll is system- 
atic rigorous and commonly 
enforced practise under a teach' 
or commander Compare habit 

AST idleness, inaction, inactiv- 
ity, relaxation, rest 
exerctsc. i apply busy, cmp)oy, 
(ractice drill, discipline exert, 
worry harass, distress, tram 
exertion, n struggle, attempt, 


exhaust, v deplete debilitate, 

enervate prostrate, drain 
exhausted, a drained consumed, 

depleted effete, snent 
exhaustion, n depletion, con- 
sumption, dissipation, draining, 
collapse lassitude weariness, 
inanition, prostration 


cxhaiutless, a inexhaustible, 
exhibit, \ show, display, 
exhibition, n shosi display, 
exhumation, n disinterment, dis* 

exhume, % disentomb, disinter 
exHe, n. expatriation, proscrip- 
tion, banishment 
exile, V • expatriate, banish. 
exQed person: expatriate, exile, 
exodus, n exit 

Note Exedut applies to the out- 
going of a large number of per- 
sons, as 'The exodus of the 
Israel.tts" iijrii applies to ones 
departure fren a room or 
houje, as ‘His exit from the 
room v-as hast> defariure 
applies to ones leasing the city, 
as, "His departure from Chi- 
cago v,-a» sudden"— Titc Co«- 
*Ecr Wot® 

exorbitant, a inordinate, fabulous, 
excessive, unreasonable 
expand, V. distend, enlarge, dilate 
expansion, n enlargement, dis- 
tention, dilation, 
expatiate, v descant, 
expect, V anticipate. 

See antiapate 

expectation, n.: anticipation, ex- 

expel, V : drive out, eject; banish, 
proscribe, exile, ostracire, evac- 
uate, eject, discharge, void; 
remove, dismiss, exclude; ex- 

expelling, n.- ejectment, dismis- 
sal, expulsion, ostr3ci«m, ban- 
ishment, exile, proscription, 
expelling, a. expulsive, 
expend, v : disburse, 
expenditure, n * disbursement, 
expense, n cost, expenditure, out- 
go, outlay. 

Note: The cost of a thing is 
whatever one surrender* or 
gives up for it, in'entionally or 

unmicntionall^, or even uneco- 
sciously , ex f fuse is what iv law* 
out by calculation or intcntiou. 
We sa>. 'he won his fame at 
the eosi of his life,” ’’I know 
It to m^ cost ' v.e speak of a 
joke It mother's expense, at 
another s eost v oulrl seem to 
make it a more serious matter. 
There is a tcrd—ic) to use cost 
of whjt we pa> for a posses- 
sion expense oi v hat we nay 
for a service, ve speak of the 
east of goods the expense of 
making up Outhy is used of 
some dcfini'e expenditure, as 
for the purchase of supplies; 
oulffo of a steady dram or of 
incidental expenses See price. 

A*it gam, m.cmc, profit, proGts. 
proceeds, prwluct, receipt, re- 
ceipts, return, returns 
oxpenstve, a dear, high-prieed, 

.\m. inexpensive, 
experienced, a veteran, practiced. 

Ant inexperienced, 
expenment, n trial, test. 

AssoCTAtro Wosiot cTTpirie, eni- 
pineal, empiricism, empiristie, 

expenraental, a.- tentative, em- 

expert, a • proficient, adroit, 
au fait, skilled. 

Am inexpert. 

expert, n : master, dabster, con- 
noisseur, adept, masterhard 

Ant ; bungler, tyro 
explain, v elucidate, interpret* 
unfold, expound 

explainable, a : mlcrpretable, solv- 
able. explicable 

Ant.’ tmexplai-iable. 
explainer, n.’ interprefator, ex- 
positor, commentator, cl-cica- 
tor, exegetist. 

explanation, n.: exp/osition. ex- 
plication, elucidat/on ; solution, 
deduction, key, ntcrpretaticn 


Associated Words exegetics, 

explanatory, a elucidative, ex- 
egetical expository, interpreta- 

explicit, express 

Vote Both explicit and express 
are opposed to what is merely 
implicit or implied That which 
IS erplicil IS unfolded, so that 
It may not be obscure, doubtful 
or ambiguous , that which is 
express is uttered or stated so 
decidedly that it may not be 
forgotten nor overlooked An 
explicit statement is too clear 
to be misunderstood , an express 
command is too emphatic to be 

Ant imbiguous, doubtful, indefi* 
nite, indeterminate, implicit im* 
plied, uncertain, vague 

explode, v detonize, detonate, 

exploit, V utilize, develop 
exploitation, n exploiture, util* 

explosion, n detonization deton- 
ation, bursting, outburst 
explosive, n nitro-glycerine, fuse 
lyddite, thorite, fulgurite, ion- 
ite, dynamite 

expose, V show, exhibit, display. 
im>eil, uncover, endanger, sub- 
ject, imperil, jeopardize, reveal, 
disclose, denounce unmask 

Ant suppress, hide, veil, dis- 
semble, conceal 

expose, n disclosure, exposure, 

exposition, n exposure, display, 
commentary, postillation, ex- 
planation , fair 
expostulate, v remonstrate 
expostulation, n remonstiation 
exposure, n disclosure revela- 
tion, diiulucmen! exposmg ex- 
pose liability, jeopardy, sub- 

express, a. positive, explicit. spe-< 
cific unmistakable, definite 
Ant vague, tacit ambiguous, 
implied equivocal mdefinit 
express, v utter say represent, 
mdicat- signify, mean, de ig- 
natc denote 

expression, n statement asser* 
tion declaration utterance; 
phrase term indication repre» 
s niition, mixlulation word 
expulsion, n ejection, debarment, 
cxpclliTiB exclusion 
exquisite, a rare, elegant bcauti* 
ful choice fastidious discrimi* 
natmg acute poignant, keen; 
consummate, incomparable, 

Note BUgant reiers to that as- 
semblage of qualities which 
makes anylhmg choice to per* 
sons of culture and refinement; 
tt ttfers to the lighter, finer 
elements of beauty m form or 
motion, but is often misu'cd as 
a general term of approval A 
dress may be elegant but such 
expression: as an elegant field 
of com,’ “an elcaant fide," or 
‘an elegant time are glaring 
lexical improprieties Exquisite 
denotes the utmost perfection of 
the elegant m minute detail , 
we speak of an elegant garment, 
an exquisite lace Exquisite is 
alto applied to intense keenness 
of any feeling as exquisite de- 
light exquisite pam 

extemporaneous, a extemporary, 
extempore offhand unpremedi- 
tated impromptu, improvised 

Note Extemporaneous, originally 
signifying of or from the lime 
or oecasioii has come to mean 
dOTe or made 'vi.h but little 
(if an') preparation, and is 
now chiefly applied to addresses 
of which the thought has been 


prepared, and only the language 
and mcidental treatment left to 
the suggestion of the moment, 
so that an extemporaneous 
speech is understood to be any 
one that is not read or recited . 
impromptu keeps its original 
sense, denoting something that 
springs from the instant , the 
impromptu utterance is gener- 
ally brief, direct, and vigorous, 
the exlemporaKeoui speech may 
chance to be prosy Offhand 
is still more emphatic as to the 
readiness and freedom of the 
utterance. Unpremeditated is 
graver and more formal, de- 
noting absolute want of prep- 
aration, but IS rather loo heavy 
a word to be applied to such 
apt, ready utterance as is gen- 
erally designated by impromptu. 

Ant elaborated, premeditated, 
read, prepared recited, studied, 

extend, v prolong, protract. 

lengthen, project, jut, charge 
extensible, a. ductile, tensible. 

Ant inextensible, rigid, inelastic, 
extension, n expansion, protrac- 
tion, enlargement, projection. 

Associated VVorns tensility, ten- 
sibilit>, tensile 

extent, n sue, volume, magni- 
tude, compa«s, reach 
exterminate, v annihilate, banish, 
destroy, overthrow, remove, root 
out, eradicate, expel, extirpate, 
uproot, wipe out 

Note Exterminate (L. ex, out, 
and ffrjiiinur, a boundary) sig- 
nified primarily to drive besond 
the bounds or limits of a coun- 
try , tbe word is applied to races 
of men or animals, and is now 
almost exclusivelv used for re- 
moval by death, individuals are 

now said to be banished or ex- 
pelled, Eradicate (L c, out. 
and radix, root) is primarily 
apphed to numbers or groups 
of plants which it is desired to 
remove effectually from the 
seal, a single tree may be up- 
rooted, but is not said to be 
eradicated, we labor to eradi- 
cate or root out noxious weeds 
To extirpate (L. ex, out, and 
tttrps, stem, stock) is not only 
to destroy the individuals of any 
race of plants or animals, but 
the very stock, so that the race 
can never be restored, we speak 
of eradicating a disease, of ex- 
tirpating a cancer, exterminat- 
ing wild beasts or hostile tribes, 
we seek to eradicate or extir- 
pate all vices and evils 

Ant augment, beget, chenvh, 
colonire, breed, build up. de- 
velop, foster, increase, plant, 
replenish, settle, populate, pre^a- 

extenaination, n . extirpation, up- 
rooting, eradication 
external, a . exterior, superficial, 
outward, extrinsic, 
extol, V . praise, exalt, eulogire, 

extortion, n • exaction (undue), 
overcharge, vampirism, rapac- 


extortionate, a exacting, oppres- 
sive. (Colloq ) exorbitant, 
extortioner, n harpy, 
extra, a. additional, supplement- 
ary, supplemental, supernumer- 

extract, n. essence, quintessence, 
quotation, excerpt, citation, se- 

extraordinary, a • unusual, re* 
marlable, uncommon epreg'- 
ous, signal, phenomenal note- 
uorthy, exceptional, unprece- 


extravagance, n jirodigaliJy, im- 
provccJence, waste, preposfer- 
ousncss, exorbitante, enormity, 

Ant economy, thrift, fnigality 
extravagant, a unthrifty, waste- 
ful, prodigal, lavish improM 
dent immoderate, preposter- 
ous wild, inordinate, exorbi- 

Ant thrifty 

extreme, a utmost outermost, 
farthest, final last ultimate, 
radical, fanatical, ultra 
extremist, n radical 
exuberance, n rampancy excess, 
superabundance, lusunance, 
lavishness, copiousness 
exuberant, a copious excessive, 
rampant, overlowing super- 
abundant, rank, luxuriant wan- 

exultant, a jubilant, joyous, tri- 
eye, n optic 

Associated VVokss optics, opti- 
cian ocular, oculary, oculate. 
ocuhform, ophthalmology, 
ophtalmologist, ophsalmic, op- 
tometry, opfithafffloscat optom- 
etrist, chatoyant, eliatoyment, 
cynosure, orbit, strabismus, 
rheum, ophthalmoscope oph- 
thalmoscopy, astigmatism, 
optography, blear, blear-ej-ed. 
biear>, ophthalmometer, ortnial, 
orbitary, amaurosis, occllated 
eyebrows, n , pi supercilium 
Associatcd Worm superciliary 
eye doctor: oculist 
eye-glasses, n , pi. pince-nei, 
lorgnette, spectacles, monocle, 
blinkers, goggles 
eytlashes, n , pi cilia 
Associated Words ciliary 
eyelid, n palpebra, pi, palpebrae 
Associated Words palpebral 

eyesore, n defect, blemish 
eyewater, n . collyrium. 


fable, n allegory, apologue (mor- 
al fable) fiction, fabrication 
myth, untruth 

fabric, n material, system, edi- 

The social fabric crumbled 
fabricate, \ construct, make, 

manu/aciiire com , cojkocC, 
forge, invent falsely, devise 
The story was fabricated to give 
discredit to his statement 
fabrication, n manufacturing, 
constructing falsehood, forg- 
eri, concoction 
It was a ba'ic fabrication 
fabulous, a fictitious, feigned un- 
verified, exorbitant, mordi late, 

The jewels cost a fabulous price 
facade, n elevation, usually chref 

The fatede is artistically deco- 

face, V meet, confront, bully, 

face. V plane, dress, veneer 
face, n personal force, influence, 

face, n visage countenance, phy- 
«iognomy, features, front, ex- 
terior, obverse, facet 
face, n confidence assurance, au- 
dacitx impiulenee 
face-guard n mask, beaver, 
facet, n small face 
Those facets are clearly cut 
facetious, a amusing, jocular. 

You «re facetious 

facetiousness, n wit, j'oeularity. 


Such /acelioiisntss was not called 

facetiae, n witty sayings 
face to face: tir-d-jir, 
facile, a dexterous, skillful, 
easv, pliant yielding 
Ills style was facile and unstudied 


facilitate, % • crpedite, hasten, ac- 
celerate, advance 

That will fuxUtate communica- 

Ant retard, hinder, check, make 


facility, n advantage, aid, readi- 

What facilities have jou for do- 
ing the work’ 

facsimtle, n copy, duplicate, rc- 
prodaction, likeness, counter- 

That is a perfect faestmtle. 

fact, n. actuality, reality, truth. 

faction, n sedition, dissension, 
rebellion, insurgency, division 

There are several factions to be 

factionist, n partisan, member of 

lie was a factionist of pronounced 

factious, a seditious, turbulent, 
rebellious, rcffa«or>', insubordi- 

He was a factious trouble-breeder 

factor, n.: constituent, element: 
broker, middleman, consignee, 
commission merchant, agent 

This is an important factor in the 

factory, n.- manufactory, shop, 
plant, mill 

factotum, n, servant, man of all 

Tire bo> proved to be a willing 

facts. ri , pi. data. 

faculative. a enabling, empower- 
ing. pro.idirg, as a law, for op- 
tio . 1 a tion 

The till provides for faculatr^e 

faculty,n • capabilitj, endowment, 
talent, abili'y, knack, gift, dex- 
terity. skill, ingenuity, compe- 
tency, adroitness 

He did not permit his facuUirt 
to he dormant. 

fade, V.: droop, decay, decf/fik 
languish, evanesce, disappear, 
faded, a. dulled, dimmed, indis- 
tinct, withered, worn 
fadeless, a unfading, fast, peren- 
nial, permanent 

fading, a fugitive, evanescent, 

fag, V fatigue, tire out, compel 
•erv ice 

lag, n blemish, rough spc>l._ 
fag-ends, n fags, waste, rubbish, 
fagged, a fatigued, worn out. 
fagot, n fascine, bundle of twigs 
fail, V decline, deteriorate, retro- 
grade, disappoint, desert, mfs- 
OTf), foil, become bankrupt, 
failing, n imperfection, short- 
coming. deficiency, foible, fault, 
infirmii), errancy, fallibility, d^ 
feet dechire. deterioration 
failure, n shortcoming, faillns 
deficiency, lack , omission, pre* 
termission, default, nonperfonn- 
ance. neglect, dereliction 
nonobservanee, nonfulfillmnitJ 
nonsuceess, miscarriage, fras* 
tration, abortion 

failure, n.* deterioration, decline, 
declension, retrogression; bank- 
ruptcy, insolvency, 
fain, a.* willing, content. 

lie was fain to accept it. 
faineance, n.: indolence, idling, 

faint, a . dim, dull, faded; weak, 
languid, exhausted, feeble, list- 
less, weaned, worn, fatigued: 
dim. faded, dull, indistinct, ill 
defined, faint-hearted, faltering, 
half-hearted, irresolute, pur- 
poscic's, timid, timorous, wore, 
worn down, worn oat. 

Kotf Wrilen characters may be 
faint or dim, either becauic 
originally written with poor ink 
or becau'c they have becom' 
faded by iiiiTe and exposure >* 
person may be faint when phv* 


sically weaned, or when over- 
come with fear; he may be a 
faint adherent, a faltering sup- 
porter, a listleij worker, 
through want of mental energy 
and purpose 

Ant bright, brilliant, clear, con- 
spicuous , daring energetic 
fresh, hearty, resolute strong, 
sturdy, vigorous 

faint, V swoon, despond, fade, 
grow dim 

famt-nearted, a dithdent, timor- 
ous, timid, fearful, cowardly 
famt-heartedness, n diflidence, 

fainting, n swoon syncope 
faintness, n feebleness, exhaus 
tion, weakness 

fair, a frank, candid, aboveboard, 
sincere, open, honest 
Ant sly, tricky, intriguing de- 

fafr, a comely, attractive, fovefy, 
pretty, charming, beautiful 
fair, 3 blond, light, unsullied. 

untarnished spotless 
fair, a impartial, crtuicable. un- 
biased, just, honorable, unpreju- 
'ficcJ, ingenuous 

fair, a average, middling, toler* 
erabfe, so-so, passable 
fair, adv, openly, clear, (rankly, 
honestly, favorably, auspi- 
ciously, impartially 
fair, n exposition, bazaar 
fair and square: equitably, impar- 
tially, fairly, hoireslly 
fairly, adv impartially, equitably, 
opcnl), favor.ibly, auspiciously 
fairness, n justice, equity, im- 
partnlity, justness, naht 
fairness, n beauty, loveliness, ex- 
qiiisitcncss, comeliness, charm, 

fair play: equity, justice 
We ask for fair play 
fair-spoken, a. plausible, bland, 
civil, suave 

fairy, n. elf, fay. pixy, sprite, 
sylph, Puck, Robin Goodfellow, 
Mab Oberon Tiiann 
fatrylike, a airy ethenal, aerial, 
sprightls c.<y frolicsome lively 
faith, n bclitf, credence, trust, 
dcpcndtiic credit, reliance, 
ciitiihiuc as-ent assurance, 
c nvution erred doctrine, opin- 

Non We give credence to a 
rc|K>rt atseni to a proposition 
or lo a proposal Belief is 
stronger tJian eredence, cred- 
ence might be described as 
prima fairc belief Goods are 
sold on credit we give one 
credit for good intentions Cen- 
tuiioii IS a belief established by 
argument or evidence, owuf- 
onee is belief beyond the reach 
of argument as the Christian'i 
ossiirame of salvation An 
opiHKMi iv a general conclusion 
livid as probable though with- 
out full ccrtiitity, a fernatten 
IS a mort confident epimoii, in- 
\ol\mg lie heart as aaell as the 
intellect In religion, a doctrine 
IS a statement of belief regard- 
ing a single point, a erred is a 
summary statement of tfoc/rinet 
Conddence is a firm dependence 
upon a itatement .as true, or 
upon a person as worthy We 
have a calm refiiiire upon (he 
uniformity of nature, we have 
(r«jt or faith in God F aith is 
a union of belief and trust 
Faith IN chiefly personal, belief 
may be quiie impersonal, we 
sp“*k of belief of a proposition, 
/ai(/< III a promise, because the 
promi'c cnianares from a per- 
son Itut belief in a person is 
often u-ed with no appreciable 
difference frorn faith In re- 
ligion It IS common to distin- 
guish between mtvllectual belief 


of religious tnilli, as any other bnmhug, defraud, manipulate 

truth might be believed, and fraudulently 
behef of the heart, or saving falcer, n (Slang): swindler, trick- 
fatih ster 

He was a notorious faker 

Avt. denial, disavowal, disbelief, fakir, n ascetic, religious devotee, 
dissent, distrust, doubt, misgiv- vos>. mendicant priest 
ing, rejection, skepticism, sas- fall, v drop, descend, gravitate; 
picion, misgiving, unbelrcf, dis- founder, collapse, slump, tumble, 

tru't topple, decrease, decline, settle, 

faith, n fidelity, faithfulness, loy- subiide, moderate, languish; 

alty, promise, engagement. happen, be transferred, be as- 

word, dogma, tenet, creed, re- sigred uttered, dropped, 

ligion, persuasion The building collapsed 

Ant infidelity, faithlessness, dis- The property uas assigned to him. 
loyalt> His enthusiasm suddenly subsided 

faithful, a constant, true, stanch. The words dropped eloquently 
unwavering, devoted, loyal, re- from his lips 

liable, trustworthy, conscien- fall, v sin, do wrong, go astray; 
tious, exact, sure, accurate, pre- apostatize 

CISC. fall, n drop, descent, collapse, 

tumble , decrease, decline, 
Kote* a person is faithful who slump, depreciation; cadence; 

will keep faith, whether with or slope, declivity; ptosusuoit, 

without power to aid or serve; subversion, downfall; disembo* 

a person or thing is trusty that guement, discharge, 
possesses such qualities as to fall, n autumn 
justify the fullest confidence fallacious, a misleading, sophls 
and dependence We may speak tical. illusive, untenable, incon- 
of a faithful but feeble friend; sisient 

we say a trusty agent, a trusty That is folloctous reasoning 
steed, a trusty sword fallacy, n deception, delusion, 

misconception; sophism, sophis- 
Ant : capricious, faithless, false, try, paralogism, 
fickle, unfaithful, untrue, un- Do not voice such fallaetes 
trustworthy, wavering fallals, n, pi. (Colloq). frippery, 

faithfulness, n.: constancy, devo- gewgaws, ornaments 

lion, lo>-a!ty, fidelity, tme-heart- fall away: emaciate; renounce, de- 
cdne«s, allegiance, fealty, trust- sert, rcl«l 

worthiness; exactness, accuraev'. His long sickness has caused him 
faithless, a.: false, unbelieving, to fall aioay 

skeptical, incredulous, doubting, fall back: recede, retreat, retire, 
disloyal withdraw 

faithlessness, n.' perfidy, disloy- The army had to fall back. 

alty, unbelief, incredulity, fallen, a. prostrate, dropped, de- 
doubt graded, depreciated, debased, 

fake, n. (Slang): swindle, trick, The monetary value has /aWm. 
imposture, fraud, delusion, hum- fallibihty, r: errancy, 
bug, impo'ition The falltbiltly of that argument 

fake, V. (Slang): swindle, cheat, is apparent 


fallible, a.- rrrat>le, rrrini;. 
I.vcryoiie ii 

falllne; away: ftimhuoti, filnlnri 
rcmmrhlii»i», rrvolr, 
tlrfr<ll«m oimm- 
tMy, liKkolldine, (irvlitic, de* 

Tlicrc tt tn a iioiicnWr faltiHB 
(if llic itiemlirr* 

falling back, rrtrnt rr* rmion. rr 
tirfiiifiii, \villnlrnw il 
falling down: lolUii^r {troMirailnii 
falling In with. inrriloK rniuiir 
Triirr, aprrcincit, i iix t' 
'Vf ttfrr Hire «( (ullnii! w with 

falling off; ilrniu’lng art>araii»i), 
williilrwii, (letuhiWMl , defre 
thin, ni'nitiiy <lr rrtlon, «1«- 
pfrUillon, ilrirrIorilioM 
Tlirre U a fiil/nit* off in prudne 
lUnB I 

fiiiy, drficlt, nhd. 
falllnB atari iiiplror 
fallmg atone: mricoriir. nrroliir 
falllnf* to (>}«eet‘ doliiirccr^tMii. 
dll ii'Mitlnn 

fall on: a«4.iiili, ntinik, n««all 
fall oiitJ (jinffrl wrniiKle. di«i>ni<-. 
flllcrnfe, (Mrer 

fallow, n iihtlllril. itnciilllvatrd 
liiiflive, ihiftninl 
Tlio firM i« fall ifc. 
fall abort: lie drricknt, he Inadr- 


tuiac, a tinfiltlifiil, (altldrai 
dlimi, mnirloiK, forped, cinmlrr 
frit, *iii)ii()<llii>iM tiosna, Wpnrd, 
inn'iTliriKlo. filfacfoin, nistr. 
believe, Iiyj'<*criliei1, naMimrif, 
tHriiilii, ii>plii«|leit, nntrndile. 
dnlioiie«t, erronrnin nnvfri- 
fhiiK, iinirullifiil. didoyal trjl- 
triroiH, iirrrMl'iii" dklnjlcMHOiis 
Iniliirrrr. rrerrant 
false friend: betrayer, traitor, 

flc sfioweit liiimclf to be a faCst 

falaeliood, n iintrutlifiilnrai In* 

•, fibn 

I, I rlioi 

iirnrntli. nirinljdly, lanard 
falao name iitniilunyiu, twin <fe 

A miAiiii WoliiiH piriidoily. 
Ill II iitriiili.iiuiiity inriiilrplt** 

false awfurmg iinjniy 
faUe wrltliii; i ii'hci) 


faUilicollon, II fnii^riv (iitinler* 
triiiii>. f lUityiiih' . iiiisrriimrTi* 
I til II f it irlKiii 

falsify, t iiusiialr nils* 
iriirtriii iliiioit |irrver|; 
iritllr dlspinvr, Klllfllle 

Ilicy fahififit ilio returns 
eiii r liMniiriiy 

falilty. » be falsrliornl, mistake, 
falter, V tremble hesiuir waver, 
V ■< ill lie 

faltering, a wavering besliailiiy 
failering. n imtpi Mini lie<ilalloii, 
wMveriitk' viulllili'm 
fame. i> leiinwii irlebrily, note, 
eiiibirii e sJirri refiiitifiod re 
|>iitr, Imtmr. liiirels, nninriely 

Ntrrr AV/iitr/iiiii and rfi'ulf nny 
Im) rilliri troiiil or bill Nol>t 
fUiy Is evil ref'iilt or n ills* 
hoiioralte iiniiiterfril of A>"'e. 
fmineme ami (firbnrtinii tnay 
result from rank, slsiion, or 
eliirsiter (eWrity Is liinilrd 
in rant-’e , we ti'rak of I 'f it 
lelfhiilv or world wide faixf, 
lame Is the applause of nmii* 
fers. rrnunn, •ach apphtise 
woribdy won we tpeiW of tbe 
emi'ineriir'i fii»ie, llir patrint'i 
reuoiisi tllwv ami bennr are 
of goo I Iniiiorl cfdry has a 
more esallrd nn 1 often a lacred 

Ant ennirinpt. eontnmrl/, dis* 
crerlrf. dlntrare dishonor, d^s* 
repute, luiimlhtlon, Ignominy, 


irfany, oblivion, obicwrity, 
s^’ame, i-^lorjoKsneu 
famed, a. v>etl knonn, celebrated; 

That IS a famed portrait 
familur, a close, intimate, cor- 
dial, rear, frtendl.. bosom, 
wellkno7.n conver>art. infor- 
mal, urresened i.nconstramed, 
C21V, tirce-e-if^n ous 

The qtjoatioo \» familiar 

unfamiliar, shi, cerenon* 
iouj. distant 

familiarity, r intimacy, acquaint- 
ance, conversance, informal ty. 
B-eonjtrai 't, freedom, disre- 
«pe^, urrcs' r.c 

He trowel famticaniy nitb Jin 

Too great fami'ianiy i» disre- 

familiarize, v. accustom, habitu- 
ate, i-ure, break in. 

You ‘houM famiUanae yourself 
with these points 

family, n. household; genealogy, 
lineage, ancestry'. 

ASsOmATCo Wcrans; gerealogut. 
forU-fimtUale, pedigree, nepo- 
jistn, nepotic, caderey, gens 
fa/nished, a.' /amt, extremely 
hungiy, itanei corstramed. 

famous, a,' famed, reno.vrcd, 
noted, celebrated, em’ncrt, ilIuS' 
tnous, far-famed, diitirguishcd- 

Ant : obscure, inglorious, un- 
known, notorious 

fan, n.: device, inpleirent, wheel, 
vane, sail 

fan, V.: stimulate, rouse, foment, 
provoke, encourage; winnow; 
cool, ventilate 

fanatic, n • extremist, visionary, 

fanatical, a.' fanatic, uncompro- 
mishg. rabid, overzealoas 
fanatidsm, n.: intemperate zeal, 
b-gotry, frenzy, jcalotry, cTTed- 
olitr, superstition, intolerance. 

Ncre; Bigotry is narrow, farati- 
£um is ferce, tvptrstition is 
igrorant, eredulily is weak, lu- 
tolerance is severt Bigotry has 
not the capacity to reason fairl/, 
fanaiKtsm has not the patcrcc, 
eupersiition has not the knowl- 
edge and mental duciplire, te- 
toleraree has rot the disposi- 
tion Bigotry, fanaticism, and 
superstition are per.'ersions of 
the religious sentiment, creduU 
tty ard intolerance often accom- 
pany skept-cism or atheism 

Ai.T cynicism, mdifTerence, Uti- 

fanaed, a imaginary, unreal. 

She surered from a fancied in- 

fanciful, a visionary.* 
live, whims cal, cap'icious, cn- 
practicaJ, fanta‘tie. illusive, chu 
merical. phan'asmic, quixotis, 
bizarre, erratic, grotesque. 

Xore* The /arci/Bf swing! away 
from the real or the ordmary 
lightly and pleasantly, the /e«- 
tasUe extra; agart!/, the gro- 
tesque ridiculously. A fanciful 
arrangcmcpt of ob/ccts is eon^ 
monly pleasing, a fantastic ar- 
rangement IS striking, a grs- 
tesque arrangement is laugh- 
able. A fanciful theory or sug- 
gestion may be clearly^ recog- 
nized as such; a visiorary 
scheme is erroneously supposed 
to have a basis Ln fact. 

Aar : accurate, calculable, cal- 
culated, commonplace, literal, 
ordinarj*, real, rea*onabV,*rfgo- 
Ur, sensible, solid, sound, icr*, 

fancy, n : conceit, imagination, 
conception, idea, apprehens'on, 
impression, opinion, rouon; 
whim, caprice, whfmsey, vagary 


maggot, fantasy, crotchet; in- 
clination, liking, fondness, pen- 
chant, taste 

Note An intellectual fancy is a 
mental image or picture founded 
upon slight or tvhimsicat asso- 
ciation or resemblance, a con- 
ceit has less of the picturesque 
and more of the theoretic than 
a fancy, a coKccit is somewhat 
aside from the common laws 
of reasoning, as a fancy u 
lighter and more airy than the 
common mode of thought A 
eoneett or fancy may be whol- 
ly unfounded, while a concep- 
tion has alwajs some answer- 
ing reality An intellectual 
fancy or conceit may be pleas 
ing or amusing, but is never 
worth serious discussion, we 
speak of a mere fancy, a droll 
or odd conceit A personal 
fancy ts a capricious liking 
formed with slight reason and 
no exercise of judgment, and 
liable to fade as lightiv as it 
was formed In a broader 
sense, the fancy signifies tire 
faculty by which fancies are 

Aht actuality, certainty, fact, 
reality, truth, verity 
fancy, a ornate, elaborate, orna- 
mental} extravagant, exorbitant, 

fancy, v. believe, apprehend, con- 
jecture, imagine, conceive, like 
fandangle, n (Colloq ) gewgaw, 
fallal, gaudy trinket 
fandango, n (Colloq ) dancing 
party, bat/ 

fane, n : sanctuary, temple 
fanfare, n call, flourish of trum- 
pets, noisy parade, showy Knd- 

The festival opened with a fan- 
lare of trumpets 

fanfaronade, n rodomontade, 
bluster, vainglorious speech 
He dehvered a regular fanfaro- 

fantastic, a fanciful, imaginary; 
spectral illusive, unreal, phan- 
tasmal, whimsical, capricious, 
erratic odd, irregular, bizarre, 
grotesque, rococo 
The idea is a fantastic one 
fantasy, n fancy, mental caprice, 
fantasia, dream 
The fantasy is illusive 
far, a distant, remote, alienated, 
e-tranged unfriendly 
My friend is far from home 
farce, n burlesque sham, trav- 
esty, caricature, take-off 
farceur, n jester, wag 
He IS a bit of a farceur 
faretcal, a burlesque, absurd, 

ridiculous ludicrous 
The situation was farcical 
fare, n diet food and drink. 

The fare was substanual 
fare, n passage money, pas- 

What 1$ the fort to that point? 
fare, v hve (as regards diet); 

happen, turn out 
How do you fart now» 
farewell, n, a inierj final, part- 
ing dosing adieu, conge, good- 
by, leave uking, parting saluta- 
tion, valediction, valedictory. 

Note Good-by is the homely 

and hearty, fareztelt the formal 
English word Adieu, from the 
Fren^. is still more ceremoni- 
ous than fareuett, congl, also 
from the French, is commonly 
contemptuous or supercilious, 
and equivalent to di'missab 
yalediclion is a learned word 
never in popular use A tale- 
dietary is a public farewell to a 
company or assembly. 


far-fatietl, ^ famous, widely 
knoftii, iioionous 

The au'lior is for-famed 
far-fetched, a forced, stramcd, 

The com.ianson was far-fetched. 
farm, n grange, plantation; 
cro t , hac enda. 

fanner, n agriculiunst. husband- 
man, granger 

fanning, n agriculture, hus- 

fanning, a agricultural 
far-oS, a. remote, distant, far- 

farrago, n medlej’, jumble, mix- 

It was a disturbing farrago that 
greeted h:$ ears 

farrier, n.: blacksmith: veterinar- 

The farrier is well equipped for 

farrow, n.- litter, 
far-sighted, a. hypermetropie, 
presbjopi'e; iong-sighted, saga- 

lie was too {ar-aghied to make 
such a blunder, 

far-sightedness, n.: hypermetrop- 
pia, pre^b)opia, hyperopia; long- 
sightedness, sagacity, 

Far-slghiedness comes on •with 

far-sighted person: presbyope. 

He 15 a far-iighted person, 
farthest, a,: remotest, most ad- 
vanced. extreme. 

That is (arthet! removed from 
my thoughts 

fasciate, a.* banded, fasciated. 
fascicle, n • bundle, group, cluster, 
snail collection, fasciculus 
fascinate, v.: charm, captivate, be- 
witch, enchant, enamor, Infatu- 
ate, entrarce, enrapture, enrav- 

Ant: disillusionize, decharm, re- 

ing, capti>ating, siren, entranc- 

fascination, n.: bewitchery, be- 
witchment, enchantment, witch- 
craft, sorcery, magic, witcherj, 
charm, captivation, enra\ish- 

The gay scene had no fasetnatio* 
for him 

Ant disenchantment, disillu- 

fashion, n vogue, style, mode. 

fashionable, a in vogue, styhsb, 
smart, modish 

fast, a., immovable, rigid, firm: 
impregnable, strong, mvul’'er- 
ablc, invincible, fortified, stead- 
fast. faithful, lojal, true; per- 
manent, durab'e, lasting; deep, 

fast, a rapid, swift, fleet, quick, 
speedy, expeditious, unre- 
strained, duvipated, dissolute, 
rakish, wanton, profligate, m- 

fast,adv rapidly, swnftly, qaickJyi 
With celent), post-hasre, expedi- 
tiously, speedily 

fast, adv.. fixedly, firmly, immot- 

fast and loose: inconstant. 

fasten, v.* fix, secure, barricade, 
lock, bind, tie, attach, tether, 
rivet, moor, cement, annex, af- 
fix, clinch, clirnp. append 

fastidious, a • critical, squeamish, 
puncti'ious, finical 

Ant • caerless, indiscriminite. 

fastness, n.. fixedness, firmness, 
immovability, security, impreg- 
nability; fortress, stronghold, 

fastness, n.t swiftness, celerity, 
rapidity, expedition, quickness, 

fat, a.: fleshy, corpulent, obese, 
plump, portly, pursy, burly, 
chnb^, psmpered. gross, stout. 

T»v* 1. 1. TO,-'- 


fat, a • fertile, productive; lucra- 
tue, remunerative profitable 
fatal, a., mortal, deadly, 
fatality, n.' fatalness, fate, destiny, 
mortality, disaster, calamity 
fate, n.; doom, destiny, lot, chance, 
fortun'c, Moira, karma, kis- 
met , predistination 
fated, a ’ doomed, destined, pre- 
destined, foredoomed 
fateful. a. ominous. 

Fates, n, pi* Destinies, Parcae 
(Clotho, Lacliesis, Atropos) 
father, n . procreator, pater fam- 
ilias, sire, patriarch, founder, 
oiginator, author 

Associated Words affiliate, affi- 
liation, filiation, patricide, pa- 
tricidal, paternalism parricide 
agnate, agnation, patrimony 
father, v,. beget, engender, pro- 

fatherhood, n.. paternity 

fatherly, a paternal 

fathom, V,’ comprehend, solve. 

sound (as to depth) 
fatidical, a, prophetic, oracular, 
fatigue, n weariness languor, 

, exhaustion, lassitude 
fatigue, V.* tire, weary, jade, ex- 
haust, fag, bore 

fatness, n ■ obesity, corpulency, 
tmbcnfcint, plumpness, fleshi- 
ness, portliness, stoutness, pud- 
gine*s; adiposity; fertility, rich- 

fatten, v.* batten, plump, grow 

fatty, a.: greasy, adipose, unctu- 
ous, oleaginous, sebaceous 
fatultous, a foolish, fatuous 
The fatultous boast amused his 

fatuity, n foolishness (with con- 
ceit) : imbecility, idiocy 
Ills fatuity was tiresome 
fatuous, a.: foolishly conceited, 
idiotic, imbecile: illusionary, 

What a fatuous action that «asl 

fault, n imperfection, defect, fail- 
ing shortcoming, foible, blem- 
ish flaw dereliction, demerii. 
offense indiscretion, lapse, de- 
li nqifency 

Avt rncnl perfection, beauty, 

fault-finder, n crumbier, cavilcr, 
critic cirpcr rtpmur, censurer, 
censor, complainer 
fault-finding, a crimil captious, 
ciiilnu' <lcruK>iur\, dissatisfied, 
griinililiiig discontented censo- 
rious, qiienilotis carping 
lie has a f lult /iudius disposi- 

fault finding, n crumbling, carp- 
ing criticism murmuring, cap- 
tiousncss cavil dissatisfaction, 
reprehension animadversion, 
siri-lure repm ne 
Her continual fault fiudmg uas 

faoltiness. n dcfeeiiveness, culp- 
ability. imperfection peccability 
faultless, a perfect impeccable, 
blameless inerrable, unblem- 

faulty, a defective imperfect, 
bhmabfe, culpable, peccable, 

The acoustics are faulty 
faun, n satyr, sylvan 
fauna, n animals (totality of an 
area or period ) 

The fauna of Australia are re- 
mark ible 

favor n regard, countenance. 

will kindness support, 
promotion, befriending, cham- 
pionship, espousal countenanc- 

Ant disfavor, opposition 
favor. V support, countenance. 
en-muraRe resemble 
He fatored the movement 
favorable, a auspicious, _ propi- 
tious. conducive, beneficial, par- 
tial, helpful 


appropriate for or especially 
emplovcd by them A female 
voice IS the voice of a woman; 
a femwitie voice may belong to 
a man IVotnantsh denotes the 
undesirable uomanly the admi- 
rable or lovely qualities of 

Ant male, manly, masculine, 

fen, n marsh, hog 
fence, n pale, palisade, palings, 
stockade, hurdle, raddle, de- 
fense, protection, enclosure 
fence, v fortify, defend, protect 

The property was fenced 
fence, v equivocate, evade, parry, 
shift, prevaricate 

fencing, n swordsmanship, 
sword'play, gladiatorism. 
fencer, n swordsman 
fend, V ward off, avoid, parry. 

He tried to fend off the disaster 
fender, n . defense, protection, 
screen, guard , dashboard, 

feral, a wild, untamed, savage, 

ferment, v effervesce, work, agi- 

ferment, n leaven, barm, yeast; 
enzyme, histozyme, z>mc, zy* 

fern, n brake, bracken, maiden 
hair, Venus hair, polypody 
ferocious, a rapacious, ravenous, 
truculent, fell, «avage 
ferocity, n * rapacity, fierceness, 
ferret out: discover, unearth, dis- 
close. detect 

He could not ferret out the mys- 

ferrule, n cap, ring, 
fertile, a fecund, fruitful 

Ant mfecund, infertile, barren 
fertility, n • fecundity, fruitful- 
ness. richness 

fertiliaation, n • fecundation, en- 
riching. impregnation. 

fertilize, v • enrich; jecundatc, im 

fertilizer, n manure, guano, phos- 
phate of lime, compost 
ferule, n stick 

fervency, n earnestness, zeal, 
ardor, fervor 

Such feneniy is convincing 
fervent, a ardent, fervish, ve- 
hement, zealous, earnest. 

His fenent jppea! moved them 
fervid, a glowing, shining, fiery; 
intense, vehement 

fervor, n ardor, intensity, vehem- 
ence, zeal, heat, warmth 
festal, a festive, joyous 
fester, v maturate, suppurate, 
ulcerate, ranUe 

fester, n pustule, sore, festering. 

abscess, impesthumc, rankling 
festering, n • maturation, suppura- 
tion. ulceration, fester, rank- 

festival, n banquet, fete, feast, 

The festtial was a notable one. 
festive, a festal, convivial, fes- 

festivity, n gaiety, joy, feasting; 

festoon, n garland, looped ma- 

The festoons were gracefully ar- 

fetch, V.* go and bring; convey; 
accomplish, reach 

He fetched the wood 
fetch, n • artifice, trick; striving; 
deep breath; a wraith, an ap- 
parition of one still living 
fetching, a. (slang): fascinating, 

fete, n festival, celebration, feast, 

It was a memorable fete. ^ 
fetid, a • malodorous, stinking, 

fetish, fetich, n.* image, object 
worshiped or feared 


Eb, c- c-.trcl!:, faltih&ad. 

Hr IcH 3 

£bcr, s. thread, staple, filzsent; 

Ttu !t fWi 

£J?res*, 2 . tlriagy. 

Ail^jtc .1 has a ctrcetsfc. 

Ebzlz, E- claip. prjL 
EcUe; z.. vcUtile, ratjUauag. ner- 
cjnil, £lful, imyAEtt, capri* 
ocrei, cz'ial’t, raruiL'e, taeoo- 
start. •wsTs'c-j. 

SrTT.: ayrid'jE^, char^ealle, 

ciargefrl. crctehe^j, Elfal. la- 
ccr-ttart, irTtso’ris. 
ibf'tr?, c-iteady, ra- 

cClitrzz, rz—eJ/'i, xt.TZ~cz. sr2T- 

enr?, -nhim-sd. 

Att ■ c*-^’U*‘t. rmraterir;, 

s^tziiisi, rctolrte. 

£clles«s, a. Irrestrlsticra, Tice3* 
UtifT, latrr.'la'wy. rcUslJtj, 

Ha f.'Llnm 'Ttrrtkid tisa. 
BtEJs, a,. pl»<‘5i, v.'AiUi, j-ield* 

OftajTtcis are mde of Jfrtifr seV 


Eetie-i, r_' allrg'orr, a^t-logr*, fa* 
t’e,'ri, faUtbc^ f?- 
C'c-t, j'n-e-lj'Tj. rlW7, lejrri 
n^wel, fcaasce. 

caEy TcfiEtd; a myik fcis bta 
referred as trse at socoe ti=>e 
brt SI r.crvf fcacrwn to be fahe. .* 
fs*r\cction ij defj*:'^ to de 
cose; !t u a lets odiooi nerd 
fJsca {aluhood, bt;t ts raJly 
tlToz^'r, as a fal:ehood csy t< 
a tndden c3pTer3ed-*.2icd 
tsrest, wh:le a faWtcativn it a 
WT.ti of Etatcns'T:l» carrfaOr 
ctrdred asd £tted tojelher' b 
order to dettsve , the ial:ehcod 
15 aU fJj-e, the f(Aruatvjn cay 
nucale the true with tie false. 
A figTntnt IS toncthjn? ioassa* 
ary -irhs^ the ere nbo 
»f eay or ciay rot btJsere to be 
tree; *rc lay, ‘Th*t W'cocrt 
II a fiftnent of iis loarsa- 
troa.” 7he /tiJfy ray be chef 
trse cr f&Jte, aod coreri tie 
yarieci leatet of all tie weriJ 
o tie free? 

Asn.: esmlstj. hst, hisHary. 
real *7, mtii, yertty. 

BeiSderss, a.: isartsed. thaa. 
fr?sed; co ve terfest, fparioci, 

fiddler, a.: TioUalit. 

He •nzi a Eiilrr of co oeu 

Cddity, n.: faJihfalneis, loya1tT» 

JiOir: fieii'yn it chre^y cted of 
a nzrraljTe dei';”ied to t«or* 
tray fcraars h-e. i».:h cr wsth- 
cert a pT-Ssal Wioa; a ro- 
trsme pt-rtraTi what it pKtrr- 
etot:* or flrihst?, as a r'-re 
ray cot Co; r^tl £» a 
erc'ra’ tia.'ce fer ary ceerbo- 
or:s f*: :io2j i3*Ta:jT«; e^- 
ciaJly a lor'-etory. T^e rsoral 
of the /a*le SI oET-eMtd for- 
icaHy; t>e Wion thr fetw*, 
»f ary, ?$ r-xTor?tt A /Tc- 
tum « i*^dtd; a tryjA r'owf 
cy wrh j-etet. A Ugmi tsar 
be trre, lr.:t caa k* be tlrton- 

Aar.: ’iciLd*Lty,’faii3rtn3est. 
£d£tt, r.: scove rcitteiily. 
fidgets, c,, pL; reitI»*to«s; dyi- 

Yo 3 g;ys Cl tie f-Szttt. 

Eitetr, rcsilttt, caeaiy, cerr- 

F.drrsary, a.: coaUdrstial; es* 
dooLtir, trcJt/cL 
I hold thsi cs rsy f-iuacrj a- 

fiel^n.: icadovr, lea; acpaijoj 
scope, r 2 "?c, roo~i, panics, 
rtrcT, dotnafn, ral-x 
field-eports, n-, pi: ooldoor sports 
ratbg, ihcctbg, irct sa g- 


fiend, n.; demon. 

fiendish, a * diabolical, alrocioos, 

fierce, a.; violent, furious, immod- 
erate, impetuous, unrestrained, 
vehement, mettlesome, passion- 
ate, ferocious, fiery 

Note. Ferocious refers to a state 
or disposition, fierce to a feel- 
ing or mood, we speak of a 
ferocious animal, a fierce pas- 
«ion A fiery spirit with a good 
disposition is quickly excitable 
in a good cause, but neither 
fierce nor ftroeious. Satage 
signifies untrained, uncultivated 
Ferocious always denotes a ten- 
dency to violence, a person 
may be deeply, intensely cruel, 
and not at all ferocious A 
ferocious countenance expresses 
habitual ferocity; a coun- 
tenance may express habitual 
fierceness, or only the sudden 
anger of the moment That 
«hich is uili is simply unre- 
strained, and may imply no 
anger or harshness, as, niti 
delight, wld alarm 

Akt ■ affectionate, docile, gen- 
tle, harmless, kind, miM, peace- 
ful, sweet, tender 
fiery, a : impetuous, igneus, ve- 
hement, passionate, irasable, ir- 

Ills firry temper was restrained 
fiesta, n. (Sp ): holiday, feast-day 

The fiesta was enjoyable 
fifteen-sided figure: quindecagon 
fig. n • fico, snap, fillip. 

He does not care a fig for danc- 

fig. n • fruit, synconium 

The fig is a delicious fruit 
fight, n combat battle, engage- 
ment, struaglc, encounter, fray, 
affray, melee, scrimmage 

The fight began 

fight, V combat, battle, struggle, 
Rulitate. cope with, struggle 
fighter, n combatant warrior, 
champion vindicator, gladiator, 

fighting, a militant combative, 
bellicoiC, belligerent pugnaci- 

fight shy* elude avoid 
r ighi sky of that if possible 
figment, n fabrication 

That IS a fignirnt of his brain 
figurant, figurante, n (Fr ) poser 

The figurant posed in the back- 

figurative, a emblematical, typ- 
ical, representative, metaphori- 
cal, tropical 

figure, n shape, outline, form, 
conformation diagram draw- 
ing. figurehead, image, effiBYi 
statue, bust likeness, carytid, 
athntes. telamones figurine 
figure, n digit number numeral, 
type emblem, symbol 
figure, n dash conspicuousness 

figure. V cipher, compute, cal- 
culate contrive scheme, plan; 
symbolire. typify, represent 
figurehead, n ornamental image, 
assumed head 

figure of speech trope, metaphor. 
fUament, n thread, fibril, fila- 
mentous fabric 

filamentary, filamentous, a • 
thread like fnnge-like, stringy 
Filamentary trappings completed 
the costume 
filch, V steal pilfer 
filcher, n th ef, pilferer 
file, n line, row 
TTicy were drawn up in file 
file, n hook, filing device 
file, n criticism, rasp quannet. 

file, V smooth cut. reduce, shar- 
pen - 

file. V arrange, transfix, pre- 



flic, V. inarch, nio\e in file. 

/ilul, a ; soH'Iike, c!aughter>]ike. 
filiation, n connection, casual 
relationship, adoption 
filibuster, n : freebooter, baca- 
neer, adventurer 
The filibuster has disappeared 
filigree, a fanciful, adorned mth 
filigree, lacey 

filagree, n delicate jewelry 
fill, n. thill, shaft 
The fill was broken 
fill, n . sufTicient, plenty. 

They drank their fill 

fill, V.* satisfy, satiate, sate, glut, 
cloy, stuff, occupy, pervade, 
hold, expand, dilate, distend, 
in.ffate. bloat , carry out, execute, 

fillet, n. narrow band, strip, 
slice, plain line; tool 
fiUfp, n.* snap. 

He cares not a fillifi 
fill out: complete, amplify, ex« 
tend, inllate, 

Pleare fill out this blank 
fill up.: occupy, fully; make com* 

My time Is completely filUi uf 
filly, n : young marc, colt; bold 

film, n.: screen picture, pellicle, 

filmy, a.; gauzy, unsubstantial, 
filter, V.’ strain, fillraie, clarify, 
percolate, ooze, exude, seep, 
transude, infiltrate 
filtering, n ' filtration; exudation, 
transudation, infiltration, perco- 

filth, n.: foulness, squalor, cor- 
ruption, muck, dirt 
filthy, a.' foul, nasty, dirty, squa- 
lid; smutty, obscene, indecenL 
lewd, ribald. 

final, a.: ultimate, last: complet- 
ing, ending, conclusirc 
You may regard my answer at 

finale, n end, close, termination, 
concluding part. 

The was inspiring 
finally, ads ultimately, esentual* 
Iv. lastly 

finance, v.: protide funds for; 

He cannot finance the deal 
finances, n pi moneys, mone- 
tary affairs 

financial, a fiscal, monetary, pe- 

VoTk Itonelary relates to ac- 
tual money, coin, currency; is. 
the monetary sjslen, a rient- 
tcry transaction is one in which 
mone> is transferred Peeun'' 
cry refers to that in which 
money is involved, bjt less di- 
recily, we speak of one's pt- 
otniory .sffairs or interests, with 
no special reference to the han- 
dling of ca«h rinoncul ap- 
plies especially to gosernmertal 
revenues or expenditures, of tc 
private transactions of consid- 
erable moment; we -peak cf^a 
peeuniary reward, a finattisl 
enterprise, we give a needy 
person preuniary (not financial) 
assistance It is common to 
speak of the fiscal rather than 
the financial year. 

finamcier, v.: manage, finance 

He finoneiered the project skill- 

financier, n manager, controller 
of finances 

He IS an able finamer. 

find, v.: acquire, attain, discover. 

chance upon, perceive, aicer- 
lain; furnish, supply, 
find fault, V. object to. di$a^ 
prove, demur, except, cavu. 
crmcize, carp, rcpirc. grnm-lr- 

fimfing; n.: tfiJcoveryTV'^r^^'^ 


find out: Ascertain, ilistovfr, «!«• 
t«t, lolvc, unriddle 

Thojc were (lie i?«diiij:r 
fine, n : aincrccniciii, inulel, ficn* 

fine, V.: mulct, amercr, deprive. 

lie >'>ai Anc(/ a Itfitc nmuimt 
fine, s : rermed, d»luly. nice, e«- 
crlteiit. refhtrrlit, exipiltlte, 
(lemnt, tplcndid, ndmirable 
choice, iclcct, Bltractlve, dell- 
cale, lubtle, luliuile. capilbrv, 
ttnuoiM, lliln. aublile, eiwereal, 
attenualcd, liliny, Ibiiny, goita- 
nicry, ilcmJcr 

Nora: Tin# (L. end) de- 
notes that tvlitch Ins been 
brought to a full ciul, luiislicd 
I rom (Ins rii'il*icn«e many de 
Tived mciiili'ss brinch out. 
eauiiit); words nult'o remote 
from rich otlier to be alike ay 
noiiyms of li»t Tint vshkii is 
truly fimilieit, brouiihi to an 
Ideal end, Is eirr//<"i( vf its 
kind, nnd tfiiutiful, If a thins 
that admits nf beauty, a*, a 
doe home, fi'it trees, a ttnt 
woman, n dir/ in 'rmns. If a 
thins lint admits of the removal 
of Impuntlci, It is nut finished 
(ill these are removed and 
i'cnee fin/ slKiiifics i/ififird. 
tltor, flirt, rtti’ii'il , ns fiii/sold 
That tthifli Is finished Is apt to 
be fi’liilitJ, snicioih to the touch 
tmimlcly esaci in cmtlme hence 
fill/ cimiej to be i aviumsin for 
all Words like rfcimfy, JtUniU, 
ctoMijifc,- as. fill/ iinnncrs, a 
fin/ toufli. fine pcreepllons As 
(hit whah Is ililiiiUt Is apt in 
be imill by an ci«y exienslon 
cf ineiMlnB fin/ beiomcs a sv* 
nonyin for iiiinii//. c<*«ii'i»<'"”t/if 
as. a fine tbreid, fin/ »ind, or 
for fi/iiii, icnuoiM rfifii as. a 
fin/ h'-c, fill/ wire; and as a 
r\in edsc I) keen, iharf, fin/ 

kecotnei also a synonym lot 
these woTils. as a fin/ point k 
fine eiUr 

Amt W Mimt rhimn. coarse 

{ ;rcat lirtvt hntr mtilicnsp 
ar|,e rn Ic tloiil. Hint, 
fine, a c miiittinlc I luillcd pul* 
verMCd mil ilinl'lc pnsilcitl 
\Nr > Misr iiiUtiillcil irmlr 
fine aria ait Inirt iiii r si id pi lire, 


■ / 




fine drawn, 4 siiliilc. 
finery. « ilcorailnns, oriij* 
iiinils fiipi’rn ilnlhct, yew 


fine-apun. i subtle atleiilitaleil 

fincer, s hsmllr l»mh, thnmi, 

lb. not fini/r ihe volume 
finical ■■ tnrr |<aitiiu1ar.f4illdl< 

Mie IS t<m fini Ilf lo Siutfcd 

finicky, a (l.illon) ImlCiil. 

fasiidi ms "ii'c imu«!> dainty 
finla. II end aim C's' 

Tills Is the fii'M 

finish, s tomplcip Irrmliiaie, 
tca*e pohsli 

Y«m can finnf* voiir work easily 

The wtM'l was Irsiiiitulty fio- 
nnt,!*'’ ...... I.i.h.. ...mplollmi. 

clitH.tillm rcrfrtlion 
The IfiitH wis m -.1 rscliInB 
Ilir itilh Ins a fiiir fimif* 
finhhetl. a mistrrlv polished. 

finite > 

n led 

ittilmdlnl mib'undcd In- 

0*"""’ U-nlt' kimllc. iiillame. 
’irritate, ortiuic, cxiltc. Incite; 


animate, quicken, Titallat, «• 
thuse, mspifil 

He f-red tire brushwood 
fire, n ignition, burning, com- 
bustion, phJogiston, conflagra- 
tion, holocaust, deflagration: 
flame, Llare , bonfire, balefire, 

Vote Combustion js the easen- 
tia| {act which is at the basis of 
the sisih'e phenomenon which 
we call fir?, comburtiois being 
the chemical combination evolv- 
ing heat, and extending from 
slow processes, such as those by 
which the heat of the human 
body IS maintained, to the pro- 
eejjes producing the most m- 
ten«e light, also, as in a blast- 
furnace, or Oft the surface of 
the »t.n Fiff is always at- 
tended With light, as welt as 
heat; bJai/. ftamt, etc, desig- 
nate the mingled light and heat 
of a jfre Combustion is the 
scientific, fire the popular term. 
A conflagration it an extensive 

Asukiatts Wosss; pj'rology, p 7 
rography, pyromania, pyropbo- 
bxa, incendiary, inccndtansni, 
arson, lurid, Moloch, {uel. Coui- 
bustib'e, pyroletcr, smolder, ig- 
nis fatiius, Vulcan, Hephaestus, 
fire-anns, n, pL: artillery, guns, 

firebug, n.' incendiary, pyroma- 


fire-damp, n.. carbureted hydro- 

firedeg, n andiron, 
fireman, n fire-tender, stoker, 
fireproof, a incombosliblr, as- 

fireside, n * hearth, fngleside, 
fireworks, n., pi . combustible de- 

Asscciato Wotps; pyrotechmes. 

pyrotechnist, pyrorcchnician, py- 
rotechnic, pyrotcehn) 
fire-worship, n. pyrolatry, Par- 
sceism, Mazdcism, Magianism, 

fire.worshiper, n. pyrolater, 
Oheber, Parfee, Magian, Zero- 

firing, n discharge, baking, vit- 
rifying, fixing colors. 

The firing ceased 

The firing of the china was a 

firkin, n tub. 
firm, n company 
firm, a unyielding, solid, com- 
pact, dense, vigorous, unihalc- 
ing, unwavering 

At>7 yielding, phanc, incom- 
pact, loose: warenng, ihaVirg, 

firm, a ■ stable, settled: stanch, 

\Nt ■ flaccid, soft, vacillating/ 
irresolute, lax, unenduring, un- 

firmament, n.: sky. 

The starry firmatneni engrossed 
their attention. 

first, a.: initial, earliest; elemea- 
tary, rudimentary, 
first, a.: foremost, chief, leading, 
premier; primary, primal, pri- 
inordial, primitive, pnme«l. 
pristine, original, primogeu'at 

first, adv. primarily, originally, 
firstborn, n.' eldest-born. 

Assoctato Wonts • p'ifflogeni- 
ture, primogenial, pn’rrogcn>' 

first-formed, a.: original, proto* 

first installment: earnest, hano- 

first principles: rudiments, prln- 

first-rate, a-; excellent, first-<laJ*» 

ffe is a firsl-rair mechanic. 

The plans are eretllenl. 

fitcal. a • financial. 

This IS the end of the ^jcalNear 
fish, n • animal; fry, aievn 
(young fish) , ichthyohte, monl- 
lifer (fossil fish) 

fish, V.: angle, trawl, troll, poach 
(fish untanfuUy) ; lay hold of, 
search for 

fisherman, n : fishes, piscalor, 

The fisherman was busy 
fishes, n , pi Pisces, Piscifauna 
(fishes of a region) 

Associatfo Words ichihyolo|ry. 
ichthyologist, ichthyophagv, ich- 
thyophagist, ichthyography, leh- 
thyolalry, piscatolog), piscieui 
turist, piscary, piscine, shoal, 
leeneh, minnow, af\uarium pu 
eivorous, piscatorial, warren, 
spawn, cauf, creel, kibblngN 
bait, pisciform, piseinal 
fish culture, pisciculture 
The society is interested m fish 

fish glue: isinglass, lehlhyocol, 

fishing, n • angling, trollmg, 
trawling, fishing, bultow fish* 

The lishwg is fine here 
fishlike, a ipsciform, ichlhyic 
The snail Is not fishJike 
fish line, fishing line: 

Bring your fish hne along 
Associated Words snell, snood 
leader, sinker, bob, float, boul- 

fishskm, n ' ichthyosis, 
fish soup, n • chowder, 
fishy, a • fishhke 

fishy, a (Collofj ) extravagant, 
exaggerated improbable 
fission, n splitting 
Microbes multiply by fission 
fissure, n • crack, opening 
fistic, a • pugilistic. 

There will be a fistie encounter 
fisticuffs, n , pi : boxing, pngil- 

They will engage in fisticuffs 
fit, n spasm paroxysm, convul- 
sion, epilepsy cat'ikp-.y, humor, 
nhim caprice fanc) access, 
outburst attack. 

fit, a meet bee mm proper, 
a]i(]uatc cxptdicni congruent, 

fit, a read) nua'" >• ' eligible; 
compelciit congruous suitable, 

The v/ords were i5/ for the occa- 

Aht unquibfied. unfit ineligi- 
bk, unready incongruous un- 
siiilible iinppropnate 
fit, a (Colloii) health), well- 
nigh if , 

I .im filling <|tutc p: 
hhc cried fit In bnak licr heart, 
fit V adapt slispe ad;ust suit, 
trim qualify, prepare, eiuip, ac- 

Nwt Tbe shoe fits or fits the 
foot whieh i» tnads 
sire, thine* ■«'» 
essential <iuahties, or produce 
an agreeable effect when placed 
together, a*, furniture is made 
to smt 

He must fit his pHnt to it 
The ship was filled for the sei 
fit, T befit, be suitable for, be 
proper or becoming 
A dark day fits a dark deed 
II fits you pcrfcniy 
fitful a lariable capricious, un- 
stable. meonstitit spasmodic, 

There was a ffl/uf wmd 
A^T stable, fixed, firm, con- 
stant, unehinecable 
fitness, n beet mingness appro- 
priateness siiitabreiifu 
ity. ehgibililv. rendne'S, quali- 
fication preparedness 

films, a >* "“M' *•' 

fitting appropriate 

That I* a filling tribute. 


Ant.* unsuitable, improper, on- 
fit, inappropriate 

fitting, n.. adjusting, permanent, 

The fitting was satisfactory. 

The gar-fittiHgs were installed, 
five, n : cinque, quintuplet, quin- 
tette; quintuplets 
As'oaATzP Words quinary, quin- 
tuple, quintuplicate, quincunx, 
five-angled, a * pentagonal, 
five-angled figure: pentagon, 

five cents: nickel, 
fivefold, a.' quintuple. 

As'oasTEO Word pentaglot 
five-sided, a pentahedral 
The pentahedron is five-sided 
five years, quinquennium, lus- 

Associated words quinquennial, 

fix, V fasten, secure, establish; 
arrange, adjust, (Colloquially 
applied to furniture or dress ) 
My thoughts are fixed upon it 
He must fix up the matter im- 

fix, V,: settle, determine; direct 

His fate is fixed. 

Their attention was fixed upon 

fix, V. (Colloq.): mend, repair, 
set to rights; arrange, adjust 
You can soon fix that. 

You must fix your dress first 
fix, V. (Colloq.): predispose In 
one’s favor; settle or do for a 

fix, n (Colloq.): dilemma, pre- 
dicament, plight quandary. 
Ant.: extrication, release 
fixation, n.* fixedness, stability. 
Fixation of the gaze may cause 

fixed, a : immovable, established 
•table, firm, obstinate, unchange- 
able, steadfast, stereotyped 

That is a fixed principle with 

fixings, n., pi. (Colloq.); embel* 
lishraents, trimmings 

Do cot take too many fixings 

fitzle, n. (Colloq.)* failure, fiasco 

It all wided in a fisxle 
flabbergast, V. (Colloq): aston- 
ish, amaze, surprise, dumb- 

flabbiness, n.: fiaccidity, llmpi- 


flabby, a.: yielding, limp, sou, 

Ant firm, stiff, rigid 
flatMllom, n. fan. 

He swung the fhoellum, 
flaccid, a. relaxed, limber, flabby. 

Her cheeks have become fiaend. 
flaccidity, n hmberness, flabbU 
ness, flacherre 

The ftoeeidily of her muscles was 

flag, n : standard, banner, colon, 
gonfalon, pennon, pennant, en* 
sige, guidon, streamer, bande* 
role; iris, fieur-^de-luee. 

The flag floated in the breeze 
flagellant, a.* whipping, scoarg* 
ing, flagellating, 

flagellants, n.: a fraternity, a 
body of fanatics. 

The fiagellonls drew curious 

flagellate, a.: whip-bearing; bas- 
ing flagella. 

flagging, a.: becoming languid 
failing, weakening. 

His fiagging spirits were aroused 
flagitous, a.: flagrantly criminal, 
atrocious, heinous 
flagon, n.: jug; measure, 
flagrancy, n.: notoriousness, hei- 

The fiagrancy of the act shocked 

flagrant, a : monstrous, notori- 
ous, atrocious, heinous, wicked 
openly scandalous. 


Tic crime ™ o™ lUshy, . S',",; 

flitrirt, a ■ raEing. .row goioE mc'orrs, air"*/. 
aaA“;‘'’aK'«ap ThTl«ro..hmE> .«o -o* 

flake, n.' film, lamina, flock, scale, flask, n betty 

flake, V.- fleck, spot, chip off flat, a level, even plane, smoot . 

Hambant. a : burnmg wr.h, ^P;«'WS,'rc'., »a'P=rl. 

TheSamS™, torch war kcUa'“'j- 

llamboyaiit. a bombastic, florid. , ,j vapid lastc- 

showy, extravagant at. a stale i P unpalatable 

flal‘c'. l'l.k.srroncL. OO. .,o..t. 

flame, a. (Colloq) iovo, sweat- tast,. .a"".,, palat- 

AssocrAinr Woaos ■""bajl fla- able "“?ve?'pmmptory on- 

AssoaATin Woaos lambent Ha- able oreemptory, un- 

mlneous, flammtferous, flamin'- flat, a 9 ? ’ ^ 

vomous. flambage aXi refusal was accorded 

flame, V.- hlaae. floor, suite, lowland. 

His anger f!amtd anew flat. " 

flaming, a blaaing. afire, fla- ^unt 

granti ardent, passionate, da*- gat^at, fJjayfpot 
aling brilliant , a splayfooted 

flange, n* edge, nm, rib a (Colloa) deter- 

The iToige of the wheelis gone flat-footeo. » , unwasermg. 

flank. V. border. „ 

Flowers flanferd the walks ..!l V level, lay flat, pros* 

flap, V • shake, move to arid fro. flatten. ' . 

fla«. V • flicker, flutter, dazale. "ate. depK ^ blandish, whee- 
blaze, flare; flaunt comp hment . , 

JIany a light fiared across the “ \heedler. sycophant, 

water ^ , ‘’***S. p.ckthank flunky Jen- 

flare, n- glare, flicker. km. aduhtor blandisher 

flaring, a- blazing (unsteadily) hm ^ adulatory, wheed- 

showy, widening outward *“* i.„r ailiinn? blnndilofiuent, sy 

The flanng signals warned them j!"^*nnuc. obsmu'ou* e-eour- 

flare‘np’.”n' (Collosi) paa*'®"' blandishment adula- 

anger. outburst wheedling , flummery, 

flash, n • gleam, glare, corusca- vun’dilonuence cajolery 

non. (mom.nBry)l nmiireM. W.m>"y p„„„t.o»r. pndy. 
instant . windy , 

It was over in a v parade make a 

flash. V.- glisten glitter, gleam. _ 

coruscate, spirkle The fla-"'" f their fieues 

Gems sparkled everywhere . t,-,, v 

flash, a (Slang) loud, vulgar j, ostentatious showy 

..,SS Ilf oelenuno.. e^nSS 


stvc, unostentations, unprefend* 6tsh*<attng, a • carni\orous, sai* 
jng cophagous 

flavor, n taste, «a%Qr, relish. They are animls 

zest, gusto, race, tang, sapidity n sarcophogy. 

_ , , , . flesh-eaung animal carnivoit, 

flavorless, a insipid, unpalat- 
able, vapid, savorless, tasteless 
flavorous, a sapid, palatable, sa- 
sorj’, gustable 

flaw, n defect, fault, blemish, 

flawless, a. faultless, perfect 

flawy, a. defective faulty, 
flay, V. skin, excoriate, 
fleck; n spot 
Here is a noticeable fieck. 
fledged, a feathered 

flee, ' 

shun avoid, run away; fle*, v bend 

sarcophagan. sarcoplnle 
fleshiness, n. obesity, corpul- 
ence, plumpness, embonpotfit 
fleshlmess, n sensuality, carnal- 

fleshly, a sensual, sensuous, car- 

fleshy, a corpulent, fat, portly, 
obese plump 
fleur-de-Us, n ins 

The Heur-de-lit is loved by all 

forsake, abandon 
fleece, n. v.ooly covering, sor 
thing resembling covering 
fleece, v plunder, swindle, strip, 

fleeced, a. furnished with fleece, 
shorn, stripped 
The lambs were well fieecei. 

He was soon Aeeeed of all he 

fleet, a * speedy, rapid, nimble, 

The runners were dett. 
fleet, n squadron, navy, flotilla, 

The fleet passed m review 
fleeting, a., impermanent, tran- 
sient, tran«itory, evanescent, ing 

ephemeral, fugitive, temporary Its flexures were T>'thmtcal 
Such an impression is only /feet- flibbergib, n. (CoIJoq): 

ing. knave, glib talker 

Am : enduring, permanent, abid- flibbertigibbet, n • impulsive per- 
ing, lasting, persistent _ son, restless imp 

flesh, n.' meat muscle, carrion flick, n • flip, light stroke. 
{decoding deth) ; carnality. He gave it a delicate flirt- 
sensual appetites flicker, v.! flare, waver, be uo- 

Ant. dsscarnation, sphiluality, steady, flutter. 

unworldliness, decarnation ^ The light flirirrcd and flared 
Associated Words incarnate, in- flight, n.: hegira; flying; esodiis, 
carnation, carnate, carneous, fleeing, absconding 

carnassial, carmfication, carflify. It was a spectacular dighi 

flesh-eaters, n., pk: Carnivora. The dtghl was hurried 

Flex the knees vn this exercise 
flexibility, n pliancy, pliability, 
suppleness, lithencss, ductility, 

Her pla>ing showed great fiexibd- 
tly m fingering 

flexible, a supple, pliable, flex- 
ibtc, pliant, lithe, Jimbef; com- 
pliant, yielding 
This thin strip is dextbU 
Ant • inflexible, incompliant, un- 

flexuous, a.: crooked, winding! 
unsteady w-avering 
The path was flexuous. 

The dexuous flame burned low. 
flexure, n • bent, part, fold; bend- 

£oor, V. provide with Hoor; 
o%crihrow, defeat, embarrass, 
nonplus, throw to floor 
The buildmR is /loorcd 
He floored his opponent 
floral, a flowery, pertaining to 

The i^orof decorations were pro- 

floral ornament. antbemion, 
boughpot, palmette 
florescence, n. blossoming, an- 

^Vhen is the time of their ftor- 

florid, a flushed, rubicund, red- 
dish, ornate, profusely embcl- 

florist, n floriculturist 
flotation, n financing, floating, 
flotilla, n small fleet 
The fiotiUa was made up of seven 

flotsam, n. objects floating, 
flounce, n ruffle, furbelow, frill, 
flounce. V fling about, jerk. 

She flounced out of the room 
flounder, v stumble, struggle 
He floundered through a labyrinth 
of words 

flour, n • bolted or ground wheat. 
The dour was delivered to them, 
ground cereal 

flour-box, n. drcdging-box. 
flourish, n ostentation, parade, 
‘how. di«play; brandishing, 
waving, fanfare 

There was a grand flourish of 

The flourish of the whip scared 

flourish, V • wave, brandish; suc- 
ceed, thrive 
He_ flourished his whip 
flourishing, a • thriving, flourish- 
ing ^ 

That is a flourishing community 
flout, v." mock, jeer, gibe, sneer, 

flout, n : jibe, sneer, j'eer. 

flow, V.; move along, pass, pour; 
emanate, issue, come forth; 
sway, drift, glide, 
flower, R * blossom, bloom; floret, 
floweret (little flower). 

Associatud Words floral, flotl- 
cultural, floriculture, florist 
floriculturist, florilegc, flonfica- 
tion, floriferous, botany, botan- 
ical. botanist, botanue. inflores- 
cence, estivation, anther, petal, 
calyx, corolla, sepal, anthesis. 
anthography, anlhoid, antholife, 
anthology, anthomania, antho- 
phagous. anthophilous. antho- 
taxy, boufjuet bract, corona, 
corsmb, cvnre, chloranth>, elflo- 
rescnce. Flora, perianth, pistil, 
pistillate, stammate, pollen. P''*' 
floration, raceme, rcflorescence, 
pollinate, pollination, stamen, 
stigma, umbel, verticil, verticil* 
late, whorl, spadix, spathe, fla- 
mtfd. flonatlon 

flower-de-luce, n. iris, fleur-ae- 
Iis * 

floweret, n • floret, small flower, 
flowering, a : phinegamou*, 


flowering plants: rhznagamii 
flowerless, a • cryptogamous.^ 
flowerless plants; Cryplogamia 
Flowery Kingdom: Japan.^ 
flowery, a.: figurative, florid, or- 

He delivered a flouerv speech 
flowing, 3 • running, gliding, flu- 
ent, cursive 

Akt.‘ stagnant, still 
flowing back: refluent, ebbing, 
flowing in: influent, incurrenf. 
flowing out; effluent, excurrent 
flowing round: circumfluent 
fluctuate. V.’ vacillate, waver, os 
dilate, whiRle, swerve, hesitate, 
undulate, varj*. veer. 

Nort: A pendulum oscilloUs; 
waves fluctuate or undulate: a 
light or a flame xtaiers; a 

Itlilitciifa from 'Iw " '* 

l>u ioiir^r; A lool or 'Rcapoi* «««'f « ""-a o'" a . 
KvmorfromUicmuWorfme. t.rlntllnll smooth- 

ttic um^rrautfe ‘*2^ . 1 ’^: 'V.r, .V 

\Mml ift'S wIku U MiiUrnU „,,lr» it vsl uVf 

cliaitsrt il» Uitc\U>« }'?||iuv«', OIauk' 

itiQ tK" vlimlion. ll>a« «>«''» . . ..,>|u i .li'i'<‘ iMirow 

•."/Hfjir' »«"«■ 

or miirri rciutii'* mi*"'* »' '»*/ «„.««««¥ » ’>^1'' 

A. ttsv.l. k- 7 „„",r .iMirlJ. 

wlio /i/fiMfrt «'»« tw riiii><iiii-tt tUllfn 

Nrr^torvlccMo».^ «hom«- „ 

trs IH't HkW to a 'irv** * /f^nmrrv 

»tou5 lio "1 h> t\i.«'htM >lr'“*r» n„„t » ivimu' fait out. 

uovM'uewav.nmUto'vanoiUct. « 

OIK tiKil’iirr Wifttf* „,.i, ioaI} 

tfa'fi:'! itcvi'loiK or ftvt'oi" t'O n- ,, a .."'i r'f't . 

bcturru \WiWon aim „ •'ioi’'‘*''‘> f''**''"* 

tiulcUtoii. or Utxvcftt aitUm IWimi. 

«.ul liiiaion rft.'iii ^aofA^ ,,„v lAvMt of 


Iifo or tMi-y. HuttW. a awltainl I’ f»"''‘ru. 

A«r! »Uat, 

MJ ti>t. rtt'kt. „ 

fait Maml tK » I'kM **1''*’' , 

tloH o'CUUll I't. * ,ii»iiioi<«"' I 

flurncy. ti! aiuoolltiir”- hkiuuIi vsiuiif 

tKit C1K of „ .» ItltK a rtn'm 

lie itioweil Srral 'f-rmr " U.mIi klo" tin'll 

ruem.^”B : MiUtl’If. flo"l«e. "'ai’t'"' ‘.'.''.vn 

nmoolli \\e'i« itie'f»;A of 

Shr«atV«r.i(l-iitKOtfo'»l>’‘‘'’*: tltS^ V" 

finny, a • ilowny. frallirrv “ Uvl-!i> i’'o'‘''V f*"' ’ ' ' 

ttuuUi iini.n. lu.w^te e 9 «o»a ,,5, 

TIk eo'i'eult "rrc ff“«f Hiute "“••'i 

fiuUl. 11.! Ilmior. lin«W. woiK} . n*». 

N,.,.. Ml ... »..••'■. '« I- "I'" 

not a'l ^Nifr arc fioor 

vS “TU,,;:;;;'!™ ' : 

form I'V mrt”’} f* ,on 

colJ Biul I'rrtuHf \'At<r « 


flush. A. deluge, washout; drive 
frosi cover. 

The drain was Hushed 
They soon Hushed a covey of 

fluster, V • discompose, perturb, 
confuse, disconcert, embarrass, 

He became very much Hustertd 
fluster, n perturbation, coniti* 
Sion, agitation 

flustrate, j (Colloq) fluster, 

flustratjon, n. (Colloq ) agita- 
tion, fluster, perturbation, con- 

fluted, a grooved, chamfered 

The futei columns were much ad- 

flutter, V tremble, palpitate, ho- 
ve’, oscillate, fluctuate, vacil- 
late, waver 

Her lieart fluttered strangely 
flutter, n agitation, tremor, pal* 
ptation; confusion, eommotioiv 

There was a Gutter of e*ehtment. 
fly, a. (Slang), w'ide-awaks, 

fly, V.; Wing, soar, flit, hover; de- 
camp, abscond, flee, 
flyaway, 3 (Colloq): flighty, 
_ giddy, unrestrained, volatile 
flying, a : awing, volant, volitan^ 
soaring; brief, harried, transi- 
_ ent 

flj^g, n • aviation, flight, 
flying-machine, n aeroplane, aero- 
drome, biplane, monoplane. 
Associated Words’ hangar, avia- 
tor, aerod>’n3mics, aviatrix. 
foam, E.’ froth, spume, spumes* 

The waves are edged with foam. 
foamy, a : frothy, spumy, 
focus, V'.: bring to point, concen- 
trate; adjust 

He focuses his attention upon it 

fodder, n.- provender, forage, 
stover, ensilage. 

Associated Words: silo, ensile. 
foe,n. enemy, antagonist, adver- 
sary, opponent 

fog, n haze, tnvst, vapor, brume; 

confusion (of tic mind), 
fog, V obscure, befog, confuse, 
foggy, a hazy, misty, brumous, 
vaporous, beclouded, confused, 

fogy, n (Colloq ) fogram, moss- 

foible, n failing, fault, personal 

That is a foihle of hers 
foil, n metal sheet, contrast 
setting off 

She was a fine foil for her bril- 
liant guests 

foil, V frustrate, ba/7e, thwart 

They were completely fexUd ^ 
foist, V. interpolate, palm off, so- 
rert improperly 

They tried to foxst it off on us, 
fold, o : plait doubling, convolu- 
tion; embrace, clasp 
fold, V.: place together, double; 

embrace, infold. cUi‘p 
foliage, n.’ leafage, leaves; omi- 

folio, n : sheet; largest siied book 
or periodical; page number. 

Please hand me that foha.^ 
folk-lore, n. traditions, beliefs. 

They were versed in folklore. 
folks, n., pi. (Colloq): people, 

follow, V.: chase, succeed, pusne, 
tag; dodge; result proceed, 
flow, ensue, spring, issue; pur- 
sue, practice, engage in; trace, 
track, trail 

Note’ Anyihins ih^t eomes after 
or goes after another, either in 
space or m time, is said to 
foUovt it A servant follovs 
or attends his ma'^fer; a tic- 

torious general may /oWow the fondant, n confection candj 
retiring enemy merely to watch fondle, v coddle pet, caress, 
and hold him in check, he corset, indulge, humor 
ehasts or pursuet with intent fondness, n partiality, liking, 
to overtake and attack, the predilection, preference pro 
chase is closer and hotter than pensity, appetite m Kilgcnce, 

the pursuit One event may doling, affection devotion, love 

follow another either with or „ aliment nourishment, 

without special connection , if 
it rnsues, tiiere is some orderly 
connection; as, the eiwinng 
year, if it rcjulfs from another 
there ij some relation of effect 
consequence, or inference A 
clerk obserzes his employer’s di 
rections \ child obf^s his par- 
ent’s commands, follozts or 
copies his c’tample, imitates his 
speech and manners The com- 
positor (otlozzs copy, the m 
coming sticeteds the outgoing 

follower, n • retainer, attendant 
hen>.hman , disciple, partisan, 
advocate, adherent, votary, imi- 
tator, copier, pursuer 

He had several folloziers 
following, n.: disciples, adher- 
ents; vocation, trade, profession, 

What was his followngt 
following, n : adherents, depend- 
en*s, retinue 

He had quite a following 
following, a. succeeding, ensu- 
ing, consecutive, pursuant 

Tliat happened the following day 
folly, 1 : fatuity, foolishness, in- 
discretion, absurdity, impru- 
dence, unwisdom 

foment, v.: instigate, encourage, 
nurse; stupe, bathe with warm 

This trouble was fomented at that 

fomentation, n : encouragement, 
incitement, instigation 
fond, a : doting, indulgent over- 
affeetionate , affectionate, lov- 
ing, baseless, vain, unfounded 

food. I 

iiutnmciit pibiiliim nuintioti, 
diet breid fan meat ration*, 
<HbM<tcnce, ci mmon victuaK 

provi'ionv vim Is ngimen 
iinding Mistemn e enables re- 
frcshmint* vimitslibiev trench- 
er ambrosia, broma manna 

Nor, D,rl .tier, to ft; J"?"- 
tity and qnahlv of food habit- 
,,11, tjktn with r;f,rcn,t to 

preservation of health I teluols 

t a plain homely word for 
whatever nnv be eaten, we 
speak of choue 
inetuols AVariffi'’''''il ana suj‘ 
uiunce applv to whajever can 
be inttodiKcd into the »y|iem 
„ a means of *uvtaining life, 
we sav of a convalescent, he 
ts taking Ronrii/iinriit 
ment and nutntion have more 
of scientific reference to the 
vinliaing principles of various 
foods thus, wheat 
contain a great amount of n-fn- 
fleXimen considers food 
as taken by strict eule. but ap- 
plies more wideU to t 

4«ocimP \'0Ri'S bromatolow. 

dwtary. regimen, dictanan. 


tetics, drcter, dietist, asiUa, 
cater, caterer, sitology, chyle, 
chyme, victualer, ste^^ar(), aba- 
tion, sitophobia, omnivorou* 
delicatessen, protcid, nitrogci 
protein, commissariat, commis 

food for cattle: feed, fodder, 
provender, forage, pasturage. 

fool, n imbecile, idiot, natural, 
dolt, dunce, simpleton, dcfcc- 
tis e, dotterel, ninny, driveler, 
blockhead, ignoramus, booby, 
numskull, clodpate, nincompoop, 
ass, niseacre, dunderhead, half* 
wit, oaf, dullard, mooncalf, buf- 
foon, harlequin, jester, droll, 

fool, V,. dupe, delude, hoodwink, 
gull, deceive, hoax, trick, vic- 
timize, begviile : trifle, toy, daw- 

foolhardy, a.: rash, daredevil, 

holing, n.: foolishness, folly, 
buffoonery, monkey-tricks, bar- 
lequinism. mummery. 

fooUshj a.: senseless, idetic, <ir* 
rational, imbecile, silly, witless, 
weak-minded, insensate, half- 
witted, brainless, fatuous, fatui- 
tous, unintelligent, insagacious; 
indiscreet, imprudent, puerile, 
ridiculous, asinine, iftept, ab- 
surd, nonsensical 

foolishness, n.: imbecility. Idiocy, 
fatuity, silliness, irrationality, 
insagacity i indiscretion, impni- 
dence, unwisdom, folly, absurd- 
ity, puerility, ineptitude. 

foot, n.: hoof, paw; base, bot- 
tom, extremity 

Assoctated Woms ; chiropody, 
chiropodist, pedicure, orthopedy, 
orthopedic, orthopcdi«t, pedal, 
plantigrade, bastinado, taligradc, 
palmigrade, cloven, ball, instep, 

footfall, n.- footstool, tread, 
avium (EccL), 

footboy, n.: page, lackey, 
football, n.: footstool, tread, 
foothold, n.; footing, firm, 

footing, n.. foothold; status, 
standing, rank, grade, amount, 
total' tread, step 

His financial footing was good, 
footlickcr, n . sycophant, fawner, 
toady, lickspittle 

footman, n infantryman (foot- 
soldier) , lackey 

footpad, n. highwayman, brig- 
and, robber, thug 

Footfads attacked him 
footprint, n,: footmark, track, 
footstep, spoor 

foot-soldiers, n., pi.* infantry. 

The foot-soldiers were drawn up 
in line 

footstep, n.: footfall, tread, step, 
footmark, footprint, trace, track 
vestige; spoor, 

footstool, n.: cricket, hassock 
foot op: add. 

He can foot uf the column m 9 

footway, n.: path, 
foozle, n. (Colloq): bungler; 
foozle, bungle 

fop, D.: ^ coxcomb, dude, dandy, 
cxquiHte, popinjay, blade, jae- 
ka dandy. 

Ant.: sloven, guy. 
foppish, a.: coxcombical, finical, 
dandified, exquisite 

Ant.: slovenly, seedy, disorder- 
ly, negligent. 

foppishness, n,; dandyism, fop* 
pery, coxcombry, dudishness 
forage, n.: food. 

The supply of fordge ran low, 
forage, v.- strip of provisions, 

They foraged the market M 

for all that: nevertheless. 

He will go on for all that. 
foray, n.: raid, depredation, pd' 


A foray was decided upon, 
for aje: always, forever, 
forbear, v • refrain, stop, pause, 
withhold, abstain; endure tole- 

Kindly forbear from criUM»m 
forbearance, n : withholding, re- 
fraining; long-suffering, pati- 
ence, indulgence, toleration. 

Her forbearance was taxed to the 

forbearing, a. long-suffering, pa- 
tient, indulgent, tolerant, leni- 

We try to be forbeartng 
forbears, n, pi. ancestors, fore- 

forbid, V • prohibit, interdict in- 
hibit, restrain, taboo, preclude, 

forbidden, a.: prohibited, inter- 
dicted, proscribed, contraband, 
inhibited, taboo, ilbeit 

That 18 forbidden territory 
forbidding, a.: repellent offen- 
sive, abhorrent repulsive, odi- 
ous, grim, fepellifl| 

His manner was forbtddtng^ 
forbidding, n,: prohibition, inter- 
dictioit proscription, restraint 
inhibition, taboo 

force, V : coerce, compel, neces- 
sitate, constrain, oblige, make, 
iffloei, extort, obtrude, wrest, 
capture, storm; rape, ravi'h 
Ant • induce, inveigle, seduce, 

force, n . army, armanient 
troops, legion, battalion, pha- 

A force of men suddenly ap- 

force, n • energy, strength, power, 
potency, vigor, migfct ^ 
gency, validity, efficacy, effi- 
ciency; compulsion, coercion, 
constraint tension, impetus, 
violence ,, 

He used all the force be could 

Associated words ■ dynamics, 
dyne, statics, perforce, dynamic, 
mechanics, brunt kmit 
forced, a strained, far-fetched, 
mvoluntary, compulsory 
His speech was forced 
Avr spontaneous, voluntary, 
discreuonal, optional, e'ectne 
forcible, a. energetic, potent, ef- 
fective. drastic, coercive, vigor- 
ous, compulsory . 

His forcible speech convinced all 

who heard him , 

forcing, n compulsion compel- 
Uri coercion, extorton. nece.- 
sitation constraint 
AST disCTetien option, election, 
ford. V wade 

fore a for" ard 

n antibrachiuffl. 

r J«Lr n ancestor, progeni- 
forefaihej, n . ancestry. 

„ tate.r, p'’ “S? 



.-d deierd ward 
, V relnouish surrender. 

Jo '‘”'- 

to.™'eV,''b«ol4 l“; 

la tus!- 


forehsad, n • brow, sinciput. foretell, v.: aupur, predict, pro- 
fotcien, a alien, cxlraneons, cio- Phesr. prn^oslicatf. prcsif^ 

tie. ptrfETinn. remote, silven- portend bode, divine, (orbode, 
tiuous, mappropriatc , loreshaaow 

That IS ioTcxs>i to her disposi- foretelling, n augury, predte- 
{jQj, tion, prophecy, foresnowing, 

, . , . . _ prognostication prc'age, presig- 

toreigner, n alien, cmlErnnt, im- diiinaiion, ora^e 

migrant forethought, n premeditation. 

Apt native, indipene, cil.ten p„,e,ente. foreckrt, precaution, 

foreign word, plant, or enstomt prudence, providence 

eaoticirin, exotic _ lj,j farethousht ha, saved U 5 

foreknowledge, n prescience, far- ^ 

foretoken, n prognostic, omen, 
foreman, n premonition, sign, augury 

foremost, a, chief. foreler, adv ; eternallyNverUst- 

forenoon, n morning ,l„^, „, perpctnsllr 

forensic n debate oral argn- „ pr’emonidon. 

to ,o d ■' "'="'""‘1'';'’' fotfert, n forfeiture, line, mulct, 

foreordain, v foredoom ^eor- , amereemenl. 

foreor£S“"’''prrd^S^^^^^^^ forge \’’mith';, stithy, smith- 

foreSnfv ™ Sr precede '“Eetr, n. counterfeiting, eoun. 

forerunner, n. harbinger, herald. 

ppecHrsor, avant<ourier. 
foresee, v.: divine 
foreshadow, v prognosticate, 

presage, prewgnifj^ prefigure, _ 

forgivable, a • pardonable, venial, 
foreshow, v. betoken forgive, v : excuse, absolve, par- 

foresight, n.t prescience, fore- ixenlnsle. bon- 

knowleoge. prudence 

terfcit, falsification, pseudo- 
graph. pseudographyj {Civ 
Law) falsi crimen 
forgetfulness, n • oblivion, am- 
nesty, amnesia, Lethe; cemne- 

don, condone, exculpate, 

land, timber-land, wold, wild- 

tion, remission, condonation. 
, ,,, , , . aetjuittal, indulgence. 

Assoctathi Woms- sylvan, sylvi« forgiving, a • compassionate, in- 
culture, nemophilist, nemophily, dulgent. placable, remissive 
nerooral, atlorest. aflorestation, forgo, v.- let slip, omit, relin- 
Silenus, hamadryad, glade, re* quish. 

forestisc, reforestation, reboisc, fork, n.- " fourchelie; divarication. 
rcalTorest, forestry, forester, dis- branch crotch; prong, rine; 
Doscation, disforest, disforcsla- p^r grain 

crm«e. cruiser fork, v’: branch, ramify, divari- 

forcstall, V.: anticipate; monopo- cate. 

lize, preoccupy. forked, a • furcated, crotchro. 

TItcv were foreitalUJ in their bifurcated, eigzag 
efforts forked support: crotchet, 

forester, n • woodsman ^ forlorn, a • deserted, lorn, for- 

foretaste, n : anticipation. saken, disconsolate, lonesone 


1on!e<l run n danzerniii a 
piric of nrlillcry fori'iul ihlt 
7 ch-»rre of nvilry ii Irrtillf 
ihr full of i.i'""* irlilic 

I kriv lo 

1 li’niiiil- 


Akt •• 


I prcs^'ifc 

inirmrliMr ' 



/orm, n.; aliape, confiruraiSon, 
riRiirc, Blntcture, conlormtion, 
cast, mouli], toiiniure, lonnula. 

form, II : formality, eonvcntionnl- 
ity, ceremonial . nymiiirlry 
form, n.‘ linage, pliaiitom mouW 
piltcrn, intulel 

form, V.: mould, alniic. fa’ilnon 
formal, a • ceremotiial etpre^t. 

I'uncliliouj, mclliotlic >l pnm 
cerenioiiimi", conveiUionil, «* 

Tlie cnlertiininctit wat forimil 
Tlic eertnioiiial proccedmes were 

These nrc hij tffttsi cominamls 
III! tnljits arc 

llcr mffAodinil wa>* plci'c'l liim formltss. 

Her muincr was mlr urlneli'le, 

The occasion wa* terewymofi formula. •' ''' 

She IS liifehly fO'itCHfio'M'f fom^bry’ formula, ritual. 
Ills Imlructions were <x/lutl formulafy. »' . 

fernullst, ii.. ohserver (of form) f*""". ' ’ Bfrlird 
formality, ti • ccrcmonlousness. fornleaifd " , i,,,, ,,,„i |f,ve, 

j-u/ictilJousiiesi, prcmion. cere- rfUmmsh, 

moiiy, cynvcntKinality rrnoiinro i 

formation. ii ! orpan.raiKin. ftlnti.loncd derc 

alfucture, (ifrure, i>ro(liictioii, “ ..,1 

nffangement (of part*) ^ .tfscrtion shsmlon* 

lom.Uvf, «.! plilUt, crt.t'v,. (oriuWW. » 

tfcrmiiiil, liviiiB , , "1^' „ nhiure, rrnoimef. 

former, a.t jifcccditiK, anteceilen*. 

prcvloits, prior, /orcKouiJC Iv fnrirr«« forliricallon, 

Koiic, f]iioiidani, ex-iltvifl fort, n .irnns'liohl. rriloiibt. 

formerly, adv : heretofore, nforc* andet 

Hn'C .. , , .1 ,T talent faculty, ilronjj 

formidable, a.: fe.irful. dreulful. forte. 

dangerous, terrible, tremendous ^.iv directly, Imme- 

NoTEt Tint winch fs formMU ,*l”l^lnn""n'"'*^eaillr cllailel, 
I. worthy of fear If 'cncoim- f®rt»''f' °;;,V," stronghold 
tcred or opposed, as, a 
ahh orr.iy of troops, or of cvi» 
dence / ormutabli fs t word 
of mori! dignity thin 
our, and supreils more eilm 
and eollecled power thin ttt* 
rV>\t; IcirmidnhU is less over* 
whelmintr than Irtmendovi A 

r'lx, " 'n 

^rrstfroli mnfirP' 

MrcmMh I ri'fl r 

tion wiihm a ell), 

t the 

fjcd inner part of a city or 
foriretj, wjthin nhich a gar- 
rison may fcc placed to overawe 
the citizens, or to which the 
defenders may retire if the 
outer works are captured; the 
medieval castle was the forti- 
fied residence of a king or 
baron. Fort is the common 
military term for a detached 
fortifred building or enctosare 
of moderate size occupied or 
designed to be occupied by 
troops. The forUHcaltans of a 
modem city usually consist of 
a chain of forts Any defens- 
ible place, whether made so by 
nature or by art, is a fastness 
or stronghold 

fortify, n strengthen, make 
strong; encourage, confirm; 

fortitude, n ; strength, endur- 
ance, courage, heroism, resoto- 

Note' Fof/iWr has been defined 
as “passive courage/' which is 
a good definition, but not com- 
ple'e. Fortitude might be 
termed “still courage." or "en- 
doiing couraoef it is that 
quality which is able not mere- 
ly to endurr pain or trial, but 
steadily to confront dangers 
that can not be actively opposed, 
or against which one has no 
adequate defense; it takes eovr~ 
age to charge a battery, forti- 
t ide to stand still under an ene- 
my’s fire Resolution is of the 
mind; endurance is partly physi- 
cal; it requires resolution to rc- 
si't temptation, endurance to 
resin hunger and cold, 
fortnight, n,; two weeks, 
lortresa, n.: large fort, citadel, 
fastness, castle, 
fortuitous, a • accidental. 

The cwcuTOstaTiee was forluiJonj. 


irtunate, a.: lucky, favored; 
auspicious, favorable, prospered, 
prosperous, successful. 

Note: A man is successful i 
any case if he achieves or giun, 
what he seeks ; he is known as a 
successful man if he fftj 
achieved or gained worthy ob- 
jects of endeavor, he is /or- 
tunate or lucky if advantages 
have come to him without or 
beyond his direct planning or 
achieving Lucky is the more 
common and colloquial, fortu- 
nate the more elegant word; 
fortunate is more naturally ap- 
plred ID the graver matters, as 
we speak of the fortunate, 
rather than the lucky, issue of 
a great battle; iHciy more 
strongly emphasizes the element 
of ehance, as when wt speak 
of 0 lucky hit, a lucky guess, or 
of one as “bom under a lucky 
star,” Favored is used in a re- 
ligious sense, implying that one 
is the object of Divine favor. 
Jfakfy, in this connection, sig- 
nifies Assessed of the means of 
happiness. One is said to be 
happy or Prosperous whether 
his prosperity 1« the result of 
fortune or of achievement; 
prospered rather denotes the 
action of a superintending 

Attt : broken, crushed, fallen, 
ill-starred, miserable, unfortu- 
nate, unhappy, woful, wretched, 
fortune, n.: fate, chance, luck, 
accident, venture, risk, destiny; 
poiressions, estate 
Ife has caperfenced good fortune. 
Ilis fate has not been decided 

Ills luck seems to hrve changed 
Their meeting was an accident. 
The tenliire was full of hizard. 
lie did this at own risk. 

A higher destiny a 
He enjoyed his 

The «{afe came to them b% 

fortune-teller, n.' chiromancer, 
chirosophist, fatiloquist. sil^l. 

fortune-telling, n. chiromancy, 

aited him He fosUred tlie studj of art 

vlj earned foul, a scurrilous, abusive, ob 
scene, insulting bla pnemoj,, 
MtJperativc vu'gar 
vqnald dirtj polluted, 'hame 
ful odiou dete^t3ble, abotir 
jble loatii'orne di-ru^t "S 
pusive offensive, unp-opitioii' 
u-iav^rable fecu’e- turbiJ 

fonL V »vil deiile dirtv polute 
foul mouthed, a seurrilou, op 
nrobriou< abu-tve blasphem 
i- pfolane ob ce •* -nutty 


forty-niner, n • Argonaut 
forum, n • tribunal, court, 

«embtv-place, public square rp -• - 

forward, a.: anterior, fore ad- esiablisb 

\ancing, advanced, preeociou<, f^rtn mo. d 

fonJ'ard, * a.^ positive, zealous. 

eager, hasty; overreadv prc- The mon bao^to 

sumptuous, brazen, impertinent, tonne bui* gr'l 

obtrusive, tntrusiv-e pnneiples ong-n 

W-,. •.>! » ■ c., hs4e. basis, b< 


forward, v.: accelerate, e-cpediie. 
advance, promote, further , 
transmit, send, ship 
forwarding, n.* transmission, 

promoting, hastening 

forwardness, n.: pertness. imper- v,.../ . 

pertinence. . ^A.,«l^auoB r founding estab- 

Her (envrdness was noticeable f . endonmetia 

Ant • modesty, reserve, deco- i.wal feundation was ar- 

rum, shyness, timiditv. unob- ^ 

trosiveness i«.ft.TvTED Wonos fmdamentai. 

fossil, n.' petrification; person 

AssoavTin Wokps paleontol^. , ■' _ pi„ter ongmator. 

paleontography. ichnology. fos- 

siliferous, s» zil« . father - w » 

fossilist n.- paleontologist . ^ founder of t. i co • 

The fossilisl is an authority on ' 

‘J'at , - f^mdir V fall stumble, fail 

fossilization. n.- fossiltfication. » 

lapidification . -rv- horse may founder 

The /osn/izoticn of the plant was ^j,5t not founde 

complete . . , n fountain, spring 

fosalizei a • petrified; antiquated, I ^ fj^nt is never failing 

old-fashioned r,Mint'aio n fount 

The fossilised plants were on source, fountn-head. 

'fisw nrirnri. Castaha- 

fossTize, V • petrify , ysonk of the fountsm of l‘‘* 

Giant trees in time are I'm founism 

fester, v • support, nouri«h. nurse. ^hich it *pra’’S 
promote, encourage, advance 


%'ase,* basis, beginnuig, 
caue round roundwork. 

Th?!”S” ™ , 

That nas the raundstton ot the 

fonr, c.: Quaternion, quaternary, 
tetrad, quadruplet, quartette; 

AjsoaATE* Wcac5 quadfllectl^^, 
quadnparuj'', quadnpartition, 
quad"-p.!cation, quarter, quad* 
rupl,., q-adrcple 
four cities: tetrapohr 
fourfold, a quadruple, quadru- 
p’ex, quadruplicate, 
four-footed, a.' quadruped, 
four-handed, a quadrumaaom 
four-handed antntala: Quadru- 

Founeris’n, n.* aociali»ia, co- 

eperat on. 

Founertjm th ra'npant for a 

four-iided, a.. quadranz^l^r, 

square, quadnlateral, tetrajo- 
ral, ret'afedaL 

focr*suied iifure: tqoare, tetra* 
ein, quadrarzle, rhentui. 
founqcare, a,, quadranjular. 
fourth, n.: quarter, 
fowl, n.: bird, l:ock. hen. chicken, 
fowhng;, n. v.ild-b-rd-caichms. 

Thej enjojed the tport of ftncU 


fox, n.: Reynard, Rcoard. 

AsUXIATtI) V.C&5 \i.Ipise, TCl- 
p-cide, ikt-lk 
foxglove, r.: digitalij. 
foxy, a : cunning, sly, »i1y, 

foyer, n.: greenroo"!, lobby. 

They pasted on i-to t‘'e foyfr 
fracas, n.; bras^t, uproar, dis* 
turla-'c. quarreL 

The fraeet v as soon Quelled 
fraction, r.- s^art, fragnsents; 
fari-h } iqcal part 

That is C-I7 a fraction of the 

fractional, a fragmenury. 

A fract jrsl oart was restored. 

Thnr stt*? was frazf^ertary 
fractioua, a.* perserse, rritabl*, 
u-ra’j, ti'-/, wa' 

The ani.'nal proved to be (rsc- 

fractnre, n. ruplure, breach, 
breaking, «eparat on. 

There was a fracture of the bone. 

The rupijre was ccmpVe. 

T*"* breach cou’d rot be healed, 
fractured, a. broken. 

fie •~‘^cTed frcui a fractured leg, 
fragile, a frail, delicate, brittle, 

The base w,.s frazzle. 
fragility, n brittleness, frangi* 
bitty frai'.t/ 

its fra^thty is its charm, 
fragment, n.- chip, remnaat, 
scrap, finder, p.ecc, fitter. 

The was of little valsc. 
frugmentary, a.: disconnected, 
fracticral, mco-ipJete. 

The rridcscc was frazfTurJary. 
(ragrutce, tu; perfume, aroma, 

The frazrOKce was orer-powef* 

Aj.t.: fetor, stench, fnodorosJ* 

fragrant, a.: aweet-snelling. red> 
dolert, erorrat.c, balmy, iweet- 

Anv.: inodorous, icertleas, ft*!*! 
frail, a.: fragile, brittle, frang*- 
b'e, feeble, weak, in^m. 
frailty, a.: fragility, frangibr'tjr* 
brittleness; rniperfect-'on, fault, 

frame, v.: devise, contrive, plan, 
co^po'c; invent, fabricate; •»«' 
just, f.t, conform, 
frame, n.; framework, tkeleloa; 

stand, tai’e, shape, 
frame, r.: temper, state. 

He is m ro enviable frame 01 

Iranchue, n : privilege. 

The franchite was granted, 
frangible, a.: fragile, breakalle- 

TV.e ci/ita’.s wtit /r5rjsl,t<. 

frank, a unrc,«crve(l, cainliil, 
outsrK)kcn, Ingenuous, undis- 

lie jicrfcctJy (rvnk wifli tt\ 
frankincense, n resin gum, per- 

frankly, adv candidly, openly 

lie (xpressed liiin<cl{ C{uile franL- 


frankness, n unreserve, candofi 

Snell frankiieu deserve* praise 
frantic, a crazed, raving, dis- 
tracted, frenzied 
fraternal, a brotherly 

I rolfriiat love endures 
fraternity, n league, afTitiatlon, 
connection, brotlierliood, brolli- 

A fraternity was organhed 
among the students 

The proposed league was dit- 

There is a strong aUlltahan be- 
tween tliem 

The two ideas have no enunar- 


The brotherhood of man, he felt, 
was about to be reah/ed 
fraud, n deceit, humbug, dupli- 
city, Imposcure, Imposition, clii 
canery, wile, guile, eircumven 
tion. hypocrisy, rnalversalion 
gralt, surrrption 

Note’ A dfrn’t or drrr/’tion miy 
be merely to gain some end of 
one's own, with no Intent of 
Inrmlng another; an emfoa- 
liOH may be 1o lake some small 
advantage of atiollier. or sim- 
ply to mike anoliicr ridiculous 
An intf-oslure is designed to ob- 
tain money, credit, or position 
to which one Is not enlilfed, an 1 
miy be praetised by a street 
lieggar or by the pretender to a 
throrre All action tint is not 
honest is dishonesty, but the 
term diiAonrrly is generally 

applied in businc's politics, etc, 
to deceitful pnclnes winch .ire 
lilt dirciily iniiiiinl I raud 
includes ileieil, but deceit may 
not readi the cravity of ftauJ, 
n fhiul IS of the nature of 
fiiud, but of 1 peny sort, a 
rtiifdle »» tiiorc serious than i 
cAejf involving In/rr viluei 
Atid mire flagniit dishnnesty 
I rauA IS ciuninniilv actiniialjfe 
At law i/ieiilirig and stimJling 
are for the most part out nf the 
reifh ol legal procecdmgj 
Trrnifiery Is chiefly used of 
dishonesty iii nntiers of friend- 
ship social rclitioni, govern- 
ment or war, Irenrhery may 
be more InrmfiiJ ilnn frond, but 
is not 10 gfoss. ami it not oftb- 
Treason is a tpcnfic form of 
IrMfhery of a luhject to the 
goveriimeut In winch he owes 
alteitisncf and is defiinble and 
punitfiable at law 

Aht faitncts good faith, hon- 
esty. inlfgtily, triilli, uprigtit- 

frauiiufener, n dislionesty, de- 
ceit fulness tricVery, unfiirnesi 
Such fraudnlenre is easily de- 
le* ted 

fraudulent, a deceptive, crafty, 
wil). aubtie, siirreptiiii/ui, Itnay- 

The whole traiisiciioii was fraud- 

fraugiit. a freighted charged, 


The mrcsige was fruug/il with 

fray, n rombat, fplit, battle, 
broil ifir ly . clisfc fret 
The frav Itsicd all diy 
frazzle, v fray tatter 
It was fras-leil ami t 'tn 
frazzle, n lag end, inter 
The end* were a compl-tc fnt- 


freak, n prank, vihim, caprice, 
\is:arj', wmtnsey, fancy, humor, 

It was a jreak of nature. 

freakish, a prankish whimsical, 
cap'icious %acarious, fanciful, 
erratic, froichrJ\ 

It was a frcaluh action 

freckled, a «potted. lentiginous, 

freckle, n lentigo, lenticula 

His skin was marked with frec- 

freckled, a spotted, lentiginous 

The saucj freckled face lighted 
with a smile 

free, v liberate, disintbrall, de- 
Iner, manumit, emancipate, en- 
franchise, release, disengage, 
exonerate, disentangle, acquit* 

The Mctims were freed from a 
ternUe bondage 

free, a.' independent, unrestrained, 
exempt, immune, liberated, 
freed, released, emancipated, de- 
litered; unconstrained, infor- 
mal, unresened. familiar, frank, 
ingenuous, artless, candid, com- 

free, a : gratuitous, spontaneous, 
bountiful, lasish, flush, munifi- 
cent, soluniarj', optional; lib- 
eral. openhandci generous, hos- 
pitable; readj, eager, prompt, 
unrestrained, immoderate, prod- 
igal, lax 

.^NT : subject, reserved, formal, 
cocrcitc, arbitrary, restrained, 

free and easy (CoIIoq ): informal, 
unceremonious, unrestramed 

freebooter, n • buccaneer, pillager, 
pirate, sea robber. 

The free}>c<Dter pillaged the is- 

freeboottng, n : plunder, pillaging, 

Freehooung is robbery. 

freedom, n exemption, immun- 
it}, prisileges, iTnuritirs 

^ on has e en;03 cd a freedom front 

The} sscre giscn the freedom ol 
the ship 

freedom, n ease, laxity, facility, 
unco'istratnt, candor, frankness, 
inhirm ilm latitudinananism 
The piston moved with perfect 

He indulged in freedom of 

freedom, n liberty, independence, 
self-government, autonoTs 
Ant subjection, habilit}, depen- 
dence, heteronomy, reserve 
constraint, subordination, re- 

free-handed, a.; liberal, open- 
hani*d. lavish, generous 
freehold, n : land, estate, tene- 

freeing, n • manumission, libera- 
tion, cmaneipaiion. release. di« 
inthrallmenl. enfranchisement, 
extrication, exontration, disen- 
gagement, discharge 
The freeing of the masses was 
his aim 

Iree-liver, n.’ glutton, epicure, epi- 
curean, voluptuary, bon 
frec-hvmg, n.* epicurism, 
freely, adv.: abundantly, bounte- 
ously, readily, gratuilouslj, vol- 
untarily, liberally, copiously, 
-pontaneously, unresen cdly 
He gave freely of all that he had 
frec-thmker, n.: infidel, unbeliever. 

free-wiU, a.* voluntary, 
freezable, a.: congealable. 
freeze, v : congeal . 

freezing, n.: congelation, congeat- 

freight, n.i cargo, Jading. load, 

^ freightage 
frdghted, a : loaded. 

Frenchism, n Gallicism 
French pohceiran gendarme 
French Protestant Hugenot 
frenzied, a distracted frantic, 
frenzy, n distraction rage lury, 
delirium madne's 
frequency, n trequence 
frequent, a recurring, recurrent, 

Rams were of frtqutni oecor- 

frequent, \ 'isit often resort to, 
M !• go to, repair to 
Thes frcuucn'td resorts of that 

frequenter, n habitue 
He was a frtQutnitr of her salon, 
fresco, \ paint decorate 

The halls ttere arusticalK frts- 

fresh, a new, recent unfaded, 
uninjured unforgotten 
fresh, a I'rong, active tin- 
neaned. hvelj bri'V. healthy, 
pure unsalted 

fresh, a inexperienced, raw. on- 

resh, a (Slang) presumptuous, 

freshen, v.: refresh, revive, reno- 

The fret of the daj-’s work ex- 
hausted her 

The fret « as much admired 
fretful, a petulant, irritable, quer- 
ulais peevi h captious 'pleen> 
fretwork, n ornamentation 
The /rrl^tyrk was elabo-a'elj 
wrought ♦ 

friable, a crisp crumbled, pow- 
derel feasilyl 
The *oiI IS friable 
fnar n mendicant monk 

The fnar a> erted hts author- 

fnbbhng, a trifling frivolous 
fnenon, n abrasion, attrition, 
rubbing confncation, clash ng. 
d sagreement 

fnervd, o confidante chutn. well- 
wisher intimate, associate, pa- 
tron advocate adherent, sup- 
porter aJJv eentrire. OaaJcer 
fnendlmess, n amity eonsity, 
good will amicabil t> 
friendly, a accessible, amicable, 
companionable favorable, load; 
friternaj hosprtsbhr, neighborly 
favorable cordial propitious 
salutarv genial, sociable, advan- 

The frethet assumed abrnung 


freah-water. a unolted fresh 
unskilled This is a fresh-U'iter 


fret, V chafe, abrade, fray, rub; 
gnaw corrode 
The garment fretted his skin 
Rust fre/f metal 

fret, V ripple, agitate, roughen: 
worry, harass, tease, irritate, 
ver fume rankle 

The Wind frtte t*^ surface of the 


Whv fret about it* 
fret, n vexation, agitation, fret- 
ting im'ation. ornament; 
mberif, wale, ridge 

VoTs In Its application to per- 
sons orcernble is used of pub- 
lic and eminent persons, who 
might if duposed hold them- 
selves at a d stance from others 
CTomPanona'-fe and lonabfe re- 
fer to mvmer and behavior, 
cC'dial and eenijf erpre'S genu- 
ine kindlmesj of heart The 
adjective fnendty does not 
reach the full significance of the 
nouns 'friend' and ‘ friend- 
ship”. one nav be friendly to 
those who are not his friends, 
and to be in fnrndty relations 
often signifies little more thaz 
not to be hostile 
A-fT adverse, alienited, anrago- 
n Stic, disaffected, estranged 


"'“SSilrl'y. f?,Tn'dlmt'si,"TffS; '"'ali™"' t f"”""*"'”"' 

I.on, attachment, comity. ctS- a””?'’ 

ctdcatton, dcvotton, esteem. X’,iXX. scare, 

mtiraidate, dismay, affrijht, 
daunt appall, rerrorize, brow 
beat cow 

favor, good will, los*c, regard 

J'OTE Friendship is a deep, quiet, 
enduring affection, founded 
upon mutual respect and esuetn 
/Ttcndskip IS always mutual, 
there may be unreciprocated of* 
jection or attachment, unre* 
quited loie, or even unrecog- 
nized and unappreciated de^- 
tion, but ncstr unreciprocated 
or unrequited friendship, one 
may have friendly feelings to- 
ward an enemy, but while there 
IS hostility or coldness on one 
side ttrerc can not be friendship 
between the two Friendliness 
is a quality of friendly feeling, 
the deep and settled 
allachtnent implied in ifne state 
mendship. Comity is mu- 
tual Kindly courtesy, with care 
®* other's right, and 

entity a friendly feeling and 
relation, not necessarily im- 
plying special friendliness; as, 
the fomiiy of nations, or amity 
nc'Sbboring countries 
^ffrclion may be purely natu- 
«l. friendship u a grovHh. 
triendshtp 15 more intellectual 
and Jess emotional than lose; tt 
u, easier to give reasons for 
friendship than for love; friend- 
ship IS more calm and quiet, 
ru« Wgbtfu] a.: dreadful, hideous 

can not sDcalc of ^5 terrible, ogreish, fearful, alsm 

fZndMt gr^wsome, ^im. wire, dire, 


Note One is frightened by a 
cause of fear addressed directly 
and suddenly to the senses, he 
IS intimidated by an apprehen- 
sion of contingent consequences 
dependent on some act of his 
own to be done or forborne ; die 
means of intimidation may act 
through the senses, or may ap- 
peal only to the intellect or the 
rensibiliiies TTie sudden rush 
of an armed madman nay 
fnghten; the quiet leseliagef s 
highwayman’s pistol intmidstes. 
A ‘avage beast is intmiiaUd 
by the keeper’s whip Employ- 
ers ittay inhmiiale their «n- 
plo>ce$ from voting eonirary to 
their will by threat of dis- 
charge; a mother may be i«- 
lirnidated through fear for her 
child To hrouheot or cow is to 
bring into a state of submissire 
fear; to daunt is to give pause 
or check to a violent, threaten- 
ing, or even a brave spirit To 
scare is to cause sudden, un- 
nerving fear; to terrify is to 
?w^kcn fear that is overwhel'n- 

frmce, II rclcm;: conhnf. marRin, 
border, Imibrialioii 
A o 5 ttiHows borderc<l ihe 

fringed, a fimbriate, (imbriated, 

Tlic ilclii-ately fnngrd petaU were 
iiiiich adniirc'I 

frippery, n trumpery, cbtap t«n- 
er>. ci'l ofTi 

fnsb, frisking, n frolu Ratnbnl 
frisk. 1 leap, skip, gamboi frolic, 

fnsky, a sportive froliesonte, 
eolti'li pliyfiil pai 
fntii, n inlet, estuary, bay 
fritter, 1 waste dillyilall) break 
lie fnlifrol away Ins time 
lliev fnlUreJ (lie meats preptra- 
torv to frieasteing them 
frivolity, n levity, flippanc). 

They frired to spend there lime 
in frivolities 

frivolous, a triflinir, petty, trivial. 

puerile, msignifienit 
fris. V curl, crisp, (nrzie 
The ends were /r»j;«l ami 

fro, adv backward, away from 
llity passed to and (ro 
frock, n gown, tmoek>frock. 

fros-eating, a ranisoroits, l>at« 


frogs, n , pi ampliibians ani> 

AssociATtD WoBPS Ostnehomyo- 
maehy, ranariiim amplnbinus, 
bairachoiil, halnchim, ranine 
frolic, n prank, lark, Ratnbol, es- 
capade. fun 

frolicsome, a * playful, prankish, 
sporiive, risky 

from head to foot: ihrouRhout, 
completely. cip-i pie 
He svis armed from /ini t to toot 
front, n facade; obverse, lace, 
van. fore-rank, front rank 
They presented a solid front. 

front, a anterior, foremost 

The front page contiired an il 
lusir itiua 

frontier, ii border, eoiifines. 
fronbspiece, n illusiration, or* 
n iiitriit 

frontlet, ii band 
frost. II linarfrosi nine uneor- 
diality im-itwi ibdily rcsetvc 
frosting, II iimi; 
frosty. 3 ic> ci’hl imcorJial 
alciof unsociable disnnt prui- 

froth. It spume foam 
frochins, n ram 

111 'poke wilb mikli Irolhtng 
frothy, a (oaiii) spumy »pu* 
nious trivial frivolous, iiniub- 

The >lis»<«iirsc wi< frothy and utt* 

satisfy mg 

frou-frou, n rustling swish 

There was heard llie frou freu of 


frowaril. a unyielding refractory, 
disof'Ciiieni. msutimissive, unto* 

He s\as 4 fra-iiird chd I 
frown, n scowl lower glowcf. 

There w as a /r 1 1 n on her face 
frowning, a stern scowling, low 
erug. Rlowering 

Tlie froutiiii)! 'kies looked down 
upon them 

frowiy, a nui'tv strong smell* 
ing. fetid rank raneid mat- 
odorous sliiicrnb disordered, 
nntidv disheveled d'wd) 
frozen, a c >nceiled benumbed 
killed iinfielme 

frugal, a saving economital. 

sparing tliriflv prnviilent 
frugality, n pirsnnony economy, 
thrifliness. thrift, miserliness, 
parsioirminosness providence. 
petnletKe sivmg. sv.rimpine. 

Note r fonomv is * W'c and 
careful admimstratwi uf the 


means at one’s disposal; frugal- 
ity is a withholding of expen- 
d ture, or sparing of supplies 
or provision, to a noticeable 
and often to a painful de- 
gree, parsimony is excessive 
ard unreasonable rating for the 
sake of ratmg f r«ga/«/y ex- 
alted into a virtue to be prac- 
ticed for Its own take, instead 
of as a means to an end, be- 
comes the vice of parsimony 
Mistrhness is the denying one- 
self and others the ordinary 
comforts or etcci tteccssattcs of 
life, for the mere sake of hoard- 
ing monej Prudence and Pro- 
indenee look far ahead, and 
sacrifee the pre‘ent to the fu- 
ture, 'aving as much as may be 
necessary for that end Thrtf$ 
seeks not merely to save, but to 
earn Economy manages, fru- 
gahly saves, providence plans, 
thrift at once earns and $ave& 
with a view to wholesome and 
prohtalle expenditure at a fit* 
ting time 

Ast : abundance, afUuence, boun- 
ty, extravagance, liberality, lux- 
ury, opufence, riches, waste, 

fruit, n ; crop, produce, harvest; 
offspring, consequence, result, 
outcome, fruitage 
fruit, n.: fruitage, ffuilery. 

Associatxd Words : pomology, Po- 
mona, pomologlst, carpology, 
carpologist, carpophagous, 
drupe, carpomania, raceme, 
fructiferous, fructify, fructifica- 
tion, bletting, pulp, rind, or- 

fruit-eating, a.: fructicorous, fru- 
^givorous, carpophagous 
fruiterer, n.: fruit-dealer, coster, 
^ coster-monger 

fruitful, a.; prolific, productive. 

frugiferous, fecund, bountiful, 

'This land is fruitful. 

{nutioti. R,- harvest, ftuttfutness; 
realization, enjoyment, fulfill- 

They welcomed the plentiful frui- 

Here IS the frinJion of our 

fruitless, a unfruitful, infeeund, 
infertile, barren , unavailing, 
useless, vain 

fruit-seller, n • fruiterer, coster, 
costermonger (peddler) 
fruit sugar: levulose, 
fruity, a : well-flavored, rich, 
frump, n. (Colloij.): gossip, 

frumpish, a.: 111-tempcrcd, dowdy, 
moro‘c, slatternly, eld-fash- 

frustrate, v.- defeat. bafHe, disap- 
point, foil, balk, thwart, cireum- 
vent trullify 

frustration, n.: disappointment, de- 
feat, balking, wvliRg, nullifica- 

He was angry at the frustrauon 
of Ids plans 
fry, V.: cook, roast, 
fry, n.' fish, 

frying-pan, n : spider, skillet, 
fuddled, a.: muddled, tipsy, drunk. 

intoxicated, boozy, groggy 
fudge, n.: candy, confection; hum- 
bug, nonsense, balderdash, 

fuel, n : combustibles, wood, coal 
fugacious, a.: volatile, fleeting, 

fugitive, a.: fleeing; evanescent, 
short-lived, transient, fugacious, 
volatile, ephemeral, imperma- 

TJte fugitive Idea escaped him 
fugitive, n.: runaway, runagate, 
renegade, deserter. 

fulcruia, n • prop, sapport, part 

He osed the bar for a fulcrum 
fulfill, V accomplish, conjum* 
mate, complete realize , satisfy, 
fill, answer meet discharge, 

He fu'll cd all his obligations. 
fuLfillment, n atcomphshment. 
consummation, fruition, realiza- 
tion . discharge, performance 

It was e 'utit.ment of hi» cher- 
ished plans, n glitter, brightness, 

fulgent, a bright, 
fuliginous, a smoky, sooty, 

full, a tilled up. replete, copious, 
amp’e, plethoric, plenteous, lib- 
eral, abundan*, bocntifuL 
full, a. complete, plenary, sated, 
surfeited. glatted, cloyed, 
gorged, saturated, engrossed 

full-grown, a. mature 

full swing carte blanche, liberty. 

full-toned, a deep 
fully, adv completely, abnod- 
am'y gtate, enotsgb 
fulminate, s detonate, thunder, 
denonciate, threaten, 
fulminatory, a denmclatory, 

His fulminsttry *peech inflamed 

fulness, n surfeit, 
fulsome, a. excessire, offenshc, 
rac^eous, di«gu'tiEg gross, tci* 
trodera'e coarse, ndelica'e. 

His fuls'Mt speech anno)ed them 
fulvous, a tawny. >eIlow. saffron- 

fumaaons, a smolcy 
fume, n e'shalation, sraolie, 
stea-n vapor, agitaticn. reek, 

fume, V. storm, rage, bluster; 
fuaid, a. smoky, fnmy. 

fumigate, v • smoke, disinfect; 

Thev fumi;atcd the room before 
occttpvmg It 

fun, n mirth, merriment, gayety, 
jest, pleasantrv frolic, drollery, 
waggishness waggery, face- 
tioucness divertiseraent. amuse- 
ment. jocularity, relaxation 
function, n duty oFice business, 
province, part discharge, exe- 
cution {Physiologv) normal 
action partv entertainment, 
festivits, reception 
functional, a otncial 
functionary, n oFicial, efnee- 

fund, n money stock, capital, 

funds, n pi money moiejs 
fundament, o buttocks prm 
ciple element 

fundamental, a elementary ba<al, 
es«rttiaJ ©nginal radical 
fundamentally, adv primarily, es- 
sentially mdicatly 
fundus, n base, depth 
funeral, s obsequies 
funeral-director undertaker 
funeral-oration eloge 
funeral pile pvTe 
funeral-song dirge elegy, requiem, 
funereal, a. mourrful, solemn 

Fun^n.pL Thallophytes (toad- 
stool. mushrooms) 

Assooatd Worts spawn, spore, 
oy cophagy. furgivorous. nyce- 
tophagocs, anisritine. nvcelium, 
fungte, fu^giade. funro d. fun- 
gifo-m fungous, mycologist 
fungology. n.’ myeolotr 
fengm, n ihallogen. ihallophyte; 
cn-ptogram; e.xerescence, gran- 
vbton, proud Pesh. 
fumcle. n ligature, cord, small 

funicular, a. fmicle-shaped, rope- 
shaped. worked (by ropes). 


funnel, n.: tunnel, vessel, cliim- 

funnel-shaped, a.: infundibular, 
infimclibulate, infundibular 
funny, a • droll, comical, ludicrous, 
laughable, whimsical, curious, 
queer, strange, bizarre, gro- 

fur, n • soft hair, peltry, pelage, 
furbelow, n . flounce, ornament, 
frill, ruffle 

furbish, V burnish, tnaVe bright. 

polish, renovate, scour, clean 
furcated, a forked, furcate 
Furies, n , pi Erinyes, Eumenides 
Tniphone. Alecto, Magrra) 
furious, a angry, infuriated, rag- 
ing, violent, frenzied, turbulent, 

furl, V roll up. secure, 
furnish, s provide, supply, eon- 
tribute, bestow, purvey, eater. 

All conveniences were (urnuhei 

The recessary amount was tup- 

They have provided suCicient 

Large sums were eo'^trU'uted for 
the work 

They betleaed much thought 
upon the appointments of the 

Enough provisions were purveyed 
to as to rafer to each guest 
furniture, n.: goods, movables 

Associatto Woars : cabinet-malcer, 
cabinet » making, upholsterirg. 

furor, furore, n.; outburst, eacite- 
ment, enthusiasm, rage, r'ania. 
furrier, n.: fur-dresser, dealer, 
furrow, n.: trench, groove, wrin- 

further, v.: promote, advance, aid, 
assi*t, ercourage, forward, fos- 
ter, push, help; facil tate, exps- 
dite, quieten, speed, urge on. 
further, adr.* also, but, yet. 

He will not talk further ofl the 

furtherance, n.t aid, advancement, 
furthermore, aciv.: moreover, be- 

f urthermore, I shall not accom- 
pany them 

furthest, a remotest, most dis- 
tant, most advanced 
furtive, a. stealthy, sly, secret, 
stofen, elusive 

U'c gave a furtne glance at the 


gabardine, n coarse frock 
gabble, n, babble, gibberish, 
prate, prating, jargon, chatter, 
gabble, v. Babble, gibber, jabber, 
prate, chatter, 
gad, wander, 
gad. n. goad. 

gag, s.' tnuztie, muffle, hath, 
Silence, suppress; retch 
gag, n.. Silencer, muffler, mmltr, 
gap, n.' pledge, security, 
gaie^, n.; happiness 
gain, n.. increase, profit, advan- 
tage, acquisition, aecumolatioi 
AssoaAttp VroRPS ' increment, 
accretion, store, hoard rg; 
emolument, lucre 
Ilis gain has been greater than ft s 

His sales show an increaie over 
tho»e of last year. 

Ills fro^t was great; his loss, 

fie has this advantage over tn» 
The aequiiition of this informi- 
tion is of great value. 

An aecurrulttlon of bid deb's 
^ ruired hin 

gain, V.: increase, profit,^ get, 
achieve, acquire, win, obtain, at- 

As'cctATta Wesos: co^olate, 
persuade, induce 
He has gained his point 
He has snereated his promts 
He has profited by my loss. 

He has got what be went after. 


lie has aehined success throuRli came, n play, amiisemcnt, pas- 
liis efforts time divcruon, fun sport, con- 

llc has acijMred confiilencc UM j«rty, qu irry , »clienie, phn, 

He Ins ttoti the pnie projtii, iinilcrlaKin,; enterprise, 

He lias ohioineii a ffreat deal strateKcm 
of luihlicily in tilts way Cacne, 4 jiliuky resolute, tin- 

He Ins altainrJ to liriRlits of yieldni,; lonrascoiis, unflinch- 
snctc'S uiidre inied ol by others «iB m.l mi i il Ir. undaunted, un- 

galnsay, v di3|iuie, contradict, luiiquir iblr 

deny controvert, impiiRn gamesome, 4 siiortive 

gait, n walk gamm, » simi jrjb 

gaiten, n pi leKRings, spats, gamester. «i kainlilcr 
gramaslies, puttee gamut, 11 seali 

galaxy, n asstnihly gartg, n tund crew, company, 

gale, n wnul, iciiipesl, excite- t'rniiii crowil act sumd, party. 

ment, confusion, ilurry iiitniber, cliijne 

gall, n bile, bitterness, rancor, gangling 4 (CnMo'i ) lanky, 
spile malignity spimHinr 

gall, n (SUtig) impwdtnee. au- gangrene, n mortification, iplij- 
dieity, effrontery, insolence eeUimn 

gall, V chafe, fret, vex, annoy, gangrenous, a mortified, morti- 
harass, worry, exasperate f'mg sj.hicelite 

gallicism: Trenehism. gangway, n pissage 

galling, a Irritating, burning. gap. n Inaius nfi crevice, rent, 
rtfloon, a binding mtersiire. rl<3*m 

gallop, V run. The mouniam was rent by a great 

gallstone, n bdestone, Whary gape.^^ yawn, oscitate. gase, 
calculus ^ ^ • 

galore, n plenty, abundance. In gape, n yawn, yawning, gaping! 

abundance, abouiuling rutus <ttit gapev) 

galore, a plentiful, abundant caocc. n 
There were attractions eahre for garb, n eoitume, dress, gown. 

the children _ clothes 

There was a tUnlifiit supply of ahe was dressed In the carl of 

The season produced an abundani **he wore a becomirtfr eoiiumf. 

crop Her drttt was old-fadiionc>l 

Ant scant, stinted, meager, lun- Her gown was of the hiesi mode 
itfcl Her elolhfi were shabby 

gambler, n • gamester, card- garbage, n offal, refuse, suill, 
sliarper, blackleg, punter waste, scivrnger 

gambol. V . caper, frisk, frolic, garble, v pervert, distort, falsify, 
phy, sport, leap, skip, prance, tnisilale. wrench, misaiiote, mis- 

cufvet represent 

The lambs camboUd playfully garbling, n perversion, dlsfor- 
The children /nf*eif about tire bon. falsification, missiatemcnt. 

room misrepreieniaiion 

The dogs Uaffd around us garcon, n waiter 

The girls tkifftd on the sidewalk, gardener, n horticulturist 
The horses are franeirig gardening, n . horticulture. 

3 S$ 

garde du corps: body guard, 
gansh, a. gaudy, shov,y, flashy. 

The fumi'hmg was gsruh 

Her jewelry was gauay. 

Her furniture was sho^’. 

His rng was flashy 
garland, n. wreath, chaplet, bays, 
cororal, laurel, anthology, ros- 

garments, n , pi dress 
gamer, s. store up. gather in 
garnish, >. beauuiy*, embellish, 
decorate, trim, adorn 
garniture, n , garnish, garnish- 
rnent, e-nbellishment, decora- 
tion, trimming 
garret, n attic, cockloft, 
garrison, n. fort, body of troops 
in fo't. 

garrotter, n robber 
garrulity, n. loquacity 
garrulous, a.- chattenng, talk- 
ative, loquacious, verbose 

Kort* We speak of a ekatteriag 
tno-key or a skalUrtng Idiou 
a talkatiie child, a fslkatke or 
lecjuedout woman, a garruhus 
old man, a terJore writer. The 
tslkaiiit person has a strong 
di‘po<ition to talk, with or with- 
out an abundance of words, or 
many ideas ; the loguaeiout per- 
son has an abundant Pnw of 
la-^guage and much to say on 
any subject suggested; the gar. 
grulous person is tedious, repe- 
titious, petty, and self-absortid 
Verbose is applied to otfcrances 
more formal than conversation, 
as to wri'ings or public ad- 

A',t.: laconic, re<ervci reticent, 
S’lent, speechless, taciturn, 
garth, n.- land, 
gascon, n.; bragger. 
gasconade, n.* boasting, 
gaseous, a.: gassy, aeriform, gasi- 
form; tenous, thin, u.nsubstan- 

gash, V.; slash, indsc. 

gash, n.: incision, slash, 
gasp, n.: pant, panting, 
gassing, n. (Slang); boasting, 
vaunt, palas er, vapor, moon- 

gassy, a gasseous, aeriform, 
gassy, a (Slang) boastful, bom- 
bastic, vaporous, inflated, 
gastronomer, n. high liver, 
gatt, n.; entrance, portal, wicket, 
turnstile, turnpike; postern; 
tollgate, sluice gate; stanch; 
herse. portcullis 

gather, v. assemble, congregate, 
convene, muster, collect, con- 
centrate; harvest, pick, glean, 
pluck, crop, reap; accumnlite. 
amass, hoard, garner. 

They have gathered all the ma- 
terial obtainable 

gather, v. infer, conclude, de- 
duce; maturate 

gather, v.- contract, eonpress 
gather, n. pucker, plait. ruSe, 

gathering, n : collection, crowd, 
assembly, congregation, con- 
coerse, assemblage, muster, 
party, company; accumalation, 
amassing, amassment. 

The gathering of the clouds fore- 
told the approaching storms 
gather, n. abscess, imposthume, 
ulcer, boil, carbuncle, suppura- 
tion, maturation, pustule, 
gaud, n : gewgaw*, bauble, 
gaudy, a.* showy, flashy, mere- 
tricious, ostentatious, tawdry, 

gauge, s.: measure, 
gaunt, a. emaciated, pinched, at- 
tenuated, meager, lean 
gauntlet, n.: gloves, 
gauzy, a.: fine, transparent 
gavel, n.: hammer, 
gavot, n.: dance, 
gawk, n.: gawrky, booby, loot 
simpleton, hind, boor, 
gawky, a.; ungraceful, clumsy, 
ungainly, loutish, boorish, un- 

gay, a merry, sporti\e, Ihely, 
frolicsome, phvtii!, exhilarat- 
ing. vi'aciQus, boon convivial, 
jovol blithe jolly jojoux 
Associatcd Words brilliant, 
dashing galhnt show) , garish, 
giudi. llashing tawdry 
He IS a £*iy youth 
The merry birds arc singing 
The ifortr e winds tossed her 
curls about 

It wss a (cif), frolietome chil<l 
The kitten is fla^fut 
Her society is erlularnting 
Her conversation is marioti,r 
Her manner is bhthe 
He IS fat and lolly 
Thev were boon companions 
Conzittai tastes and man- 
ners made their meetings yaj- 

gayety, n merriment, mirth, hi- 
larity. sportivenes*. conviviality, 
joviality, light-heirtedness ela- 

gaze, V look steadily 
gazette, n newspaper, ofTicial 
gazetteer, n 

gear, v harness, dress 
gear, n rigging, tackle, gearing, 
mechanism, draught-gear, ac- 
couterments, trappings 
gehenna. n hell 
gelatinous, a jellylike. 
gelation, n cooling, 
gelich, a cold 
gehdity, n cold 
gem. n jewel 

gemmation, n doubling, dnphea- 

gemmation, n budding 
gendarme, n.. policeman 

Norr ii'cT is a distinction among 
living beings . it is also the chxr- 

n larguige partially corre- 
sponding to this distinction in 
nature , while there are but two 
texet, there vre in some lan- 
guiRcs is m Inghsh and Ger- 
man three grndfn We speak 
of the masculine or feminine 
gendef the male or female sex. 
genealogy, n pedigree 
general, a indelinite, vague, ill- 

\ST specific, definite 
genera], adv common, universal 
Note Unnersnl applies to all 
without exception, general ap- 
plies to all with possible or 
comparatively slight exceptions', 
fontmon applies to very many 
without deciding whether they 
are even a raxjont) \ eom- 
•non remark is one we often 
hear a general experenee is 
one that conics to the majority 
of people, a unnersal experi- 
ence IS one from which no hu- 
man being is exempt It is 
dangerous for a ilcbater to af- 
firm a unrertal proposition, 
since that can !« negaiiied by 
a single exception, whi'e a gen- 
eraJ statement is not invalidated 
even by adducing many excep- 
tions We say a ronimoii opin- 
ion. common experience a gen~ 
eral rule, general truth, a 
universal law 

Ant cxcenlional ln^^e^uent, 
rare, singular, uncommon, un- 
known. unusual 

generality, n bulk common run, 
marx mam body universality, 

generalship, n strateg) skill 
generate, v beget, procreate, re- 
produce. engender, origirate.